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INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index Diabstraksikan oleh: soemarno, psdl ppsub, desember 2012 Bahan Kajian pada MK. PSDAL.

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Presentation on theme: "INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index Diabstraksikan oleh: soemarno, psdl ppsub, desember 2012 Bahan Kajian pada MK. PSDAL."— Presentation transcript:

1 INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index Diabstraksikan oleh: soemarno, psdl ppsub, desember 2012 Bahan Kajian pada MK. PSDAL KAPASITAS KELEMBAGAAN

2 SOCIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY 1.Science/Technical Capacity 2.Rigorous Policy Debate 3.Environmental Regulation and Management 4.Tracking Environmental Conditions 5.Eco-efficiency 6.Public Choice Failures. Sumber: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index, Dan Esty, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, 2000. …………… diunduh 28/11/2012

3 PRIORITY AREA ASSESSMENT ON CAPACITY BUILDING IN SCIENCE Diunduh dari: International Council for Science. 2006. ICSU Report of the CSPR Assessment Panel on Capacity Building in Science. ……………… 6/12/2012 MAKING SCIENTIFIC CAPACITY BUILDING A PRIORITY Strategi nasional yang jelas untuk peningkatan kapasitas yang diperlukan untuk menghubungkan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi dengan tujuan pertumbuhan ekonomi dan kesejahteraan manusia, untuk memperbaiki pengambilan keputusan berbasis IPTEK dan pemecahan masalahnya, serta untuk membangun masa depan tenaga kerja yang mampu menangkap kemajuan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi. Memenuhi tantangan abad ke-21 dan menanggapi Millenium Development Goals PBB memerlukan pendekatan internasional untuk pembangunan kapasitas yang memperkuat strategi nasional, melibatkan masyarakat (pengambil keputusan sektor publik dan swasta), dan membangun komunitas ilmiah yang kuat di tingkat regional dan internasional yang bekerja bersama menuju tujuan bersama. MAKING SCIENTIFIC CAPACITY BUILDING A PRIORITY Clear national strategies for capacity building are necessary to link science and technology with goals for economic growth and human well-being, to improve science-based decision-making and problem-solving, and to build future workforces capable of capturing the advances of science and technology. Meeting the challenges of the 21st century and responding to the UN Millennium Development Goals will require international approaches to capacity building that reinforce national strategies, engage society (decision-makers as well as the public and private sectors), and build strong regional and international scientific communities working together toward common goals. Ensuring that efforts are on track will require improvements in census-taking, measurement, and assessment.

4 PRIORITY AREA ASSESSMENT ON CAPACITY BUILDING IN SCIENCE Diunduh dari: International Council for Science. 2006. ICSU Report of the CSPR Assessment Panel on Capacity Building in Science. ……………… 6/12/2012 BUILDING AND STRENGTHENING HUMAN CAPITAL Mencapai tujuan sosial untuk pembangunan berkelanjutan akan membutuhkan pertumbuhan ekoomi yang substansial dan pemberdayaan sumber daya manusia, termasuk: 1.Training the next generation of scientists, 2.Building scientifically literate publics, 3.Improving science education at all levels (especially through inquiry-based methods), 4.Assessing the effectiveness of various interventions, 5.Solving problems of mobility and brain drain, and 6.Encouraging the participation of women in science.

5 PRIORITY AREA ASSESSMENT ON CAPACITY BUILDING IN SCIENCE Diunduh dari: International Council for Science. 2006. ICSU Report of the CSPR Assessment Panel on Capacity Building in Science. ……………… 6/12/2012 COMMUNICATING BETWEEN SCIENCE AND SOCIETY Kemajuan pesat ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi membutuhkan hubungan baru dan kuat antara ilmu pengetahuan dan masyarakat. Perbaikan apresiasi masyarakat terhadap ilmu pengetahuan melalui metode formal dan informal, serta upaya untuk melibatkan publik dan media dengan ilmu pengetahuan, diperlukan untuk membantu memastikan bahwa kebijakan publik disusun berdasarkan IPTEK.

6 PRIORITY AREA ASSESSMENT ON CAPACITY BUILDING IN SCIENCE Diunduh dari: International Council for Science. 2006. ICSU Report of the CSPR Assessment Panel on Capacity Building in Science. ……………… 6/12/2012 STRENGTHENING THE LINKS AMONG EDUCATION, RESEARCH, AND SOCIETY Memperkuat hubungan antara pendidikan, penelitian, dan masyarakat sangat penting untuk membangun masa depan ilmiah tenaga kerja terlatih, mengembangkan sistem inovasi nasional yang efektif, dan menghubungkan manfaat dari ilmu pengetahuan dengan tujuan masyarakat. A variety of institutions are designed to reinforce the national, regional, and global connections among education, research, and society. These institutions need continuing support to be effective. Universities play an important role in educating future workforces and in nurturing the basic sciences. Increasingly, they are challenged to strike a balance between academic excellence and research competitiveness, and playing a greater role in national innovation systems. The scientific community needs to help improve incentive structures that recruit talented students to universities and into careers in science, as well as working toward increasing access for scientists and universities to educational materials and scientific publications.

7 INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index Diabstraksikan oleh: soemarno, psdl ppsub, desember 2012 Bahan Kajian pada MK. PSDAL KEBIJAKAN PUBLIK

8 PUBLIC POLICY Diunduh dari:……………… 5/12/2012 Public policy is an attempt by a government to address a public issue by instituting laws, regulations, decisions, or actions pertinent to the problem at hand. Numerous issues can be addressed by public policy including crime, education, foreign policy, health, and social welfare. While public policies are most common in the United States, several other countries, such as those in the United Kingdom, implement them as well.welfare The process to create a new public policy typically follows three steps: agenda-setting, option-formulation, and implementation; the time- line for a new policy to be put in place can range from weeks to several years, depending on the situation. Public policies can also be made by leaders of religious and cultural institutions for the benefit of the congregation and participants, and the term can also refer to a type of academic study that covers topics such as sociology, economics, and policy analysis.

9 POLICY DEBATE Diunduh dari: ……………… 5/12/2012 Policy debate is a form of speech competition in which teams of two advocate for and against a resolution that typically calls for policy change by the United States federal government. It is also referred to as cross-examination debate (sometimes shortened to Cross-X, CX, or C-X) because of the 3-minute questioning period following each constructive speech. Affirmative teams generally present a plan as a proposal for implementation of the resolution. The negative will generally prove that it would be better not to do the plan or that the opportunity costs to the plan are so great that it should not be implemented.

10 . EVIDENCE-BASED POLICY Diunduh dari:……………… 5/12/2012. Evidence-based policy is public policy informed by rigorously established objective evidence. It is an extension of the idea of evidence-based medicine to all areas of public policy. An important aspect of evidence-based policy is the use of scientifically rigorous studies such as randomized controlled trials to identify programs and practices capable of improving policy relevant outcomes. However, some areas of knowledge are not well serviced by quantitative research, leading to debate about the methods and instruments that are considered critical for the collection of relevant evidence. Good data, analytical skills and political support, as such, are seen as the important elements.

11 THE METHODOLOGY OF EVIDENCE-BASED POLICY Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012 There are many methodologies for evidence-based policy but they all share the following characteristics: 1.It tests a theory as to why the policy will be effective and what the impacts of the policy will be if it is successful 2.Inclusion of a counterfactual: what would have occurred if the policy had not been implemented 3.They incorporate some measurement of the impact 4.Examines both direct and indirect effects that occur because of the policy 5.Separates the uncertainties and controls for other influences outside of the policy that may have an effect on the outcome 6.Should be able to be tested and replicated by a third party The form of methodology used with evidence-based policy fit under the category of a cost- benefit framework and are created to estimate a net payoff is the policy was to be implemented. Because there is a difficulty in quantifying some effects and outcomes of the policy, it is mostly focused broadly on whether or not benefits will outweigh costs, instead of using specific values.

