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INFLUENCING LEAD CLINICIANS Dr David I Gozzard Associate Medical Director Mersey Internal Audit Agency.

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Presentation on theme: "INFLUENCING LEAD CLINICIANS Dr David I Gozzard Associate Medical Director Mersey Internal Audit Agency."— Presentation transcript:

1 INFLUENCING LEAD CLINICIANS Dr David I Gozzard Associate Medical Director Mersey Internal Audit Agency

2 Outline 1.Introduction 2.Importance of building the case for improvement 3.A strategy for clinical engagement 4.Building clinical improvement teams

3 Introduction

4 “Quality has been used as a weapon in the fight against limits to healthcare funding. In one corner of the ring stands the clinician, outraged that a paper pushing manager concerned with throughputs and efficiency does not understand or care that quality of care is adversely affected by cost cutting. In the other corner stands the manager, convinced that quality is the last refuge of the medical scoundrel – a convenient, vague and all embracing term used to block any attempts to question or change clinical behaviour” Buchan 1998 In Davies H. et al. Healthcare professionals’ views on clinician engagement in quality improvement. A literature review. The Health Foundation, 2007 The Problem?

5 The Paradigm Clinicians’ primary professional focus is their own practice. At best, clinicians have little time to spare for quality agendas of their organisations. At worst, relationships are strained because the clinicians’ quality agendas conflict with those of their organisations. Very little happens without a clinician order

6 Importance of Building the Case for Improvement

7

8 STANDARDS COMPLIANCE (or PERFORMANCE) IMPROVEMENT

9 WHAT IS CLINICAL AUDIT? “Clinical audit is a quality improvement cycle that involves measurement of the effectiveness of healthcare against agreed and proven standards for high quality, and taking action to bring practice in line with these standards so as to improve the quality of care and health outcomes.” New Principles of Best Practice in Clinical Audit, Jan 2011 Clinical Audit is a continuous cycle of: 1.Deciding on topics 2.Measuring delivered care against standards 3.Acting on the findings 4.Sustaining improvements – re-audit

10 HEALTH CARE SYSTEMS Every system is perfectly designed to achieve exactly the results it gets

11 The “Process” of Healthcare The Patient 133 People to take care of the patient

12 Avedis Donabedian (1919 – 2000) Outcome Process Structure

13 AUDIT AND IMPROVEMENT PrototypePilot Adapt and Spread Improvement project Audit Audit as Initiator and Scrutiny

14 A Strategy for Clinical Engagement

15 Engaging Doctors in Quality and Safety 1. Discover Common Purpose: 2. Reframe Values and Beliefs: 3. Segment the Engagement Plan : 4. Use “Engaging” Improvement Methods 5. Show Courage : 6. Adopt an Engaging Style : Improve Patient Outcomes Reduce hassles and wasted time Understand the organisations culture Understand the opportunities and barriers Make Physicians partners not customers Promote both system and individual responsibility for quality Use the 80/20 rule Identify and activate champions Educate and inform leaders Develop project management skills Identify and work with “laggards” Standardise what is standardisable and no more Generate light, not heat, with data Make the right thing easy to try and easy to do Provide backup all the way to the board Involve doctors from the beginning Make physician involvement visible Work with the real leaders Work with early adopters Build trust within each quality initiative Communicate candidly and often Value physicians time with your time © 2007 Institute for Healthcare Improvement

16 The Doctors’ Quality Agenda Physician-led, evidence-based, data-driven Better outcomes When all was said and done, how did my patient do? Professional reputation Personal sense of excellence Less wasted time Hassles Bottlenecks and delays Rework My day was going well until…

17 Personal “Muda” Documenting care Waiting for delays and backups in patient flow Locating patient records and referral letters Serving on committees Certifying the medical necessity for equipment and ambulances Managing patients’ pharmaceutical needs with repeat prescriptions Interacting with social services

18 Engaging Doctors in Quality and Safety 1. Discover Common Purpose: 2. Reframe Values and Beliefs: 3. Segment the Engagement Plan : 4. Use “Engaging” Improvement Methods 5. Show Courage : 6. Adopt an Engaging Style : Improve Patient Outcomes Reduce hassles and wasted time Understand the organisations culture Understand the opportunities and barriers Make Physicians partners not customers Promote both system and individual responsibility for quality Use the 80/20 rule Identify and activate champions Educate and inform leaders Develop project management skills Identify and work with “laggards” Standardise what is standardisable and no more Generate light, not heat, with data Make the right thing easy to try and easy to do Provide backup all the way to the board Involve doctors from the beginning Make physician involvement visible Work with the real leaders Work with early adopters Build trust within each quality initiative Communicate candidly and often Value physicians time with your time © 2007 Institute for Healthcare Improvement

