4 Educational Transition High Schools - BC BC’s Six Year Completion Rate – 2007/08 Boys – 76% Girls – 82% First Nations – 47% Prepared by: Analysis and Reporting Group, Ministry of Education
5 Reasons – 2012 Data Dropping out could be a coping mechanism for the stress of change.
6 Simple Summary Being better prepared leads to better success. More change leads to less success (more stress?). But change is not the same as loss and two clients may experience the same change but experience two totally different losses and therefore two different stress levels.
8 Question 5x5: Group Discussion: What changes do students face in high school? Are Aboriginal students different in anyway? What about college or university students? What ends with these changes and how are these seen as losses?
9 Transitions Model It isn’t the changes that do you in, it’s the transitions. Change is not the same as transition. Change is situational: the new employment status, the new job, the new boss. Transition is the psychological process people go through to come to terms with the new situation. Change is external; transition is internal. Unless transition occurs, change will not work. Change focuses on outcomes, transition focuses on the endings you will have to make to leave the old situation behind. William Bridges - Managing Transitions
10 Transitions Model Transition is the psychological process people go through to come to terms with the new situation. Change is external; transition is internal. Unless transition occurs, change will not work. Change focuses on outcomes, transition focuses on the endings you will have to make to leave the old situation behind. 5x5: What are some examples from your experience with students when change has not worked? I.e. not coming to terms with the new situation. I.e. not leaving the old situation behind.
11 Transition Model Tom Hanks – Sleepless in Seattle Pre-change Stability Endings Neutral Zone Beginnings Depression; Suicide Sense of Failure Return to status quo Improved Self- awareness Coping Effectiveness
12 Transition Model Metaphor Pre-change Stability Endings Neutral Zone Beginnings Depression; Suicide Sense of Failure Return to status quo Improved Self- awareness Slaves inRedIn desertEntered promised land - EgyptSeafor 40 YearsNo longer slaves Who am I Post-change? Flee the Neutral Zone
13 Endings Phase Stages of Grieving High School = A; College = C Stage 1:Denial: Everything is great. Stage 2:Anger and blame: Stupid professor; stupid test; stupid school Stage 3:Bargaining: If I study real hard... Stage 4:Depression: What's the use? or I can't. Loss of energy. Stage 5:Readiness: OK, things haven’t worked out … what now?
14 Endings Phase over time Immediate Five Years One Year 5x5: Is your own wisdom based on loss?
15 Metaphor Pre-change Stability After grieving the loss, they will go into the Neutral Zone – what would be a metaphor or a symbolic picture for this period? What does this feel like? How would you describe it? E.g. I feel lost … or Everything’s out of control.
16 Workshop Exercise Small group exercise: Discuss the common endings and neutral zones your students experience. Draw a detailed picture of some sort of vehicle that symbolizes how they feel. Post in 15 minutes and select a spokesperson to explain it.
17 Reframe Metaphor Small group exercise: Get your picture back. Examine your symbolic vehicle and reframe/edit it to something more positive. Post in 10 minutes and be prepared to share your ideas.
18 Transition Model Pre-change Stability Neutral Zone What can be done to change your clients’ metaphor – from what to what? This discussion fits their experience, helps normalize their angst and leads to a discussion of reasonable actions that can form a plan.
19 Transition Model Pre-change Stability Endings Neutral Zone Beginnings Depression; Suicide Sense of Failure Return to status quo Improved Self- awareness Now they are ready to start thinking about new things: Beginnings. Shift from negative self-talk (focus on the past which can’t be changed) to positive self-talk (focus on the future and what can be changed).
20 Transition Model Summary: At this point we can see that the transition model predicts that students will be under the stress of the neutral zone and trying to understand who they are. Your normalization of the Neutral Zone will help them move forward. Another factor to discuss with them is their social support – which may have been one of their losses.
21 TypeFocus Research Chi-Square Results comparing enrolled vs. not enrolled after one year – all were in expected direction: Accepts Responsibility0.15 Academic Competitiveness0.09 Self-esteem0.66 General Health0.13 Time Management Skills0.49 Reaching Out 0.86 Social Support0.02 External Commitments0.01 Campus Life Events0.68 Goal Persistence0.30
23 Retention Research - Universities P < 0.06 The students completed their questionnaire in Fall ’07 above = Fall ‘08 P < 0.01
24 Failure to Thrive Model Poor Skills Good Skills Low Grades/EQ High Grades/EQ Supported in Transition? Psycho-Social General Health External Demands Yes No Struggle with transition: May need basic training May need to drop courses Attend summer school? Change major? Transfer? – college/trade May be a “stop-out” Struggle with transition: Lost souls dramatic failure – low GPA in first term 55% of Fall ’08 drop- outs had GPA < 1.3 at end of Fall ‘07 Succeed with transition: Most will persist A few may have “learned what they need to learn” and drop-out but they are functioning at a higher level. Struggle with transition: Lower than expected GPA Fragile – at risk for negative events Unexpected ( based on their high aptitude) failure to thrive
25 Best Practices What can be done to support students who are in transition? Early warning systems marks are a good indicator Early warning systems marks are a good indicator Proactive advising, counseling, and mentoring accurate choice of majors helps student success and retention Proactive advising, counseling, and mentoring accurate choice of majors helps student success and retention
26 Thank you – I hope this session has been worth your time. Dave Wood PS –the PPT is posted on the CES Website.