12 THE PROCESS OF EVIDENCE-BASED POLICY Diunduh dari:……………… 5/12/2012 When new public policies are created, there are generally three key things involved in the process: the problem, the player, and the policy. The problem is the issue that needs to be addressed, the player is the individual or group that is influential in forming a plan to address the problem in question, and the policy is the finalized course of action decided upon by the government. Typically the general public will make the government aware of an issue through writing letters and emails, or making phone calls, to local government leaders; the issue is then brought forward during government meetings and the process for creating new public policies begins.

13 Tahap-tahap pembuatan kebijakan publik menurut William Dunn 1. Penyusunan Agenda 2.Formulasi kebijakan 3. Adopsi/ Legitimasi Kebijakan 4. Penilaian/ Evaluasi Kebijakan Diunduh dari: ……………… 5/12/2012 1. Penyusunan Agenda Agenda setting adalah sebuah fase dan proses yang sangat strategis dalam realitas kebijakan publik. Dalam proses inilah memiliki ruang untuk memaknai apa yang disebut sebagai masalah publik dan prioritas dalam agenda publik dipertarungkan. Jika sebuah isu berhasil mendapatkan status sebagai masalah publik, dan mendapatkan prioritas dalam agenda publik, maka isu tersebut berhak mendapatkan alokasi sumber daya publik yang lebih daripada isu lain. publik Ada beberapa Kriteria isu yang bisa dijadikan agenda kebijakan publik (Kimber, 1974; Salesbury 1976; Sandbach, 1980; Hogwood dan Gunn, 1986) a.l. 1.Telah mencapai titik kritis tertentu à jika diabaikan, akan menjadi ancaman yang serius; 2.Telah mencapai tingkat partikularitas tertentu à berdampak dramatis; 3.Menyangkut emosi tertentu dari sudut kepent. orang banyak (umat manusia) dan mendapat dukungan media massa; 4.Menjangkau dampak yang amat luas ; 5.Mempermasalahkan kekuasaan dan keabsahan dalam masyarakat ; 6.Menyangkut suatu persoalan yang fasionable (sulit dijelaskan, tetapi mudah dirasakan kehadirannya)

14 TAHAP-TAHAP PEMBUATAN KEBIJAKAN PUBLIK 2.Formulasi kebijakan Masalah yang sudah masuk dalam agenda kebijakan kemudian dibahas oleh para pembuat kebijakan. Masalah-masalah tadi didefinisikan untuk kemudian dicari pemecahan masalah yang terbaik. Pemecahan masalah tersebut berasal dari berbagai alternatif atau pilihan kebijakan yang ada. Sama halnya dengan perjuangan suatu masalah untuk masuk dalam agenda kebijakan, dalam tahap perumusan kebijakan masing-masing slternatif bersaing untuk dapat dipilih sebagai kebijakan yang diambil untuk memecahkan masalah. 3. Adopsi/ Legitimasi Kebijakan Tujuan legitimasi adalah untuk memberikan otorisasi pada proses dasar pemerintahan. Jika tindakan legitimasi dalam suatu masyarakat diatur oleh kedaulatan rakyat, warga negara akan mengikuti arahan pemerintah. Namun warga negara harus percaya bahwa tindakan pemerintah yang sah.Mendukung. Dukungan untuk rezim cenderung berdifusi - cadangan dari sikap baik dan niat baik terhadap tindakan pemerintah yang membantu anggota mentolerir pemerintahan disonansi.Legitimasi dapat dikelola melalui manipulasi simbol- simbol tertentu. Di mana melalui proses ini orang belajar untuk mendukung pemerintah. 4. Penilaian/ Evaluasi Kebijakan Secara umum evaluasi kebijakan dapat dikatakan sebagai kegiatan yang menyangkut estimasi atau penilaian kebijakan yang mencakup substansi, implementasi dan dampak. Dalam hal ini, evaluasi dipandang sebagai suatu kegiatan fungsional. Artinya, evaluasi kebijakan tidak hanya dilakukan pada tahap akhir saja, melainkan dilakukan dalam seluruh proses kebijakan. Dengan demikian, evaluasi kebijakan bisa meliputi tahap perumusan masalh-masalah kebijakan, program-program yang diusulkan untuk menyelesaikan masalah kebijakan, implementasi, maupun tahap dampak kebijakan.

15 MODEL PERUMUSAN KEBIJAKAN PUBLIK Diunduh dari: ……………… 5/12/2012 Ada tiga model yang Dapat digunakan dlaam merumuskan kebijakan publik, yaitu: Model Pengamatan Terpadu; Model Demokratis; Model Strategis Terdapat 3 (tiga) rangkaian kesatuan penting didalam analisis kebijakan publik yang perlu dipahami, yaitu : 1.Formulasi kebijakan (policy formulation), 2.Implementasi kebijakan (policy implementation) dan 3.Evaluasi kebijakan (policy evaluation).

16 INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index Diabstraksikan oleh: soemarno, psdl ppsub, desember 2012 Bahan Kajian pada MK. PSDAL MANAJEMEN LINGKUNGAN

17 REGULASI LINGKUNGAN HIDUP Diunduh dari: ……………… 3/12/2012 Regulation is the promulgation, monitoring and enforcement of rules. Regulation creates, limits, or constrains a right, creates or limits a duty, or allocates a responsibility. Regulation can take many forms: legal restrictions promulgated by a government authority, contractual obligations that bind many parties (for example, "insurance regulations" that arise out of contracts between insurers and their insureds), self-regulation by an industry such as through a trade association, social regulation (e.g. norms), co- regulation, third-party regulation, certification, accreditation or market regulation. In its legal sense regulation can and should be distinguished from primary legislation (by Parliament of elected legislative body) on the one hand and judge-made law on the other.

18 REGULASI LINGKUNGAN HIDUP Diunduh dari:……………… 3/12/2012 Reasons for regulation Regulations can be justified for a variety of reasons, including: 1.Market failures - regulation due to inefficiency. Intervention due to a classical economics argument to market failure. 1.Risk of monopoly 2.Collective action, or public good 3.Inadequate information 4.Unseen externalities 2.Collective desires - regulation about collective desires or considered judgments on the part of a significant segment of society 3.Diverse experiences - regulation with a view of eliminating or enhancing opportunities for the formation of diverse preferences and beliefsenhancing 4.Social subordination - regulation aimed to increase or reduce social subordination of various social groups 5.Endogenous preferences - regulation's purpose is to affect the development of certain preferences on an aggregate level 6.Irreversibility - regulation that deals with the problem of irreversibility – the problem in which a certain type of conduct from current generations results in outcomes from which future generations may not recover from at all. 7.Interest group transfers - regulation that results from efforts by self-interest groups to redistribute wealth in their favor, which may be disguised as one or more of the justifications above.

19 REGULASI LINGKUNGAN HIDUP Diunduh dari: Version/Part_2/Activities/Interest_Groups/Decision-Making/……………… 3/12/2012 Environmental law is a body of law, which is a system of complex and interlocking statutes, common law, treaties, conventions, regulations and policies which seek to protect the natural environment which may be affected, impacted or endangered by human activities. Some environmental laws regulate the quantity and nature of impacts of human activities: for example, setting allowable levels of pollution or requiring permits for potentially harmful activities. Other environmental laws are preventive in nature and seek to assess the possible impacts before the human activities can occur.