19 Common Agenda: Keys to Success Frame the quality challenge in terms that are important to doctors “Reduce Needless Deaths, Readmissions, Nosocomial Infections, Hassles…” Not “Reduce LOS” or “Improve Productivity” Measure and display the results on important things— show them that together, you’re actually making these things better

20 Reframing Managers’ Values, Habits, Beliefs… Doctors are important customers Doctors make care decisions, we run the finances and facilities The patient is the only customer Doctors are our partners in running the system FROM TO

21 Reframing Doctors’ Values, Habits, Beliefs… I must have complete autonomy for everything I am personally responsible for the patients I take care of directly I need autonomy for the art of medicine, but I share it with other physicians for the science of medicine I am responsible for the care given broadly throughout the system that I am part of, including my own patients FROM TO

22 Engaging Doctors in Quality and Safety 1. Discover Common Purpose: 2. Reframe Values and Beliefs: 3. Segment the Engagement Plan: 4. Use “Engaging” Improvement Methods 5. Show Courage : 6. Adopt an Engaging Style : Improve Patient Outcomes Reduce hassles and wasted time Understand the organisations culture Understand the opportunities and barriers Make Physicians partners not customers Promote both system and individual responsibility for quality Use the 80/20 rule Identify and activate champions Educate and inform leaders Develop project management skills Identify and work with “laggards” Standardise what is standardisable and no more Generate light, not heat, with data Make the right thing easy to try and easy to do Provide backup all the way to the board Involve doctors from the beginning Make physician involvement visible Work with the real leaders Work with early adopters Build trust within each quality initiative Communicate candidly and often Value physicians time with your time © 2007 Institute for Healthcare Improvement

23 “There is no such thing as improvement in general” Joseph Juran

24 “There is no such thing as clinical engagement in general” Harvard Faculty

25 Questions Which doctors must be engaged in this initiative, if it is to succeed? (And which doctors are not relevant at all?) Who is on our short list of potential champions for this initiative? How will we select one or two champions? What is our plan to support them? What will be the role of the formal leaders: Clinical Executive Management, Department Heads, and Clinical Directors in this initiative? Does a doctor need to be the “project leader” for this initiative? If so, how will we train and support that doctor so that the project will be effectively led? Which doctors are likely to vocally oppose and potentially derail this initiative? How could we mitigate that risk?

26 Table Exercise Consider a quality initiative that you are either engaged in or are planning to start. Some doctors are likely to vocally oppose and potentially derail this initiative. How could we mitigate that risk? List 3 approaches 10 minutes

27 Leadership Engagement Participation Develop ability Cultivate Willingness Segmenting and developing Clinicians to achieve improvement Speciality & Improvement areas Control Benefit Relief Support Focus Skill Professionally and clinically competent Clinicians ClinicalProfessional

28 Engaging Doctors in Quality and Safety 1. Discover Common Purpose: 2. Reframe Values and Beliefs: 3. Segment the Engagement Plan : 4. Use “Engaging” Improvement Methods 5. Show Courage : 6. Adopt an Engaging Style : Improve Patient Outcomes Reduce hassles and wasted time Understand the organisations culture Understand the opportunities and barriers Make Physicians partners not customers Promote both system and individual responsibility for quality Use the 80/20 rule Identify and activate champions Educate and inform leaders Develop project management skills Identify and work with “laggards” Standardise what is standardisable and no more Generate light, not heat, with data Make the right thing easy to try and easy to do Provide backup all the way to the board Involve doctors from the beginning Make physician involvement visible Work with the real leaders Work with early adopters Build trust within each quality initiative Communicate candidly and often Value physicians time with your time © 2007 Institute for Healthcare Improvement

29 Standardization: Improving Your Performance “Standard of Care” Dr. ADr. EDr. DDr. CDr. B Protocol Procedure Protocol Procedure Protocol Procedure Protocol Procedure Protocol Procedure Protocol Procedure Protocol Procedure Protocol Procedure Protocol Procedure Protocol Procedure Reliability = 60-90% or less Ability to identify defects, learn, improve --LOW Dr. ADr. EDr. DDr. CDr. B Reliability = 99% or more Ability to identify defects, learn, improve --HIGH Protocol Procedure Protocol Procedure “Standard of Care”

30 Typical Approach to Standardizing Clinical Processes Source: Reinertsen JL, Bisognano M, Pugh MD. Seven Leadership Leverage Points for Organization-Level Improvement in Health Care (Second Edition). IHI Innovation Series white paper. Cambridge, MA: Institute for Healthcare Improvement; 2008. (Available on www.IHI.org) Design Approve Conference Rooms Real World Implement

31 A Better Way to Standardize Clinical Processes Design Test and Modify Test and Modify Implement Approve (if necessary) Test and Modify Conference Rooms Real World Source: Reinertsen JL, Bisognano M, Pugh MD. Seven Leadership Leverage Points for Organization-Level Improvement in Health Care(Second Edition). IHI Innovation Series white paper. Cambridge, MA: Institute for Healthcare Improvement; 2008. (Available on www.IHI.org) Refine the Design for the Local Setting Using Small Tests of Change

32 Questions Are you trying to standardize too much? Do your data reports to doctors make things worse? Do you have endless meetings trying to decide on the “right answer,” as if this is the one and only opportunity you’ll ever have to get it right? Have you ever faced a doctor rebellion after implementing the “right answer?”

