Presentation on theme: "Unit 3 The use of SOME ANY NO … Complementary information to the Grammar File 21 on page 211."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 3 The use of SOME ANY NO … Complementary information to the Grammar File 21 on page 211
Positive Clauses In positive clauses, we usually use some. Example: I have bought some bread. I have some friends. Negative Clauses In negative clauses, we use any. Note, however, that any alone is not a negative - it must be not... any Example: I haven’t bought any bread. I haven’t bought any apples. Questions In questions, we usually use any. Example: Have you bought any bread? Have you bought any apples?
Compound Words with some & any: some & any can also be part of compound words such as: something / anything someone / anyone somewhere / anywhere Note that some & any have to be used with a noun while compound words with some & any can stand on their own. Example: I have bought some bread. I have bought something. Sometimes, the noun appears somewhere before some or any and is not repeated. So if you are not sure whether to use some or something for example, check if there is a noun in the sentence that you can place after some. Example: I do not have to buy any bread. Rachel has already bought some. [=bread].
Exceptions Positive Clauses with Any !! We usually use some in positive clauses. But after never, without, hardly, we use any. Example: We never go anywhere. She did her homework without any help. There’s hardly anyone here. Also in if clauses, we usually use any.if clauses Example: If there is anything I can do, just call me.
Questions with Some !! We usually use any in questions. But if we expect or want the other to answer ‚yes‘, we use some. Example: Could I have some water, please? → (=request) you want something and expect the other to say ‚yes‘ Would you like some biscuits? → (=offer) we offer something and want to encourage the other to say ‚yes‘ Exceptions
The use of NO We use NO in affirmative sentences (but they have a negative meaning). Example: There is no milk in the fridge! (the sentence has a negative meaning!) = there isn’t any milk in the fridge. Examples: This show is very boring! There's nothing interesting! = there isn’t anything interesting. I have no friends! I haven’t got any friends!