20 MANAJEMEN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP Diunduh dari:……………… 3/12/2012 Environmental resource management is “a purposeful activity with the goal to maintain and improve the state of an environmental resource affected by human activities”. It is not, as the phrase suggests, the management of the environment as such, but rather the management of the interaction and impact of human societies on the environment. Environmental resources management aims to ensure that ecosystem services are protected and maintained for equitable use by future human generations, and also, maintain ecosystem integrity as an end in itself by taking into consideration ethical, economic, and scientific (ecological) variables. Environmental resource management tries to identify the factors that have a stake in the conflicts that may rise between meeting the needs and protecting the resources.

21 MANAJEMEN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP Diunduh dari:……………… 3/12/2012 Environmental resource management involves the management of all components of the biophysical environment, both living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic). This is due to the interconnected and network of relationships amongst all living species and their habitats. The environment also involves the relationships of the human environment, such as the social, cultural and economic environment with the biophysical environment. The essential aspects of environmental resource management are ethical, economical, social and technological which provide for formulation of principles and help in making decisions. The scientific and technical nature makes environmental resource management profession to operate in a humanistic and rational mode in the world

22 MANAJEMEN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP Diunduh dari: ……………… 3/12/2012 Aspek Ekonomi The economy functions within, and is dependent upon goods and services provided by natural ecosystems. The role of the environment is recognized in both classical economics and neoclassical economics theories. Economic models influence environmental resource management in that management policies reflect beliefs about natural capital scarcity – if natural capital is believed to be infinite and easily substituted, environmental management would be irrelevant to the economy. For example, economic paradigms based on neoclassical models of closed economic systems are primarily concerned with resource scarcity, and thus prescribe legalizing the environment as an economic externality for an environmental resource management strategy.

23 MANAJEMEN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP Diunduh dari: ……………… 3/12/2012 ASPEK EKOLOGI Scientific analysis of the environment deals with several dimensions of ecological uncertainty. These include: structural uncertainty resulting from the misidentification, or lack of information pertaining to the relationships between ecological variables; parameter uncertainty referring to “uncertainty associated with parameter values that are not known precisely but can be assessed and reported in terms of the likelihood…of experiencing a defined range of outcomes” ; and stochastic uncertainty stemming from chance or unrelated factors. Adaptive management is considered a useful framework through which to deal with situations of high levels of uncertainty though it is not without its detractors. A common scientific concept and impetus behind environmental resource management is carrying capacity. Simply put, carrying capacity refers to the maximum number of organisms a particular resource can sustain. The concept of carrying capacity, whilst understood by many cultures over history, has its roots in Malthusian theory.

24 MANAJEMEN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP Diunduh dari: ……………… 3/12/2012 ASPEK SUSTAINABILITY Sustainability and environmental resource management involves managing economic, social, and ecological systems within and external to an organizational entity in order for it to sustain itself and the system it exists within. In context, sustainability implies that rather than competing for endless growth on a finite planet, development will improve quality of life without necessarily having to consume more resources. In order to sustainably manage the state of environmental resources affected by human activities organizational change is needed to instill sustainability values within an organization, in order to portray these values outwardly from all levels and to reinforce them in its surrounding stakeholder community. The end result should be a symbiotic relationship between the sustaining organization and community, along with the environment.

25 MANAJEMEN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP Diunduh dari: ……………… 5/12/2012 What Is Environmental Management? Environmental management is the process by which environmental health is regulated. It does not involve managing the environment itself, but it is the process of taking steps and behaviors to have a positive effect on the environment. Environmental management involves the wise use of activity and resources to have an impact on the world. Many organizations develop a management plan or system to implement, manage and maintain environmental goals. Management plans for the environment are constructed by many companies and organizations, as taking care of the planet is the responsibility of everybody in every type of profession.

26 MANAJEMEN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP Diunduh dari: ……………… 5/12/2012 Environmental management does not come without costs. These include the investment of resources such as time and money, the cost of training the employees, the cost of hiring consultants or other professionals and the cost of technical resources for studying the environment and its impacts. It is widely believed, however, that the benefits of an environmental management plan far outweigh the costs. These include the prevention of pollution and the conservation of natural resources, increased energy efficiency, stronger environmental performance and an attention to and responsibility for taking care of the earth. Following a management plan for the environment is a great way to build strong employee relationships and foster company support around one goal.

27 MANAJEMEN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP Diunduh dari: ……………… 5/12/2012 Environmental monitoring can refer to a few different things. Conducting environmental research and collecting data in order to draw conclusions is one example. Monitoring protected properties to ensure that development or illegal land uses are not taking place is another. Performing environmental monitoring to assess the current state of a certain area in order to determine what impacts certain actions might have is also a common example. Under certain laws, it may also be necessary to test the amount of pollutants or chemicals from pesticides or manufacturing processes in the air, soil, or water. Environmental monitoring can takes place to ensure that national or international laws regarding pollutants are being followed. For instance, air quality monitoring might take place to measure the amount of carbon dioxide that a certain manufacturer or power plant emits into the air. Water and soil quality monitoring also check for pollutants such as pesticides or other chemicals. Once these tests are completed, action can be taken to ideally reduce the amount of pollutants by changing certain practices, or determining what can be done to "clean up" certain areas. This type of environmental monitoring is very important for the development and later enforcement of environmental laws and policies.

28 INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index Diabstraksikan oleh: soemarno, psdl ppsub, desember 2012 Bahan Kajian pada MK. PSDAL RONA LINGKUNGAN

29 ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012 Environmental condition – Keadaan lingkungan: 1.STATUS - a state at a particular time; "a condition (or state) of disrepair"; "the current status of the arms negotiations" 2.POLLUTION- undesirable state of the natural environment being contaminated with harmful substances as a consequence of human activities 3.EROSION - condition in which the earth's surface is worn away by the action of water and wind 4.DEFORESTATION - the state of being clear of trees 5.DEPOPULATION - the condition of having reduced numbers of inhabitants (or no inhabitants at all) 6.CLIMATE, CLIME - the weather in some location averaged over some long period of time; "the dank climate of southern Wales"; "plants from a cold clime travel best in winter" 7.GLACIATION - the condition of being covered with glaciers or masses of ice; the result of glacial action; "Agassiz recognized marks of glaciation all over northern Europe" 8.INHOSPITABLENESS - the environmental condition in a region that lacks a favorable climate or terrain for life or growth 9.METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS - the prevailing environmental conditions as they influence the prediction of weather

30 ENVIRONMENTAL STATUS Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 Status of Environment (SoE) provides an analysis of the available information. It aims to provide details on the current status of the main environmental issues in the different REGION / AREA / LOCATION. It covers a wide range of environment related issues starting from human settlement, atmosphere, land, water, biodiversity to ecological sustainable development etc. It provides information on the various human activities that exert pressure on different environmental components. Impact of demographic shifts, urban sprawls, growth of the poor, changes in trends of industrial, commercial, and transport character, urban economic activities, etc. on air, water, land, biological environments, environmental health etc. are studied and analyzed. The SoE also analyzes responses of the society, examines policies and strategies initiated under regulatory mechanisms along with their impacts. Besides, it identifies the information gaps, and highlights the main policy issues for decision-makers

31 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 Environmental pollution is any discharge of material or energy into water, land, or air that causes or may cause acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term) detriment to the Earth's ecological balance or that lowers the quality of life. Pollutants may cause primary damage, with direct identifiable impact on the environment, or secondary damage in the form of minor perturbations in the delicate balance of the biological food web that are detectable only over long time periods. 1.Water Pollution 2.Thermal Pollution 3.Land Pollution 4.Pestiside Pollution 5.Radiation Pollution 6.Noise Pollution 7.Air Pollution

32 SOIL EROSION Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 What is soil erosion? Soil is naturally removed by the action of water or wind: such 'background' (or 'geological') soil erosion has been occurring for some 450 million years, since the first land plants formed the first soil. Even before this, natural processes moved loose rock, or regolith, off the Earth's surface, just as has happened on the planet Mars. In general, background erosion removes soil at roughly the same rate as soil is formed. But 'accelerated' soil erosion — loss of soil at a much faster rate than it is formed — is a far more recent problem. It is always a result of mankind's unwise actions, such as overgrazing or unsuitable cultivation practices. These leave the land unprotected and vulnerable. Then, during times of erosive rainfall or windstorms, soil may be detached, transported, and (possibly travelling a long distance) deposited. Accelerated soil erosion by water or wind may affect both agricultural areas and the natural environment, and is one of the most widespread of today's environmental problems. It has impacts which are both on-site (at the place where the soil is detached) and off-site (wherever the eroded soil ends up). More recently still, the use of powerful agricultural implements has, in some parts of the world, led to damaging amounts of soil moving downslope merely under the action of gravity: this is so- called tillage erosion. Soil erosion is just one form of soil degradation. Other kinds of soil degradation include salinisation, nutrient loss, and compaction.

