3Conflict is when two or more values, perspectives and opinions are contradictory in nature and haven't been aligned or agreed about yet
4Conflicts includes:1. Within yourself when you're not living according to your values; 2. When your values and perspectives are threatened; or 3. Discomfort from fear of the unknown or from lack of fulfillment
5Conflict, whether between individuals, groups, or nations, is a complex process with consequences that endure beyond the initiating events
7Conflict is inevitable and often healthy and constructive in reasonable doses (Functional)
8Good teams always go through a "form, storm, norm and perform" period Getting the most out of diversity means often contradictory values, perspectives and opinions
9Conflict is a great generator of energy and can be particularly effective in bringing out new information, sharpening, analysis, and stimulating innovation and creativity
10Conflict advantages… it: 1. Helps to raise and address problems. 2. Energizes work to be on the most appropriate issues. 3. Helps people "be real", for example, it motivates them to participate. 4. Helps people learn how to recognize and benefit from their differences
11Conflict can also be a problem (Dysfunctional) BUTConflict can also be a problem (Dysfunctional)
12A number of surveys indicate that people in all occupations report the most uncomfortable, stress-producing parts of their jobs are the interpersonal conflicts that they experience on a daily basis between themselves and co-workers or supervisors
13Conflict is a problem when it: 1. Hampers productivity. 2. Lowers morale. 3. Causes more and continued conflicts. 4. Causes inappropriate behaviors.
14"does not exist in the absence of emotion" The nature of conflictEven when the conflict is initially rationally , a “difference in cognitive belief," it is difficult to prevent emotional issues from coloring and eventually dominating the controversy"does not exist in the absence of emotion"
15COMMON SOURCES OF CONFLICT 1- Incompatible goals or commitments2- Disagreement over achieving goals3- Emotional focusing4- Competition for scarce resources
16Types of Managerial Actions that Cause Workplace Conflicts 1. Poor communications a. Employees experience continuing surprises, they aren't informed of new decisions, programs, etc. b. Employees don't understand reasons for decisions, they aren't involved in decision-making. c. As a result, employees trust the "rumor mill" more than management.
172. The alignment or the amount of resources is insufficient. There is: a. Disagreement about "who does what". b. Stress from working with inadequate resources.
183. "Personal chemistry", including conflicting values or actions among managers and employees, for example:a. Strong personal natures don't match. b. We often don't like in others what we don't like in ourselves.
194. Leadership problems, including inconsistent, missing, too-strong or uninformed leadership (at any level in the organization), evidenced by:a. Avoiding conflict, "passing the buck" with little follow-through on decisions. b. Employees see the same continued issues in the workplace. c. Supervisors don't understand the jobs of their subordinates.
20Sources of the issues proliferate as the conflict intensifies 1-the atmosphere of conflict allows suppressed disagreements to surface2-"a move on the part of the antagonists ... to solidify opinion and bring in new participants by providing new bases of response."
213) Allows previously suppressed issues against opponents to appear 2) Disrupts equilibrium previously of community relations1) Initial Single Issue4) More and more of opponent's beliefs enter into disagreement5) Opponent appear totally bad6) Charges against opponent as a person7) Dispute becomes independentof initial disagreement
22Methods of managing and solving conflicts are vital to the dental team Managing ConflictsMethods of managing and solving conflicts are vital to the dental team
23Major ways that people use to deal with conflict: 1- Avoidance and denial2- Smoothing3- Compromise4- Forcing5- Confrontation
241- Avoidance and denial Pretend it is not there or ignore it Use it when it simply is not worth the effort to argue
25For example, they tend to "mind their own business" and look the other way when other employees are discussing office politics or ways to equalize the work load
26The pitfalls in denying or avoiding conflict are many 1- Usually this approach tends to worsen the conflict over timeIf conflicts are denied when they occur, they simply go underground to reemerge
272- Conflict is a powerful energizing and motivating force, and avoidance and denial seek to bottle up this force This can be tension producing in creating that sense of diffuse, accumulated resentment that leads to future conflicts
283- Individuals can feel manipulated and resentful if their strongly held cognitive beliefs or emotional commitments are denied expression
30Yielding or Giving in to others, sometimes to the extent that you 2- SmoothingSeek to deal with conflict by attending primarily to the emotional overtonesYielding or Giving in to others, sometimes to the extent that you
31BUTUsually this approach tends to worsen the conflict over time, and causes conflicts within yourself BC The basic issues that initiated the conflict have not been dealt with directly
32Can be both a time-saving and a face-saving device: time saving in the sense that, if a middle ground found, the group can get on to something else, and face saving in the sense 'that the designation of clear winners and losers is avoided
33Use this approach very sparingly and infrequently, for example, in situations when you know that you will have another more useful approach in the very near future
343- Compromise (Accommodation) Seeks to satisfy your own and other persons needsIs an appropriate strategy when both the relationship and the issue are of moderate importance to youMay produce outcomes which neither party is happy or committed to
354- Forcing (Dominance)Is to force a resolution of issue by appeal to authority“I don’t have time to argue with you, do it this way bc I said so”
36Forcing is a particularly tempting method because it: 1 -Avoids emotional entanglements2- Is clean and direct3- Has at least the appearance of being rational
37Forcing Pitfalls1- Forcing avoids any resolution in terms of the initiating issue itself2- The long-term effect of the habitual use of force is to arouse competing farces. This tends to emphasize the win-lose nature of conflict and often to destroy the group
385- Confrontation )integration) Is to handle the initiating issues directly, to confront themAny approach to conflict must deal with the emotional involvements and with the substantive points of disagreement if a long-term resolution is to be achieved
39To confront the points of disagreement directly: 1- To accept the inevitability of conflict and to define the terms of the present disagreement2- To place the conflict in the context of the larger concerns and needs of the group )e.g. the overriding goals)
403- The use of a third party, however the function is not that of an arbitrator who selects a winner from among the competing viewpoints but rather that of a guide and counselor who helps the competing parties to "keep on track" while they develop their own resolution