2Outline Introduction Part I. The Vikings Part II. Norse mythology Part III. Viking godsPart IV. Influence of Viking mythologyConclusionReferences
3The Vikings began to raid their southern neighbors seriously and systematically around 800
4IntroductionThe Vikings were one of several waves of attackers to fall on Europe during the Middle AgesThe Vikings are Nordic peoples—Danes, Swedes, and Norwegians—who raided and settled in Europe between 800 and 1100They attacked Russia, the British Isles, the Atlantic and North Sea shoreline of the Carolingian Empire (France, Germany, and the Low Countries)They eventually converted to Christianity and settled in the lands they had raided
5Part I. The VikingsScandinavia, name applied collectively to three countries of northern Europe—Norway and Sweden (which together form the Scandinavian Peninsula), and Denmark. The three countries grouped because of their historical, cultural, and linguistic affinitiesThe Scandinavian world never came under Roman or Christian influence before the raids, and its population was small and dispersedBecause the people of this world mostly lived along the coasts, fishing played a significant part in their lives, as did sea trade
6Part I. The VikingsThe basic social structure was that of small, free farmers who owed loyalty (along with taxes) to the headman or patriarch of the familyMen being away from home often, free women enjoyed a power unique in EuropeThey traveled as far as North America in the West and Russia and Constantinople in the EastChristian Europe’s ability to resist their attacks grew; the Vikings settled and converted to ChristianityThey were great sailors and ferocious enemies, but also great storytellers and hard workers
8Part II. Viking mythology Pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian people, including those who settled on IcelandThe pre-Christian religion of the Vikings was similar to that of other Germanic tribesThey worshiped a number of gods, including Odin, the god of war and leader of the Norse gods; Thor, the god of thunder; and Balder, the god of lightViking warriors believed that if they died heroically they would be called to dwell with Odin in ValhallaOpposing the Norse gods were a host of evil giants, led by Loki
9Part II. Viking mythology Norse mythology had no scripture. The mythology was orally transmitted in the form of long, regular poetryOral transmission continued through the Viking Age ( AD in Scandinavia and Britain), and our knowledge about it is mainly based on the Eddas (collection of Old Norse poems from the Icelandic mediaeval manuscript Codex Regius written around 1270) and other medieval texts written down during and after ChristianisationThe origin and eventual fate of the world are described in Völuspá ("The völva's prophecy" or "The sybil's prophecy"), one of the most striking poems in the Poetic Edda
10Odin, the Norse god of war and death, was accompanied by two wolves, Freki (translated as “fierce”) and Geri (translated as “greedy”).
11Part II. Viking mythology In Norse mythology, the earth is represented as a flat disc. This disk is situated in the branches of the world tree, or YggdrasilIn ancient Germanic and Old Norse mythology, the universe was believed to consist of nine physical worlds joined togetherThe world of Men, the Middle-earth (or Midgard), lay in the centre of this universe. The lands of Elves, Gods, and Giants lay across an encircling seaThe land of the Dead called Niflheim lay beneath the Middle-earth and was ruled by Hel, daughter of LokiA rainbow bridge, Bifrost Bridge, extended from Middle-earth to Asgard across the sea. An outer sea encircled the seven other worlds
12AsgardAfter Odin created Middle Earth, he built Asgard, the home of the godsThere were many halls in Asgard for all the gods. Odin's hall had a roof of silver, and from it he could see all the worldsA bridge stretched from Asgard to Yggdrasill, the World Tree, and this bridge was called Bifrost, the rainbowOne hall in Asgard was called Valhalla, for the warriors who died in battleThey were chosen by the Valkyries, women who wore armour, and rode swiftly over land and sea on horseback. The Valkyries also decided who would win a battle
13RagnarokAt the end of time, the frost and fire giants will meet together to fight the gods and destroy the worlds. This time will be called RagnarokThe wolves chasing the Sun and Moon will catch and eat them, and there will be bitter cold. The earth will shake and mountains will fall, and even Yggrasill, the World Tree will trembleThe wolf Fenrir will swallow Odin, but will be killed by Odin's son, Vadir. Thor attacks the World Serpent and kills it, but is poisoned by its venom. Loki will break free and attack Heimdall, the keeper of the rainbow bridge, which will get shatteredAll the gods, monsters and giants will die, and the world will be burned, and then swallowed by the ocean. However, a new, better world will arise from the waves, lit by a new sun.