33 DEFORESTATION Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 Deforestation, clearance or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use. Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use. Deforestation occurs for many reasons: trees are cut down to be used or sold as fuel (sometimes in the form of charcoal) or timber, while cleared land is used as pasture for livestock, plantations of commodities, and settlements. The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in damage to habitat, biodiversity loss and aridity. It has adverse impacts on biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Deforested regions typically incur significant adverse soil erosion and frequently degrade into wasteland.

34 DEPOPULATION Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 Population decline can refer to the decline in population of any organism, but this article refers to population decline in humans. It is a term usually used to describe any great reduction in a human population. It can be used to refer to long-term demographic trends, as in urban decay or rural flight, but it is also commonly employed to describe large reductions in population due to violence, disease, or other catastrophes. Depopulation, population decline is the reduction over time in a region's population. The decline can be caused by several factors including sub-replacement fertility (along with limited immigration), heavy emigration, disease, famine, and war. A long-term population decline is typically caused by sub-replacement fertility, coupled with a net immigration rate that fails to compensate the excess of deaths over births. A long-term decline is accompanied by population aging and creates an increase in the ratio of retirees to workers and children. When a sub-replacement fertility rate remains constant, population decline accelerates over time.

35 CLIMATE Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 Climate encompasses the statistics of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological elemental measurements in a given region over long periods. Climate can be contrasted to weather, which is the present condition of these elements and their variations over shorter periods. A region's climate is generated by the climate system, which has five components: atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, land surface, and biosphere. The climate of a location is affected by its latitude, terrain, and altitude, as well as nearby water bodies and their currents. Climates can be classified according to the average and the typical ranges of different variables, most commonly temperature and precipitation.

36 INHOSPITABLENESS Diunduh dari:……………… 28/11/2012 Inhospitableness - the environmental condition in a region that lacks a favorable climate or terrain for life or growth. Hos·pi·ta·ble 1.Receiving or treating guests or strangers warmly and generously: a hospitable family. 2.Characterized by or betokening warmth and generosity toward guests or strangers: a hospitable smile. 3.Favorably receptive or open (usually followed by to ): to be hospitable to new ideas; a climate hospitable to the raising of corn.

37 METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS Diunduh dari:……………… 28/11/2012 Meteorological conditions - the prevailing environmental conditions as they influence the prediction of weather. Meteorological element Any one of the properties or conditions of the atmosphere which together specify the weather at a given place for any particular time (for example, air temperature, pressure, wind, humidity, thunderstorm and fog). Weather The state of the atmosphere, mainly with respect to its effects upon life and human activities. As distinguished from climate, weather consists of the short-term (minutes to about 15 days) variations of the atmosphere state.

38 ANALISIS MENGENAI KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA Diunduh dari:,,contentMDK:22395126~pag ePK:1497618~piPK:217854~theSitePK:447244,00.html……………… 6/12/2012 Country Environmental Analysis mengukur biaya ekonomi atas degradasi lingkungan dan menawarkan pilihan mengenai cara terbaik untuk mengatasi masalah prioritas tata kelola lingkungan dan adaptasi perubahan iklim. Berdasarkan analisis biaya degradasi lingkungan terhadap perekonomian Indonesia : 1.Modal alam yang mencapai sekitar seperempat total kekayaan Indonesia tetapi menyusut cepat dan tidak diimbangi dengan investasi yang mencukupi dalam modal sumber daya manusia atau yang dihasilkannya. 2.Perubahan iklim akan menciptakan sejumlah dampak negatif di Indonesia, termasuk penurunan produksi panen, risiko banjir yang lebih besar, serta penyebaran penyakit bawaan vektor yang lebih luas, dengan proyeksi biaya ekonomi mencapai 2,5-7,0 persen PDB di tahun 2100. 3.Sanitasi yang buruk diperkirakan telah menimbulkan biaya kesehatan, air, pariwisata yang besar dan biaya kesejahteraan lain senilai lebih dari $6 miliar di tahun 2005, atau lebih dari 2 persen PDB tahun itu. 4.Polusi udara di luar dan dalam ruangan diperkirakan menimbulkan dampak kesehatan sekitar $5.5 miliar per tahun atau sekitar 1,3 persen PDB (2007). 5.Penggundulan hutan sejak 2001 telah mencapai lebih dari 1 juta hektare per tahun. Tingkat ini telah mengalami penurunan dari 2,5 juta hektare per tahun, tetapi masih sangat tinggi dibandingkan dengan negara berhutan tropis lain. Penggundulan hutan dan konversi lahan gambut menyebabkan degradasi lingkungan, kerugian kesehatan dan keanekaragaman hayati, serta emisi gas rumah kaca.

39 ANALISIS MENGENAI KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA Diunduh dari:,,contentMDK:22395126~pag ePK:1497618~piPK:217854~theSitePK:447244,00.html……………… 6/12/2012 Adaptasi Perubahan Iklim Reaktif/ResponsifProaktif/Antisipatif Sumber Daya Air 1.Perlindungan terhadap sumber daya air tanah 2.Peningkatan pengelolaan dan pemeliharaan sistem pasokan air yang ada 3.Perlindungan terhadap daerah tangkapan air 4.Peningkatan pasokan air 5.Pengumpulan dan desalinasi air tanah dan air hujan 1.Penggunaan air daur ulang yang lebih baik 2.Konservasi daerah tangkapan air 3.Peningkatan sistem pengelolaan air 4.Reformasi kebijakan mengenai air termasuk kebijakan irigasi dan penetapan harga 5.Pengembangan pengendalian banjir dan pengawasan kekeringan

40 ANALISIS MENGENAI KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA Diunduh dari:,,contentMDK:22395126~pag ePK:1497618~piPK:217854~theSitePK:447244,00.html……………… 6/12/2012 Adaptasi Perubahan Iklim Pertanian Reaktif /Responsif: 1.Pengendalian erosi 2.Pembangunan bendungan untuk irigasi 3.Perubahan dalam penggunaan dan aplikasi pupuk 4.Pengenalan panenan baru 5.Pemeliharaan kesuburan tanah 6.Perubahan dalam waktu tanam dan panen 7.Pergantian ke tanaman pangan yang berbeda 8.Program pendidikan dan penjangkauan mengenai konservasi dan pengelolaan tanah dan air Proaktif/ Antisipatif 1.Pengembangan panenan berdaya tahan (terhadap kekeringan, garam, serangga/hama) 2.Penelitian dan pengembangan 3.Pengelolaan tanah dan air 4.Diversifikasi dan intensifikasi pangan dan tanaman pangan 5.Tindakan kebijakan, insentif pajak/subsidi, pasar bebas 6.Pengembangan sistem peringatan dini

