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SUMMER HAZARDS Bites and stings and things beyond… Prepared by Marilyn Rausch Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "SUMMER HAZARDS Bites and stings and things beyond… Prepared by Marilyn Rausch Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 SUMMER HAZARDS Bites and stings and things beyond… Prepared by Marilyn Rausch Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

2 Bites Spider Bites Stings Tick Bites Snakes Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

3 Spider bites Dangerous spiders include: 1.Black widow (red hourglass) 2.Brown Recluse (violin on abdomen) 3.Scorpion (not in Indiana) Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

4 SPIDER BITES Most spiders are harmless Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

5 Treating a non- poisonous spider bite Wash the area with Soap and water three times daily. Apply an antibiotic ointment. Apply cool compresses. Use Tylenol for pain. Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

6 Treating a non- poisonous spider bite 1.If you haven’t had a tetanus shot in 10 years (it is a puncture wound.) 2.If it drains pus, becomes extremely painful, or Becomes hot, swollen and red. When to see a doctor… Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

7 Poisonous spiders Black Widow Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

8 Black Widow Most venomous spider in the United States. Inhabit most of the warmer regions of the world. Bites are not usually deadly because they inject only small amount of toxin. The female black widow is generally the only gender that bites. Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

9 Black Widow Spider is identified by the red hourglass on its underbelly. Female usually remains in her web and only bites when disturbed. Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

10 Black Widow The venom is 15 times as toxic as the venom of the Prairie Rattlesnake, but is rarely fatal because of the small amount injected. The bite is painless initially, but can result in significant symptoms later. Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

11 Toxin can cause abdominal pain similar to appendicitis pain to the muscles or soles of the feet alternating salivation and dry-mouth paralysis of the diaphragm profuse sweating swollen eyelids. Black Widow (red hourglass) HEALTHY PEOPLE USUALLY RECOVER IN 3-5 DAYS. PERSONS WITH HEART OR OTHER HEALTH CONDITIONS MAY HAVE MORE SEVERE PROBLEMS. Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

12 First aid Apply ice pack over bite area. Keep limb elevated to heart level. If possible, collect the spider into a jar or plastic bag, even if it is crushed. Call Poison Control Center: Black Widow (red hourglass) Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

13 Brown Recluse Identified by long, thin legs and a distinct violin shaped mark on the back. Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

14 Found in firewood piles, leaves, indoors in dark closets, shoes, cluttered basements or attics. (They prefer dark, undisturbed places) They are scavengers… prefer dead prey to live. Spider is non-aggressive… bites only when disturbed. Brown Recluse Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

15 Preventing bites Recluses are nocturnal and are inactive during the day. They take temporary refuge in clothing or bedding, items left on the floor, in closets and under beds. Brown Recluse Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

16 Vacuum behind furniture and stored items, around baseboards and in closets. Do not store shoes, clothing or bedding at ground level. Avoid bed skirts that touch the floor. Do not store items under beds. Check articles brought indoors from storage sheds to assure there are no spiders or eggs attached. Preventing bites Brown Recluse Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

17 Repair torn screens and broken windows, and make sure doors shut tightly without gaps. Before using, thoroughly shake out shoes, supplies, clothing, toys, etc. that have been on the floor. Preventing bites Brown Recluse Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

18 Venom destroys tissue cells. Bite may cause a sharp sting or no pain. Pain develops within first 2-8 hours, may be severe. General feelings of discomfort, malaise or nausea. Severe iching may occur. Symptoms Brown Recluse Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

19 In severe cases, may develop sloughing of the skin, formation of a blister that ulcerates, taking up to 6 weeks to heal. A red to purple “bullseye” pattern may develop that leaves deep, raw areas through the skin. Chills and fever may occur Symptoms Brown Recluse Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

20 Blood in the urine. Jaundice. Kidney Failure. Seizures. Coma. In rare cases persons may experience Brown Recluse Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

21 Brown Recluse Fatalities most often occur in children. Survival past 48 hours usually indicates that recovery will occur. Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

22 Apply ice to bite area. Keep area at the level of the heart. Save the spider if possible for identification. Get immediate medical attention. Call Poison Emergency number First Aid Brown Recluse Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

23 Scorpion Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

24 STINGS Bees Wasps Hornets Yellow Jackets Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

25 Bee Stings Bees leave behind a stinger attached to a venom sac. Try to remove it as quickly as possible. Gently scrape it out with a blunt-edged object, such as a credit card or a dull knife. Do not squeeze the area to try to remove the stinger, as that will dispense the venom from the sac! Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

26 First Aid for All Stings Wash the area carefully with soap and water 2-3 times a day until skin is healed. Apply a cold pack to area for a few minutes. Give acetaminophen for pain. Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

27 First Aid for All Stings Give OTC antihistamine for pain and itching. Use Corticosteroid cream or calamine lotion to the sting area. Mud or toothpaste also work when these items are not available! Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

28 Emergency A sting anywhere inside the mouth. Wheezing or difficulty breathing. Tightness in the throat or chest. Swelling in the lips. Dizziness or fainting. Nausea or vomiting. Seek medical care immediately! Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

29 Seek medical care if you develop large skin rash Large area of swelling around the sting site. Swelling lasts more that 72 hours. Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

