9SEMANTIKACCOUNTABILITYRESPONSIBILITYthe quality or state of being accountable; esp ecially : an obligation or willingness to accept responsibility or to accountfor one's actions <public officials lacking accountabilitythe state of being held as the cause of something that needs to be set right something one must do because of prior agreement Integral part of human relatiships that in its various meanings and shadings it serves as a synonym for almost every important political word
10Corporate responsibility/accountability Corporate AccountabilityRefer to varied practices that reflect the belief that corporations have responsibilities beyond generating profit for their shareholders.Such responsibilities are generally considered to extend not only to direct social and environmental impacts of business activity, but also to more indirect effects resulting from relationships with business partners, such as those involved in global production chains.voluntary approaches, albeit those supported by market based incentivescorporate behavior is influenced by pressure exerted by social and governmental actors beyond the company itselfSuch actors can adopt a range of strategies, including but not limited to the mobilisation of legal mechanisms to enforce social standards.The act of being accountable to the stakeholders of an organization, which may include shareholders, employees, suppliers, custo mers, the local community, and even the particular country(s) that the firm operates in. In most jurisdictions, a body of corporate law has been developed in order to formalize these requirements.Corporate accountability can be defined as the ability of those affected by a corporation to control that corporation’s operations.
11You or I: Beyond the magic bullet Ethical/social ApproachLegal ApproachFlexible & progressive- Sesuai dengan kebutuhanInformal approach - Dapat diterima- resistensi sedikit : self drivenMudah diamandemenTidak semua mematuhi – diversity of standardKurang mekanisme pelaksanaanMempunyai kekuatan hukumAda mekanisme pelaksanaan & pemulihan (liability)Uniformity kepatuhanTidak fleksibel dan tidak mudah diamandemen.
12Corporate Accountability Understanding:Corporate accountability can be defined as the ability of those affected by a corporation to control that corporation’s operations or to hold accountable corporation’s operation.Unsur:- stakeholders- Rules/Norma & Mekanisme- disclosure & transparancy- Pemulihan