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© Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr 20141 Knowledge & Structure Part Whole Almost anything that we turn our minds to – concrete or abstract – is composed of parts.

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Presentation on theme: "© Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr 20141 Knowledge & Structure Part Whole Almost anything that we turn our minds to – concrete or abstract – is composed of parts."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole Almost anything that we turn our minds to – concrete or abstract – is composed of parts that combine to make a whole

2 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole Such a whole is usually described as a system, and such a system can be either structured or unstructured

3 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole An unstructured system, an aggregate, is a composite formed of parts which are independent of the whole into which they enter Independence

4 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Individual Group The individuals in a crowd is a concrete example of an unstructured aggregate Independence

5 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Individual Group An unstructured aggregate displays reversibility, we can move backwards and forwards from part to whole to part again Reversibility

6 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Specific General In more abstract terms we can move from the specific to the general and back to the specific again … Inference

7 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Premise Conclusion … or from a premise to a conclusion and back again; induction in science and deduction in logic are examples of such reversible inference Inference

8 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole On the other hand a system that is structured contains dependencies or indeed interdependencies Dependency

9 Irreversibility © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole It is unidirectional, it is irreversible

10 Integration © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole Rather than an inference we now have an integration

11 Integration © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole It cannot be “dis-integrated,” it cannot be undone …

12 Integration © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole … it cannot be unlearnt, it cannot be unknown once again

13 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Individual Committee A concrete example is a group of individuals on a committee whose relationships with each other, by virtue of their roles, are transformed Integration

14 Transformation © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole Transformation is a key attribute of a structure

15 Transformation © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole A transformation is simply the law, rule, or operation, that the elements, the parts, are subjected to

16 Transformation © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole The two other key attributes are wholeness which is defined by the extent of the transformation …

17 Transformation © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole … and self-regulation which is a consequence of the transformation

18 Transformation © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole The discovery of such structure gives rise to formalization, but the structure itself exists apart from the formalization

19 Integration © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole Now, not only is the integration irreversible, it is also irreducible!

20 Integration © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole An integration is irreducible because we can not tease apart the constituent parts, the interdependencies, the interrelations …

21 Emergence © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole … but more than anything the whole becomes more than the sum of the parts; there is, in a word, emergence

22 Emergence © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole “the laws governing a structure’s composition are not reducible to cumulative one-by-one association of its elements: they confer on the whole as such over- all properties distinct from the properties of the elements”

23 Emergence © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole The essential properties are those properties of the whole which none of the parts have

24 Emergence © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole “… the operations of the higher level cannot be accounted for by the laws governing its particulars forming the lower level.”

25 Emergence © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole Moreover, “the properties of the parts are not intrinsic properties but can only be understood within the context of the larger whole”

26 Emergence © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole We have a kind of double bind; on the one hand we have properties of the whole that are emergent from the parts …

27 Emergence © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole On the other hand we can’t even know the properties of the parts because of their interrelationships with one another

28 Analysis © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole A “trap” for our mind-set is one-way analysis, or deconstruction, or reduction, of the whole into the constituent parts …

29 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole … the “atomistic tendency to reduce whole to their prior elements” … Analysis

30 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole But in actuality we have no other place to start, but it is the error in the belief that the parts are reducible that we must watch for Analysis

31 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Certainly by constant iteration between analysis and synthesis … Part Whole Synthesis Analysis

32 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure … or deduction and induction, our understanding can be refined Part Whole Induction Deduction

33 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure But there is also another way, rather than moving inwards and downwards, we can move outwards and upwards seeking new and greater wholes Part Whole Induction Deduction

34 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Let’s rename our entities as clues Old Clues Original Integrated Whole Induction Deduction

35 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure And let’s realise that creative people through imagination, or intuition, or reflective abstraction, or heuristic passion, or just plain accidental interaction... Old Clues Original Integrated Whole Induction Deduction Imagination Intuition

36 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure … can and do recognise that there are other things, concrete or abstract that may have a bearing upon the meaning that we seek Old Clues Original Integrated Whole Induction Deduction Imagination Intuition

37 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure We seek out new clues, and simultaneously, a new and different whole Old Clues Original Integrated Whole New & Different Whole Induction Deduction Imagination Intuition New Clues