30 If you have had a severe reaction to a sting Carry with you a “bee sting kit,” containing a self-injection of epinephrine and antihistamine tablets. Pre-read the instructions on the kit so you know what to do in an emergency! Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

31 Avoid getting stung!! Do not wear perfumes, scented lotions or hair spray. Use insect repellants containing DEET (no more than 10%-30%). Use citronella-based products to repel insects. Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

32 TICKS Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

33 TICKS Ticks are part of the same group as are spiders…arachnids. There are two kinds of ticks –Hard ticks (common dog or deer ticks) –Soft ticks (feed on birds or bats) Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

34 TICKS Ticks cannot fly or jump. They must crawl or be carried. Ticks wait at the tips of grasses and shrubs, not in trees. When a potential meal brushes against the grass, the tick lets go of the vegetation onto the host. They then crawl from the lower to the upper parts of the body. Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

35 TICKS Dog (or Wood) Tick (3/16 inches long unfed) Adult tick feeds on humans and medium-to-large mammals such as raccoons and dogs. Most active in April, May, June Can transmit to humans –Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever –Tularemia –Ehrlichiosis MAIN CONCERN: DISEASES Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

36 TICKS Deer (or Blacklegged) Tick (1/8 inch long unfed) All three stages feed on variety of hosts, including people Active early spring through fall Can transmit to humans –Lyme disease –Ehrlichiosis MAIN CONCERN: DISEASES Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

37 TICKS After a tick bite, contact a doctor if You develop a rash that looks like a “bulls-eye.” A rash anywhere on the body. An unexplained illness that is accompanied by fever. Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

38 Symptoms of Lyme Disease A skin rash, often resembling a bulls-eye. Fever. Headache. Muscle pain. Stiff neck. Swelling of knees and other large joints. First Stage: days to weeks after bite. Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

39 Symptoms of Lyme Disease Numbness and pain in arms or legs Paralysis of facial muscles (sometimes only on one side of face.) Meningitis—fever, stiff neck, severe headaches. Abnormal heart beat (rare) Second stage: weeks to months after bite. Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

40 Symptoms of Lyme Disease Chronic Lyme Arthritis Nervous system problems –Memory Loss –Difficulty concentrating Chronic pain in muscles Lack of restful sleep Third stage: late (chronic) disease Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

41 Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

42 Symptoms of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Symptoms begin 3-12 days after the bite. Sudden fever lasting 2-3 weeks Severe headache Fatigue Deep muscle pain Chills Nausea Characteristic rash, including the palms and soles. Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

43 PREVENT TICK BORNE DISEASE AVOIDANCE Stay out of woodlands and brush areas where the ticks live. Use tick repellants that contain DEET (10-30%) on body and clothing. Dress in long sleeves and pants. Tuck pant legs into socks. Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

44 PREVENT TICK BORNE DISEASE AVOIDANCE Check your entire body for ticks after you have been in tick- infested areas. Remove any attached ticks as soon as possible. Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

45 PREVENT TICK BORNE DISEASE To remove an attached tick: Use fine tweezers to grab the tick firmly by the head or as close to the head as possible. Pull firmly. Do not use petroleum jelly or a hot match to make the tick “back out on its own. Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

46 PREVENT TICK BORNE DISEASE Keep grass mowed and weeds cut. Clean up rodent-attracting areas (spilled birdseed, old wood piles). If ticks are present in vegetation around the edge of the property or in weeds that cannot be removed, spray with tick-control insecticides once or twice in the season. Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

47 SNAKE BITES Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

48 SNAKE BITES There are only 4 poisonous snakes known to live in Indiana. Timber Rattlesnake (mid southern Indiana.) Northern Copperhead (Southern to central Indiana). Massasauga Rattlesnake (Northern Indiana. Cottonmouth (water moccasan) (unlikely to truly live here!) Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

49 SNAKE BITES THE REST OF THE SNAKES THAT YOU MIGHT SEE IN INDIANA ARE NOT VENOMOUS! It’s still a good idea to avoid them!!! Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

50 SNAKE BITES All snakes will bite when threatened or surprised. Most snakes only bite as a last resort, and avoid encounters. Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

51 SNAKE BITES Leave snakes alone. If you see a snake, give it at least a six-foot berth. When hiking, remain on hiking paths. Stay out of tall grass unless you are wearing heavy leather boots. Keep hands and feet out of areas you can’t see. Remember that a snake can strike half its length! Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

52 First aid for SNAKE BITES Keep victim calm. Restrict movement. Apply a loose splint. Keep affected area BELOW heart level. Remove any rings or constricting items. If you have a pump suction device, follow the manufacturer’s directions. If signs of shock occur, lay victim flat, raise feet about a foot, and keep warm. GET MEDICAL HELP IMMEDIATELY. Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007

53 First aid for SNAKE BITES DO NOT Allow the person to become over-exerted. Apply a tourniquet Apply cold compresses to a snake bite. Cut into a snake bite with a knife or razor. Try to suction the venom by mouth. Give the person stimulants or pain meds. Give the person anything by mouth. Raise the site of the bite over the level of the heart Indiana FCRV DAT Program 2007


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