41 ANALISIS MENGENAI KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA Diunduh dari:,,contentMDK:22395126~pag ePK:1497618~piPK:217854~theSitePK:447244,00.html……………… 6/12/2012 Adaptasi Perubahan Iklim Ke- hutanan Reaktif/Responsif 1.Peningkatan sistem pengelolaan termasuk pengendalian penggundulan hutan, reboisasi, dan konversi tanah menjadi hutan 2.Promosi pertanian kehutanan untuk meningkatkan barang dan jasa kehutanan 3.Pengembangan/peningkatan rencana pengelolaan kebakaran hutan nasional 4.Peningkatan penyimpanan karbon di hutan Proaktif/ Antisipatif 1.Penciptaan taman/cagar alam, lindungan dan koridor keanekaragaman hayati 2.Identifikasi/pengembangan spesies yang tahan terhadap perubahan iklim 3.Penilaian kerentanan ekosistem yang lebih baik 4.Pengawasan spesies 5.Pengembangan dan pemeliharaan bank benih 6.Sistem peringatan dini kebakaran hutan

42 ANALISIS MENGENAI KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA Diunduh dari:,,contentMDK:22395126~pag ePK:1497618~piPK:217854~theSitePK:447244,00.html……………… 6/12/2012 Adaptasi Perubahan Iklim Pantai/Laut Reaktif/ Responsif 1.Perlindungan terhadap infrastruktur ekonomi 2.Kesadaran masyarakat untuk meningkatkan perlindungan terhadap ekosistem pantai dan laut 3.Pembangunan tembok laut dan penguatan pantai 4.Perlindungan dan konservasi terumbu karang, hutan bakau, rumput laut, dan tanaman pantai Proaktif/ Antisipatif 1.Pengelolaan zona pantai terintegrasi 2.Perencanaan dan pembagian daerah pantai yang lebih baik 3.Pengembangan peraturan atas perlindungan pantai 4.Penelitian dan pengembangan ekosistem pantai

43 ANALISIS MENGENAI KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN INDONESIA Diunduh dari:,,contentMDK:22395126~pag ePK:1497618~piPK:217854~theSitePK:447244,00.html……………… 6/12/2012 Adaptasi Perubahan Iklim Kesehatan Reaktif/Responsif 1.Reformasi pengelolaan kesehatan masyarakat 2.Peningkatan kondisi perumbahan dan kehidupan 3.Peningkatan tanggapan darurat Proaktif/ Antisipatif 1.Pengembangan sistem peringatan dini 2.Pengamatan dan pengawasan yang lebih baik terhadap penyakit/vektor 3.Peningkatan kualitas lingkungan 4.Perubahan dalam rancangan perkotaan dan perumahan

44 INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index Diabstraksikan oleh: soemarno, psdl ppsub, desember 2012 Bahan Kajian pada MK. PSDAL EKO-EFISIENSI

45 ECO-EFFICIENCY Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012 The term eco-efficiency was coined by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) in its 1992 publication "Changing Course". It is based on the concept of creating more goods and services while using fewer resources and creating less waste and pollution. According to the WBCSD definition, eco-efficiency is achieved through the delivery of "competitively priced goods and services that satisfy human needs and bring quality of life while progressively reducing environmental impacts of goods and resource intensity throughout the entire life-cycle to a level at least in line with the Earth's estimated carrying capacity.“

46 ECO-EFFICIENCY Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012 This EE-concept describes a vision for the production of economically valuable goods and services while reducing the ecological impacts of production. In other words eco- efficiency means producing more with less. According to the WBCSD, critical aspects of eco-efficiency are: 1.A reduction in the material intensity of goods or services; 2.A reduction in the energy intensity of goods or services; 3.Reduced dispersion of toxic materials; 4.Improved recyclability; 5.Maximum use of renewable resources; 6.Greater durability of products; 7.Increased service intensity of goods and services.

47 ECO-EFFICIENCY Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012 According to Boulanger (Boulanger, P.M. 2010. “Three strategies for sustainable consumption”. S.A.P.I.EN.S. 3 (2), all versions of eco- efficiency share four key characteristics: 1.Confidence in technological innovation as the main solution to un- sustainability; 2.Reliance on business as the principal actor of transformation. The emphasis is on firms designing new products, shifting to new production processes, and investing in R&D, etc., more than on the retailer or the consumer, let alone the citizen. 3.Trust in markets (if they are functioning well); 4.“Growthphilia”: there is nothing wrong with growth as such. Moreover, with “cradle-to-cradle”, growth is conducive to sustainability per se.

48 INTENSITAS SUMBERDAYA Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012 Resource intensity is a measure of the resources (e.g. water, energy, materials) needed for the production, processing and disposal of a unit of good or service, or for the completion of a process or activity; it is therefore a measure of the efficiency of resource use. It is often expressed as the quantity of resource embodied in unit cost e.g. litres of water per $1 spent on product. In national economic and sustainability accounting it can be calculated as units of resource expended per unit of GDP. When applied to a single person it is expressed as the resource use of that person per unit of consumption. Relatively high resource intensities indicate a high price or environmental cost of converting resource into GDP; low resource intensity indicates a lower price or environmental cost of converting resource into GDP.GDP Lorentzen, J. (ed) 2008. Resource intensity, knowledge and development: insights from Africa and South America. HSRC Press, South Africa. ISBN 0-7969-2213-6 ISBN 13978-07969-2213-7.ISBN 0-7969-2213-6ISBN 13978-07969

49 PRODUCTIVITAS SUMBERDAYA Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012 Resource productivity and resource intensity are key concepts used in sustainability measurement as they measure attempts to decouple the connection between resource use and environmental degradation. Resource productivity is the quantity of good or service (outcome) that is obtained through the expenditure of unit resource. This can be expressed in monetary terms as the monetary yield per unit resource. For example, when applied to crop irrigation it is the yield of crop obtained through use of a given volume of irrigation water, the “crop per drop”, which could also be expressed as monetary return from product per use of unit irrigation water. Their strength is that they can be used as a metric for both economic and environmental cost. Although these concepts are two sides of the same coin, in practice they involve very different approaches and can be viewed as reflecting, on the one hand, the efficiency of resource production as outcome per unit of resource use (resource productivity) and, on the other hand, the efficiency of resource consumption as resource use per unit outcome (resource intensity). The sustainability objective is to maximize resource productivity while minimizing resource intensity.

50 SUSTAINABILITY Diunduh dari:……………… 29/11/2012 Resource productivity and resource intensity are key concepts used in sustainability measurement as they attempt to decouple the direct connection between resource use and environmental degradation.resource intensity Their strength is that they can be used as a metric for both economic and environmental cost. Although these concepts are two sides of the same coin, in practice they involve very different approaches and can be viewed as reflecting, on the one hand, the efficiency of resource production as outcome per unit of resource use (resource productivity) and, on the other hand, the efficiency of resource consumption as resource use per unit outcome (resource intensity). The sustainability objective is to maximize resource productivity while minimizing resource intensity.

51 SUSTAINABLE VALUE Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012 Sustainable value is based on the notion of opportunity costs. Opportunity costs are used in financial markets to calculate the cost of capital. In financial markets, the cost of using $ 100 over the course of one year is determined by the return that could have been generated through an alternative investment of the capital. Sustainable Value is the first concept to extend this logic to environmental and social resources. Sustainable value is calculated in five steps: 1.Calculate the environmental, social and economic efficiencies of the entity using the resources. Efficiency is calculated by relating the return to resource use. 2.Calculate the environmental, social and economic efficiencies of the benchmark (= calculate opportunity costs). 3.Calculate the value spreads by subtracting the efficiency of the benchmark (Step 2) from the efficiency of the entity (Step 1). 4.Calculate the value contributions by multiplying the amount of environmental, social and economic resources used with the corresponding value spread (Step 3), respectively. 5.Calculate sustainable value by adding up the value contributions (Step 4) and dividing by the number of resources considered. This avoids double counting.