38 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure And once again we will refine our understanding of the new parts and the new whole as best we can, but in a slightly different way Old Clues Original Integrated Whole New & Different Whole Induction Deduction Imagination Intuition New Clues Induction Deduction

39 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure We can now “hop” between our old thing and our new thing – abduction as the process is called Old Clues Original Integrated Whole New & Different Whole Induction Deduction Abduction New Clues Induction Deduction

40 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure And that of course helps us to further refine our understanding of the old thing as well Old Clues Original Integrated Whole New & Different Whole Induction Deduction Abduction New Clues Induction Deduction

41 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure We produce both better old integrations as well as better new integrations as a consequence Old Clues Original Integrated Whole New & Different Whole Abduction New Clues Integration

42 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure And simultaneously those wholes also become a part of something else … Old Clues Original Integrated Whole New & Different Whole Abduction New Clues Integration

43 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure … as we in-turn integrate to a new and larger whole Old Clues Original Integrated Whole New & Different Whole New & Larger Whole Abduction New Clues Integration

44 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Old Clues Original Integrated Whole New & Different Whole New & Larger Whole Abduction New Clues Integration Scientific inquiry is the thrust of our mind towards a more and more meaningful integration of clues

45 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Old Clues Original Integrated Whole New & Different Whole New & Larger Whole Abduction New Clues Integration “we should think of it as a spiral the radius of whose turns increases as the spiral rises”

46 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Old Clues Original Integrated Whole New & Different Whole New & Larger Whole Abduction New Clues Integration The inherent simplicity is not in the reduction of the parts but in the integration of the whole

47 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Website: E mail: youngman“at”dbrmfg.co.nz notes follow … End

48 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Notes

49 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Specific General Dialectic and didactic are nested progressions Didactic Dialectic

50 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole Or we could use synthesis and analysis Synthesis Analysis

51 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole Or the older Greek argument of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis Synthesis Thesis – Antithesis

52 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole Or for that matter; ethos, pathos, and logos Really an abduction by another name Ethos Pathos – Logos

53 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole Or induction and deduction Induction Deduction

54 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole And now we can add abduction proper in its appropriate place Abduction Induction Deduction

55 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole Maybe this is also the appropriate place for Boyd’s isolation and interaction InteractionIsolation

56 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole ImaginationIntegration Polanyi’s active imagination and the spontaneous integration also belong here

57 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole Hypothetico- Deductive Popper used hypothetico-deductive

58 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole Conjecture & Refutation Popper also uses conjecture and refutation

59 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole Integration Differentiation Boyd used integration and differentiation …

60 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole Creation Destruction … and the creation and destruction of domains …

61 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole Restructuring Unstructuring … or restructuring and unstructuring

62 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Part Whole Progressive Regressive Sartre used progressive and regressive

63 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Particulars Comprehensive Meaning Distil Proximal Polanyi argues that the particulars are proximal and their comprehensive meaning is distal in both Personal Knowledge & Tacit Dimension …

64 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Particulars Whole Focal Subsidiary … but changes to subsidiary awareness and focal awareness in Meaning …

65 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Particulars Whole Conceptual Bodily … based upon bodily activity and conceptual activity …

66 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Particulars Whole Explicit Tacit … giving rise to tacit knowing and explicit knowing

67 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Particulars Whole Explicit Tacit “any and all forms of explicit knowing must be derived from a tacit base”

68 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure Now we can see why inductive fallacy operates, the new whole will have properties that are unknown and unknowable from the parts Part Whole Part Whole Larger Whole Induction

69 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure In fact induction must be fallible Part Whole Part Whole Larger Whole Induction

70 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure If our conjecture is refuted, if it doesn’t do what we thought that it would do, haven’t we learnt something? Part Whole Part Whole Larger Whole Induction

71 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure And if it does do something that we never even thought of, an unanticipated discovery, isn’t that learning too? Part Whole Part Whole Larger Whole Induction

72 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Knowledge & Structure We learn from our unintended consequences – or at least we ought to Part Whole Part Whole Larger Whole Induction

73 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Sep Back of the Book Standard Diagrams

74 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Systems & Structure Larger Whole Operations Of The Higher Level ≠ Laws Governing The Lower Level My construction diagram – don’t remove 1/11/2 1/1 1/21/1 1/2 Common Good Part Whole

75 © Dr Kelvyn Youngman, Apr Systems & Structure Another Base Diagram Money Capital Market Customers Whole Management Capability Man & Machine Capacity Whole Larger Whole Common Good


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