14Part III. Viking godsThe dualism that exists is not evil vs. good, but order vs. chaos. The gods represent order and structure whereas the giants and the monsters represent chaos and disorderStories of the gods can be found in the Prose Edda (written by the Icelandic scholar and historian Snorri Sturluson around 1220) and in the Poetic Edda (collection of Old Norse poems from the Icelandic mediaeval manuscript Codex Regius)The Eddas are the most important sources we have on Norse mythology and Germanic heroic legends
15OdinFather of Thor, Tyr and Balder; Title: The Cunning God; Saxon name: WodenOdin is a god of war and death, but also the god of poetry and wisdomOdin was the chief and father of the gods. He had drunk from the spring of Mimir which had made him very wiseHe invented Runes, the secret writing of the Saxons and Vikings, which not only stored knowledge, but could be used for magicHe was born from Ymir, the creation giant, and made Middle Earth from his body. He also built Asgard
16Brynhild begs Odin An illustration from F. L Brynhild begs Odin An illustration from F. L. Spence Rhine Legends (1915)
17ThorTitle: Thunder God; Son of Odin; he holds Mjolnir, one of the mightiest weapons of both man and godMarried to Sif, a fertility goddess. His mistress is the giantess Jarnsaxa ("iron cutlass"), and their sons are Magni and Modi and his daughter is ThrudHe was very popular as the protector of both gods and humans against the forces of evilDonar is his Teutonic equivalent, while the Romans see in him their god Jupiter. Thursday is named after himAt the day of Ragnarok, Thor will kill this serpent but will die from its poison. His sons will inherit his hammer after his death
18Thor, god of thunder, son of Odin. "Thor's Day" is Thursday in English Thor, god of thunder, son of Odin. "Thor's Day" is Thursday in English. He is the homologue of Zeus. Here picture of the Marvel Comics Hero.
19LokiLoki is not a member of the Asgardians, but the son of Laufey, the deceased monarch of the Frost Giants, the ancient enemies of the AsgardiansOdin led the Asgardians into battle against the Frost Giants and killed Laufey in personal combatAfter slaying Laufey, Odin found a small Asgardian-sized child hidden, Loki. Laufey kept him hidden from his people due to his shame over his son's small sizeOdin took the boy, out of pity and because he was the son of a worthy adversary slain in honorable combat, and raised him as his son alongside his biological son ThorLoki was not always evil; he helped Thor on many adventures; he had monstrous children, Fenrir the wolf, the World Serpent and Hel, queen of the dead
20Loki is connected with fire and magic, and can assume many different shapes (horse, falcon, fly). He is directly responsible for the death of Balder, the god of light. Here fighting with Thor
21Part IV. Influence of Viking mythology Many writers borrowed extensively from Norse mythology, such as Robert E. Howard (Conan the Barbarian, a fictional Cimmerian mercenary) and Tolkien (Lord of the Rings)This helped fantasy fiction to develop as an unique genre. Fantasy fiction in turn provided a foundation for many role playing and computer gamesDungeons and Dragons are based on the work of various fantasy authors (including Howard and Tolkien) and many mythologies, including Norse mythologyIn the Marvel Universe, the Norse Pantheon and related elements play a prominent part, especially Thor who has been one of the longest running superheroes for the company
22a. Days of the weekThe Germanic gods have left traces in modern English vocabularyAn example of this is some of the names of the days of the weekModeled after the names of the days of the week in Latin (named after Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn), the names for Tuesday through to Friday were replaced with Germanic equivalents of the Roman godsIn English, Saturn (Saturday) was not replaced
23English originated from the Old Saxon language and related dialects brought to Britain by Germanic settlers from various parts of northwest Germany. The original Old English language was influenced by speakers of languages in the Scandinavian branch of the Germanic family, who colonized parts of Britain in the 8th and 9th centuries. Then by the Normans in the 11th century, who spoke a variety of French
24Days of the week English Saxon Title of God Roman French Monday Mona The MoonMoonLundiTuesdayTiuGod of WarMarsMardiWednesdayWodenThe Cunning GodMercuryMercrediThursdayThorThunder GodJoveJeudiFridayFreyjaGoddess of LoveVenusVendrediSaturday---God of TimeSaturnSamediSundaySunneThe SunSunDimanche
25b. Lord of the RingsLord of the Rings is an epic high fantasy saga by the British author J. R. R. Tolkien ( )Tolkien, Oxford philologist well acquainted with Northern European Medieval Literature including Old Norse, Old and Middle English TextsThe Lord of the Rings began as a personal exploration by Tolkien of his interests in philology, religion, fairy tales, and Norse and Celtic mythologyThe concept of a "ring of power", which granted the wearer invisibility, is present in the Norse tale of Sigurd the VolsungNon-Christian religious motifs were strong influences in Tolkien's Middle-Earth
28ConclusionMany people are familiar with J.R.R. Tolkien's Lord of the Rings or Wagner's The Ring of the Nibelung, but they are not familiar with Norse mythology to which both of these works are heavily indebtedThe Ring of the Nibelung is a series of four epic operas. Both the libretto and the music were written by Richard Wagner over the course of twenty-six years, from 1848 to 1874The four operas in the Ring cycle are: The Rhinegold; The Valkyrie; Siegfried; Twilight of the Gods