Walter Willet, MD, Chair, Dept. of Nutrition Harvard School of Public Health: "With the right food choices, physical activity, and not smoking, we could prevent -about 80% of heart disease -about 90% of diabetes -about 70% of strokes" Sept interview
Nutrition Concept # 1 Food- basic need of humans Food security- access at all times to sufficient supply of safe, nutritious foods Food insecurity- limited/ uncertain availability of safe, nutritious foods
Nutrition Concept # 2 Foods provide: Energy (calories) Nutrients Other biologically active substances
Calories Not a nutrient A measure of energy
Macronutrients Carbohydrates – simple and complex Proteins - amino acids Fats- fatty acids. Water All have 4 calories per gram Also 4 calories per gram 9 calories per gram
Phytochemicals (from plants)
#3: Nutrient Needs All humans need the same nutrients, but not in the same amounts. The amounts needed vary among people based on such factors as: Age Pregnancy Body sizeBreastfeeding GenderIllnesses Genetic traitsEnvironment Growth Status
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) Updated every five years Standard desired levels of essential nutrient intake in healthy people Prevent deficiencies, promote health and help prevent chronic disease Different RDAs Based on age and gender for women, different if pregnant or breastfeeding
4. Malnutrition From poor diets: either inadequate or excessive calories and nutrients in the body From diseases or genetic factors that interfere with the body’s ability to use the nutrients consumed Or from a combination of these factors
Health Problems Today’s chronic health problems are from diets and lifestyles greatly different from our early ancestors
Bodies Haven’t Changed Biological processes in the body were developed more than 40,000 years ago These evolution-driven processes are firmly linked to the genetic makeup of humans Maximized survival of the species Genes change very little over great spans of time
Our Natural Diet Fruits, roots, vegetables, insects, grubs, fish, and wild game To sustain a physical lifestyle Current foods have little resemblance to foods of our early ancestors Sugar, salt, alcohol, and fats such as oils, margarine, and butter, weren’t in ancestor’s diets Current lifestyles are inactive
What’s Wrong with our Diets? Human body functions best on low saturated fat, sugar, and sodium, lean sources of protein, high in fiber, complex carbohydrates, and vegetables and fruits Modern diet: High in processed foods loaded with fat and sugars high in sodium Low in vegetables and fruits Low-calcium and/or vitamin D diets
Typical modern diet and lifestyle cause Overweight and obesity Cardiovascular disease mainly heart attacks and strokes Cancer, especially breast and colon cancer Diabetes “Malaise”
Why is U.S. diet hazardous to health?
Healthy Eating Pyramid Additional calcium for young women
Can Americans Change? Yes, we can!
What diet changes should you make to stay healthy? Reduce portions of meats and cheese Eat more fish and plant-based proteins Avoid processed sugars and potatoes Eat more complex carbohydrates, especially high fiber foods, vegetables, fruits Replace animal fats with vegetable oils Avoid processed foods high in sodium Eat more natural (less processed) foods high in potassium and magnesium Get adequate Vitamin D
When you want a burger, think small!
How Should You Get Protein? More Beans & Nuts: Pintos, limas, black beans, etc Nuts, peanuts, peanut butter, soy foods (tofu) Hummous
How Should You Get Protein? Chicken & Turkey Fish & Shellfish Low Fat Dairy & Eggs Beef/pork: ~4 oz. Twice a week
Make meat part of a meal, not the heart of a meal!
Eat big servings of fresh vegetables-- any vegetables you can eat raw-- you never need to measure them, just enjoy!
Don't Drink Sugar! 20 oz Soda = 4 servings! 60 grams carbohydrate
Avoid processed sugars and potatoes
Eat more complex carbohydrates -look for 100% whole wheat -choose beans, brown rice, and whole grains more often
Have at least 3 servings of fruit every day! The perfect snack— Fresh fruit is best Either frozen or canned is good Fruit is better than juice
High Potassium Foods Reduce Blood Pressure Fruits: apricots, banana, cantalope, honeydew melon, mango, nectarine, oranges and orange juice Vegetables: Dried beans, tomatoes, spinach, sweet potato, potato, peppers, avocado, and most cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, kale, collard greens)
Eat more foods high in magnesium -look for minimally processed foods! Leafy green vegetables Nuts Beans and peas Whole, unrefined grains
Avoid processed foods high in sodium
Replace animal fats with vegetable oils
Which is the better meal?
A meal is always better with salad!
Add some fruit whenever you can!
Is this too small? Boiled potatoes, about 12 grams
A sandwich is much more satisfying with a side salad—and even better with a fruit! Still only 4 carbs
Get Adequate Vitamin D The Sunshine Vitamin minutes a day in the summer Fortified low fat milk and soy milk Fortified foods (few) Vitamin pills: RDA 600 mg a day
Nutritious foods don’t have to cost more than junk food!
Do-It-Yourself Hearty Soups are low cost and easy to make!