52 OPPORTUNITY COST Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 Opportunity cost is the cost of any activity measured in terms of the value of the next best alternative forgone (that is not chosen). It is the sacrifice related to the second best choice available to someone, or group, who has picked among several mutually exclusive choices. The opportunity cost is also the "cost" (as a lost benefit) of the forgone products after making a choice. Opportunity cost is a key concept in economics, and has been described as expressing "the basic relationship between scarcity and choice". The notion of opportunity cost plays a crucial part in ensuring that scarce resources are used efficiently. Thus, opportunity costs are not restricted to monetary or financial costs: the real cost of output forgone, lost time, pleasure or any other benefit that provides utility should also be considered opportunity costs.

53 INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index Diabstraksikan oleh: soemarno, psdl ppsub, desember 2012 Bahan Kajian pada MK. PSDAL PEMILU

54 Diunduh dari: ……………… 5/12/2012 Public choice theory is the use of modern economic tools to study problems that traditionally are in the province of political science. From the perspective of political science, it is the subset of positive political theory that models voters, politicians, and bureaucrats as mainly self- interested. In particular, it studies such agents and their interactions in the social system either as such or under alternative constitutional rules. These can be represented in a number of ways, including standard constrained utility maximization, game theory, or decision theory. Public choice analysis has roots in positive analysis ("what is") but is often used for normative purposes ("what ought to be"), to identify a problem or suggest how a system could be improved by changes in constitutional rules, the subject of constitutional economics.

55 Diunduh dari:……………… 5/12/2012 Public choice theory is a positive approach to explaining government activities. It is based on self-interest motives by the public and the bureaucracies. Essentially the difference between political and economic behavior is not a difference in human motives, but a difference in the rules and institutions governing human interaction in the two spheres. Mueller definition of public choice: 1.“Public choice can be defined as the economic study of nonmarket decision- making, or simply the application of economics to political science. 2.The subject matter of public choice is the theory of the state voting rules voter behavior party politics bureaucracy. 3.The methodology of public choice is that of economics; i.e., individuals are rational utility maximizers.”

56 Diunduh dari: ……………… 5/12/2012 Public Choice and Government Failure Public choice theory applies economic principles to public sector decision making. Government failure – occurs when government action results in a less efficient allocation of resources. The primary motivation in the public sector is assumed to be self-interest. Voters Voters cannot vote for the exact political policies that they favor. People are likely to be more satisfied with the choices they can make as consumers than with the choices they can make as voters. Rational Ignorance It is rational to remain ignorant if the cost of gaining information is greater than the benefit of having the information. Most voters will not be well-informed due to rational voter ignorance.

57 INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index Diabstraksikan oleh: soemarno, psdl ppsub, desember 2012 Bahan Kajian pada MK. PSDAL KERENTANAN KEMANUSIAAN

58 1.Basic Sustenance 2.Public Health 3.Environmental Disasters Sumber: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index, Dan Esty, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, 2000. …………… diunduh 28/11/2012

59 KEBUTUHAN HIDUP MANUSIA Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 Human needs can be understood as a system - i.e. they are interrelated and interactive. In this system, there is no hierarchy of needs (apart from the basic need for subsistence or survival) as postulated by Western psychologists such as Maslow, rather, simultaneity, complementarity and trade-offs are features of the process of needs satisfaction. Manfred Max-Neef and his colleagues developed a taxonomy of human needs and a process by which communities can identify their "wealths" and "poverties" according to how their fundamental human needs are satisfied. Max-Neef classifies the fundamental human needs as: 1.subsistence,, 3.affection, 4.understanding, 5.participation, 6.leisure, 7.creation, 8.identity and 9.freedom.

60 Needs are also defined according to the existential categories of being, having, doing and interacting, and from these dimensions, a 36 cell matrix is developed Diunduh dari:……………… 5/12/2012 NeedBeing (qualities)Having (things)Doing (actions)Interacting (settings) subsistencephysical and mental healthfood, shelter, workfeed, clothe, rest, work living environment, social setting protectioncare, adaptability, autonomy social security, health systems, work co-operate, plan, take care of, help social environment, dwelling affection respect, sense of humour, generosity, sensuality friendships, family, relationships with nature share, take care of, make love, express emotions privacy, intimate spaces of togetherness understandi ng critical capacity, curiosity, intuition literature, teachers, policies, educational analyse, study, meditate, investigate, schools, families, universities, communities, participatio n receptiveness, dedication, sense of humour responsibilities, duties, work, rights cooperate, dissent, express opinions associations, parties, churches, neighbourhoods leisure imagination, tranquility, spontaneity games, parties, peace of mind day-dream, remember, relax, have fun landscapes, intimate spaces, places to be alone creation imagination, boldness, inventiveness, curiosity abilities, skills, work, techniques invent, build, design, work, compose, interpret spaces for expression, workshops, audiences identity sense of belonging, self- esteem, consistency language, religions, work, customs, values, norms get to know oneself, grow, commit oneself places one belongs to, everyday settings freedom autonomy, passion, self- esteem, open-mindedness equal rights dissent, choose, run risks, develop awareness anywhere

61 Diunduh dari:……………… 5/12/2012. Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a landmark theory in psychology. Picture a pyramid, with the most basic and important needs at the base and the pinnacle of human experience at the top. At ground level, Maslow identified sustenance and safety as the two primary human needs. The third, he said, is a sense of belonging, of connection to others.

62 Diunduh dari:……………… 5/12/2012. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Philosophers and psychologists have theorised throughout the ages on what defines the basic human needs. Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs are represented by the following diagram: :

63 INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index Diabstraksikan oleh: soemarno, psdl ppsub, desember 2012 Bahan Kajian pada MK. PSDAL KESEHATAN PUBLIK

64 Diunduh dari:……………… 29/11/2012 Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals" (1920, C.E.A. Winslow. Science 51 (1306): 23–33 ). It is concerned with threats to health based on population health analysis. The population in question can be as small as a handful of people or as large as all the inhabitants of several continents (for instance, in the case of a pandemic). The dimensions of health can encompass "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity", as defined by the United Nations' World Health Organization. Public health incorporates the interdisciplinary approaches of epidemiology, biostatistics and health services. Environmental health, community health, behavioral health, health economics, public policy, insurance medicine and occupational health (respectively occupational medicine) are other important subfields.

65 PUBLIC HEALTH INTERVENTION Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012 The focus of public health intervention is to improve health and quality of life through the prevention and treatment of disease and other physical and mental health conditions, through surveillance of cases and the promotion of healthy behaviors. Promotion of hand washing and breastfeeding, delivery of vaccinations, and distribution of condoms to control the spread of sexually transmitted diseases are examples of common public health measures.

66 PUBLIC HEALTH PROGRAM Diunduh dari:……………… 29/11/2012 The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies core functions of public health programs including: 1.Providing leadership on matters critical to health and engaging in partnerships where joint action is needed; 2.Shaping a research agenda and stimulating the generation, translation and dissemination of valuable knowledge; 3.Setting norms and standards and promoting and monitoring their implementation; 4.Articulating ethical and evidence-based policy options; 5.Monitoring the health situation and assessing health trends. In particular, public health surveillance programs can: 1.Serve as an early warning system for impending public health emergencies; 2.Document the impact of an intervention, or track progress towards specified goals; and 3.Monitor and clarify the epidemiology of health problems, allow priorities to be set, and inform health policy and strategies. 4.Diagnose, investigate, and monitor health problems and health hazards of the community

67 The 10 Essential Elements of Public Health Public Health has identified the following 10 essential elements that define public health practice: Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012 1.Evaluate effectiveness, accessibility and quality of personal and population based services 2.Assure a competent workforce for public health and personal health care 3.Link People to needed personal health services and assure the provision of health care when otherwise unavailable 4.Enforce laws and regulations that protect health and ensure safety* 5.Develop policies and plans that support individual and community health efforts 6.Mobilize community partnerships to identify and solve health problems 7.Inform, educate, and empower people about health issues 8.Diagnose and investigate health problems and health hazards in the community 9.Monitor health status to identify community health problems 10.Research for new insights and innovative solutions to health problems


69 DEFINITION OF PUBLIC HEALTH Diunduh dari: ……………… 6/12/2012 The definition offered by the Acheson Report (Acheson 1988) has been widely accepted: Public health is the science and art of preventing disease, pro- longing life, and promoting health through the organized efforts of society. In 2003, Detels defined the goal of public health as: The biologic, physical, and mental well-being of all members of society regardless of gender, wealth, ethnicity, sexual orientation, country, or political views.