33 Engaging Doctors in Quality and Safety 1. Discover Common Purpose: 2. Reframe Values and Beliefs: 3. Segment the Engagement Plan : 4. Use “Engaging” Improvement Methods 5. Show Courage : 6. Adopt an Engaging Style : Improve Patient Outcomes Reduce hassles and wasted time Understand the organisations culture Understand the opportunities and barriers Make Physicians partners not customers Promote both system and individual responsibility for quality Use the 80/20 rule Identify and activate champions Educate and inform leaders Develop project management skills Identify and work with “laggards” Standardise what is standardisable and no more Generate light, not heat, with data Make the right thing easy to try and easy to do Provide backup all the way to the board Involve doctors from the beginning Make physician involvement visible Work with the real leaders Work with early adopters Build trust within each quality initiative Communicate candidly and often Value physicians time with your time © 2007 Institute for Healthcare Improvement

34 What do you do? A complaint comes to you from a nurse that a surgical consultant behaves badly in theatre, shouting at staff and occasionally throwing surgical instruments. The staff have been scared to raise this issue but the nurse now says that several nurses will resign unless “something is done”. The doctor involved is head of a regional surgical service.

35 Engaging Doctors in Quality and Safety 1. Discover Common Purpose: 2. Reframe Values and Beliefs: 3. Segment the Engagement Plan : 4. Use “Engaging” Improvement Methods 5. Show Courage : 6. Adopt an Engaging Style: Improve Patient Outcomes Reduce hassles and wasted time Understand the organisations culture Understand the opportunities and barriers Make Physicians partners not customers Promote both system and individual responsibility for quality Use the 80/20 rule Identify and activate champions Educate and inform leaders Develop project management skills Identify and work with “laggards” Standardise what is standardisable and no more Generate light, not heat, with data Make the right thing easy to try and easy to do Provide backup all the way to the board Involve doctors from the beginning Make physician involvement visible Work with the real leaders Work with early adopters Build trust within each quality initiative Communicate candidly and often Value physicians time with your time © 2007 Institute for Healthcare Improvement

36 Adopt an Engaging Style Involve doctors from the beginning (but don’t make them do everything) Work with the real leaders (they may not be most senior) Work with early adopters (they will help you and the improvement) Make doctors involvement visible (credible and not shameful) Build trust within each quality initiative (make it part of the way things are done around here) Communicate candidly, often (if your lips aren't bleeding you haven't communicated enough) Value doctors time with your time (don’t waste either!)

37 Doctors… See the world one patient at a time Have strong, specific, largely unspoken bonds based on shared experiences Overestimate the risk of change Behave collegially about knowledge, autonomously about individual patients Are influenced by credible data Value “due process”

38 How would you use the diffusion of innovation theory to influence? No need! Mention it! Show a working example! Prove it! Change the rules!

39 Principles for Working with Doctors Involve them at the beginning Identify and work with the real leaders early adopters Display doctor involvement to all Display credible results to all Don’t “package” the data Show that you value their process and their time

40 Building Clinical Improvement Teams

41 Do we have the skills? Clinical Audit Root cause analysis Quality improvement 5 whys Fishbone diagrams Process mapping Clinical consensus Leadership Enthusiasm Motivation Evidence base for assuring commissioners and/or patients Money Resource Identifying issues Prioritisation Setting standards Data collection Analysis Action plans

42 QI Expertise Buy or Build?

43 Two Aspects of QI 1.Knowledge 2.Application (based upon experience)

44 References 1.Davies H. et al. Healthcare professionals’ views on clinician engagement in quality improvement. A literature review. The Health Foundation, 2007 2.Clinical Audit: A Simple Guide. http://www.hqip.org.uk/assets/Guidance/HQIP-Clinical-Audit-Simple- Guide-online1.pdf http://www.hqip.org.uk/assets/Guidance/HQIP-Clinical-Audit-Simple- Guide-online1.pdf 3.Reinertsen JL, Bisognano M, Pugh MD. Seven Leadership Leverage Points for Organization-Level Improvement in Health Care (Second Edition). IHI Innovation Series white paper. Cambridge, MA: Institute for Healthcare Improvement; 2008. (Available on www.IHI.org)

45 References 4. Reinertsen JL, Gosfield AG, Rupp W, Whittington JW. Engaging Physicians in a Shared Quality Agenda. IHI Innovation Series white paper. Cambridge, MA: Institute for Healthcare Improvement; 2007. (Available on www.IHI.org)

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