70 FUNCTIONS OF PUBLIC HEALTH 1.Prevent disease and injuries. 2.Promote healthy lifestyles and good health habits. 3.Identify, measure, monitor, and anticipate community health needs. 4.Formulate, promote, and enforce essential health policies. 5.Organize and ensure high-quality, cost-effective public health and health-care services. 6.Reduce health disparities and ensure access to health care for all. 7.Promote and protect a healthy environment. 8.Disseminate health information and mobilize communities to take appropriate action. 9.Plan and prepare for natural and man-made disasters. 10.Reduce interpersonal violence and aggressive war. 11.Conduct research and evaluate health-promoting/disease-preventing strategies. 12.Develop new methodologies for research and evaluation. 13.Train and ensure a competent public health workforce. Diunduh dari: ……………… 6/12/2012

71 TEN ESSENTIAL PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES 1.Develop policies, and plans that support individual and community health efforts 2.Diagnose & Investigate the health problems & Health hazards in the community 3.Mobilize community partnerships 4.Inform, educate, and empower people about health issues 5.Link people to needed personnel health services and assure the provision of comprehensive health care when otherwise unavailable 6.Assure a competent public health & personnel health care workforce 7.Monitor health status to identify the community health problems 8.Monitoring & evaluation of population based health care services 9.Operational research to find out new innovative solution to the health problems 10.Enforce laws and regulations that protect health and ensure safety. Diunduh dari: ……………… 6/12/2012

72 SIX PUBLIC HEALTH RESPONSIBILITIES Diunduh dari: ……………… 6/12/2012 1.Prevention of epidemics & spread of disease 2.Protection of people against environmental Hazards 3.Prevention of injuries 4.Promotion & encouragement of healthy behavior changes 5.Quick response to the disaster & to assist the communities in recovery phase 6.To assure quality, accessible, and affordable comprehensive health care services

73 THE FOUR FOCUS OF PUBLIC HEALTH Diunduh dari: ……………… 6/12/2012 1.Environmental Health 2.Communicable Disease Control 3.Food Hygiene 4.Maternity & Child Health measures Environmental Health: 1.Water 2.Drainage 3.Housing 4.Rats, Mice and Mosquito control 5.Nuisance 6.Sanitation

74 Fokus Kesehatan Lingkungan : Water Diunduh dari: ……………… 6/12/2012 1.Establishment of Technical Assistance for maintenance of Water works. 2.Surveillance of Water sources 3.Control over bottled water supply 4.Govt. ensure local authority to provide adequate continuous, wholesome water 5.Role of Govt. and other authorities in Water supply 6.Role of Railway Administration 7.Periodical Examination of Water 8.Action over the unsanitary sources 9.Prevention of Pollution of Water 10.Supply of Water during Fair or Festival 11.Control over Private Water Sources.

75 Diunduh dari: ……………… 6/12/2012 Drainage 1.Responsibility of Local authority and private in construction of Drains and Cesspool 2.Prevention of Let out of Sullage in the Streets 3.Prevention of Disposal of injurious refuse into the Drain. Fokus Kesehatan Lingkungan: H o u s i n g Prohibition of Occupation of House 1.If it is without water supply 2.If it is without Drain 3.If there is nuisance 4.If there is notified disease 5.If it is unfit for Habituation 6.Prohibition of Over crowding 7.Not to be erected on certain places 8.Registration, Renewal and Maintenance of Lodging House 9.New house should be provided with sanitary conveniences.

76 Communicable Diseases: Diunduh dari: ……………… 6/12/2012 List of infectious diseases: 1.Acute influenza pneumonia 2.Anthrax 3.Cerebrospinal fever 4.Chickenpox 5.Cholera 6.Diphtheria 7.Enteric fever 8.Leprosy 9.Measles 10.Plague 11.Rabies 12.Relapsing fever 13.Scarlet fever 14.Small pox 15.Tuberculosis 16.Typhus fever. List of Notified Diseases 1.Cerebrospinal fever 2.Chickenpox 3.Cholera 4.Diphtheria 5.Leprosy 6.Measles 7.Plague 8.Rabies 9.Scarlet fever 10.Small pox 11.Tuberculosis 12.Infectious 13.Hepatitis 14.Epidemic Influenza 15.Whooping cough 16.Viral Encephalitis 17.Hemorrhagic fever 18.Malaria 19.Tetanus 20.Poliomyelitis 21.AIDS

77 INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index Diabstraksikan oleh: soemarno, psdl ppsub, desember 2012 Bahan Kajian pada MK. PSDAL BENCANA LINGKUNGAN

78 ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTER Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 An environmental disaster is a disaster to the natural environment due to human activity, which distinguishes it from the concept of a natural disaster. Environmental disasters can have an effect on agriculture, biodiversity, the economy and human health. The causes include pollution, depletion of natural resources, industrial activity or agriculture.

79 ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTERS BY CATEGORY Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 Agricultural: Environmental impact of agriculture 1.Salinity in Australia 2.Salinization of the Fertile Crescent 3.The Dust Bowl in Canada and the United States (1934–1939) 4.The Great sparrow campaign; sparrows were eliminated from Chinese farms, which caused locusts to swarm the farms and contributed to a famine which killed 38 million people. 5.Africanized bees, known colloquially as "killer bees" 6.Mismanagement of the Aral Sea 7."Dirty dairying" in New Zealand.

80 ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTERS BY CATEGORY Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 Biodiversity 1.Chestnut blight 2.Extinction of American megafauna 3.Extinction of Australian megafauna 4.Deforestation of Easter Island 5.Destruction of the old growth forests 6.Rabbits in Australia 7.Red imported fire ants 8.Dutch Elm Disease 9.Devil facial tumour disease 10.Reduction in the number of the American Bison 11.Introduction of the Nile perch into Lake Victoria in Africa, decimating indigenous fish species 12.Environmental threats to the Great Barrier Reef 13.Invasive species in New Zealand 14.The loss of Biodiversity of New Zealand 15.Ghost nets 16.Grounding of SS Makambo on Lord Howe Island 17.Shark finning 18.Decline of vultures in India due to Diclofenac leading to increased incidence of rabies 19.Extinction of the Tasmanian Tiger

81 ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTERS BY CATEGORY Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 Industrial 1.Minamata disease- mercury poisoning in Japan (1950s & 1960s) 2.Ontario Minamata disease in Canada 3.Itai-itai disease, due to cadmium poisoning in Japan 4.Love Canal toxic waste site 5.Seveso disaster (1976), chemical plant explosion, caused highest known exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in residential populations 6.Bhopal disaster (December 3, 1984, India), The leak of methyl isocyanate that took place in 1984 resulted in more than 22,000 deaths (and counting) and the various genetic diseases that will continue to be seen for generations to come among the newly born, caused by the negligence and corruption, ignoring safety standards in India by Warren Anderson, CEO of Union Carbide, a US company now a subsidiary of Dow Chemicals. 7.Sandoz chemical spill into the Rhine river (1986) 8.United States Environmental Protection Agency Superfund sites in the United States 9.AZF Explosion at a Toulouse chemical factory (2001)AZF 10.The Sydney Tar Ponds and Coke Ovens sites in the city of Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada, known as the largest toxic waste site in North America. 11.Release of lead dust into Esperance Harbour. 12.Release of cyanide, heavy metals and acid into the Alamosa River, Colorado from the Summitville mine, causing the death of all marine life within a 17 mile radius.

82 ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTERS BY CATEGORY Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 Nuclear 1.Chernobyl disaster in 1986 in Chernobyl, Ukraine, "killed at least 4056 people and damaged almost $7 billion of property". Radioactive fallout from the accident concentrated near Belarus, Ukraine and Russia and at least 350,000 people were forcibly resettled away from these areas. 2.Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster: Following an earthquake, tsunami, and failure of cooling systems at Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant and issues concerning other nuclear facilities in Japan on March 11, 2011, a nuclear emergency was declared. This was the first time a nuclear emergency had been declared in Japan, and 140,000 residents within 20 km of the plant were evacuated. 3.Mayak nuclear waste storage tank explosion, (Chelyabinsk, Soviet Union, 29 September 1957), 200+ people died and 270,000 people were exposed to dangerous radiation levels. Over thirty small communities had been removed from Soviet maps between 1958 and 1991. 4.Windscale fire, United Kingdom, October 8, 1957. Fire ignites plutonium piles and contaminates surrounding dairy farms. 5.Soviet submarine K-431 accident, August 10, 1985 (10 people died and 49 suffered radiation injuries). 6.Soviet submarine K-19 accident, July 4, 1961. (8 deaths and more than 30 people were over-exposed to radiation).

83 NATURAL DISASTER Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of, or effecting, the Earth; examples include floods, severe weather, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and other geologic processes. A natural disaster can cause loss of life or property damage, and typically leaves some economic damage in its wake, the severity of which depends on the affected population's resilience, or ability to recover. An adverse event will not rise to the level of a disaster if it occurs in an area without vulnerable population. In a vulnerable area, however, such as San Francisco, an earthquake can have disastrous consequences and leave lasting damage, requiring years to repair.

84 Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 1. Avalanches 2.Earthquakes 3.Volcanic eruptions 4. Hydrological disasters : 4.1 Floods 4.2 Limnic eruptions 4.3 Tsunami 5 Meteorological disasters: 5.1 Blizzards 5.2 Cyclonic storms 5.3 Droughts 5.4 Hailstorms 5.5 Heat waves 5.6 Tornadoes 6. Wildfires 7. Health disasters: 7.1 Epidemics 8. Space disasters8.1 Impact events 8.2 Solar flares 8.3 Gamma ray burst NATURAL DISASTER

85 INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index Diabstraksikan oleh: soemarno, psdl ppsub, desember 2012 Bahan Kajian pada MK. PSDAL KERJASAMA GLOBAL

86 Global Stewardship 1.Contribution to International Cooperation 2.Impact on Global Commons Sumber: Pilot Environmental Sustainability Index, Dan Esty, Yale, Marc Levy, Columbia, May 5, 2000. …………… diunduh 28/11/2012

87 INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Diunduh dari: ……………… 6/12/2012 Contemporary Challenges in Sustainable Development 1.Maintaining World Economic Growth, and Reducing World Poverty and Inequality 2.World Population Growth and Food Production 3.Conserving Biodiversity, Natural Habitats, and Natural Resources 4.Meeting the Demand for Renewable Energy 5.Political Instability and Violence, and Social Disruption and Dislocation 6.Finance for Sustainable Development

88 Diunduh dari: ……………… 6/12/2012 3. The Normative Dimension: The Evolution of Norms, Rules and Principles on Sustainable Development 3.1. Customary International Law and the Environment Prior to 1972 3.2. The Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment (1972) 3.3. The United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development (1992) 3.4. The Earth Summit II (1997) 3.5. The World Summit on Sustainable Development (2002) 4. The Cognitive Dimension: The Political-Economy of Sustainable Development 4.1. Genesis of the Concept of Sustainable Development 4.2. The Goals of Development 4.3. Market Instruments and Sustainable Development 4.4. Criticisms of Market Instruments INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

89 Diunduh dari: ……………… 6/12/2012 The Regulative Dimension: Multilateral Institutions and Sustainable Development Cooperation 1.Multilateral Treaty-Making and the Environment 2.The Institutional Framework for International Cooperation in Sustainable Development. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

90 GLOBAL COMMONS Diunduh dari: ……………… 6/12/2012 The term Global Commons refers to the earth's unowned natural resources, such as the oceans, Earth's atmosphere, and outer space. The definition does not specifically state define whether the absence of ownership is traditional or deliberate. Resources such as the Northern and Southern polar regions may be subject to disputes by some states. These resources are central to life. According to the World Conservation Strategy: "A commons is a tract of land or water owned or used jointly by the members of a community. The global commons includes those parts of the Earth's surface beyond national jurisdictions - notably the open ocean and the living resources found there - or held in common - notably the atmosphere. The only landmass that may be regarded as part of the global commons is Antarctica...“. One issue that specifically affects the global commons is global warming /climate change.

91 TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS Diunduh dari: ……………… 6/12/2012 In economics, the tragedy of the commons is the depletion of a shared resource by individuals, acting independently and rationally according to each one's self- interest, despite their understanding that depleting the common resource is contrary to their long-term best interests.resource In 1968, ecologist Garrett Hardin explored this social dilemma in "The Tragedy of the Commons", published in the journal Science. The tragedy of the commons can be considered in relation to environmental issues such as sustainability. The commons dilemma stands as a model for a great variety of resource problems in society today, such as water, land, fish, and non-renewable energy sources such as oil and coal. Situations exemplifying the "tragedy of the commons" include the overfishing and destruction of the Grand Banks, the destruction of salmon runs on rivers that have been dammed. Other situations exemplifying the "tragedy of the commons" include pollution caused by driving cars. There are many negative externalities of driving; these include congestion, carbon emissions, and traffic accidents.

92 GENERAL EXAMPLES OF POTENTIAL AND ACTUAL TRAGEDIES Diunduh dari: ……………… 6/12/2012 Sumberdaya Publik 1.Radio frequencies – Unlicensed frequencies used for wireless communications, especially 802.11 a/b/g in the U.S., detailed under Part 15 (FCC rules) would be vulnerable to the overuse of high power transmitters, especially overdriven transmitters with dirty signal profiles, and especially when combined with omnidirectional antennas, had the FCC not mandated maximum transmission power for each class of device and limitations on their spectral profile. 2.Spam email degrades the usefulness of the email system and increases the cost for all users of the Internet while providing a benefit to only a tiny number of individuals. 3.Vandalism and littering in public spaces such as parks, recreation areas, and public restrooms. Additionally, careless urination, defecation, and similar careless usage of public restrooms. 4.Knowledge commons encompass immaterial and collectively owned goods in the information age. 5.Freeways experience heavy traffic due to overuse.

93 GENERAL EXAMPLES OF POTENTIAL AND ACTUAL TRAGEDIES Diunduh dari: ……………… 6/12/2012 Ekologi Planet Bumi: 1.Uncontrolled human population growth leading to overpopulation 2.Air, whether ambient air polluted by industrial emissions and cars among other sources of air pollution, or indoor air. 3.Water – Water pollution, Water crisis of over-extraction of groundwater and wasting water due to overirrigation 4.Forests – Frontier logging of old growth forest and slash and burn 5.Energy resources and climate – Burning of fossil fuels and consequential global warming 6.Animals – Habitat destruction and poaching leading to the Holocene mass extinction 7.Oceans – Overfishing.

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