Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Mapping Texas Regions (pages 44-66)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 3 Mapping Texas Regions (pages 44-66) Essential Question:How were the regions of Texas identified?
2 ObjectivesCompare places in Texas in terms of their physical characteristics.Compare regions of Texas in terms of their physical characteristics.Identify the location of each natural subregion of Texas..Compare the regions and subregions of Texas.Analyze geographic distributions and patterns in Texas.Compare places/regions in Texas in terms of their physical and human characteristics.Explain ways in which geographic factors have affected the political, economic, and social development of Texas.
5 Two Kinds of Geography Geography = land and people Things that relate to the land (climate, vegetation, rivers, lakes, plains, etc)=Physical GeographyThings that people do (how people earn a living, customs, settlements, political systems, etc) =Human Geography
6 Vocabulary Plains: a wide area of flat or gently rolling land Physical Geography: physical features of the earth’s surfaceHuman Geography: features of the earth that are created or changed by humansSettlement: a place where people live
7 Weather and Climate Weather—condition at a certain time/place Climate—expected weather conditionsTexas has a huge range of climates across the stateHow does weather affect human geography?See map on page 47
8 Landform RegionsLandforms can include mountains, valleys, rivers, seacoasts, lakes, plateaus, and plainsRead about The Enchanted Rock(p. 49)Most of Texas is made up of Plains(pages 48-49)2 plains regions of Texas also extend into other statesGulf Coastal PlainGreat PlainsThe Enchanted Rock
9 Texas Rivers Important to Texas Much of Texas border made up of 3 riversRio Grande: between Texas & MexicoBegins in Colorado, flows 1900 miles into NM, enters Texas near El Paso2 dams built: Amistad Dam and Falcon DamWater from reservoirs created with dams irrigates cropsSabine River: between Louisiana & TexasShorter than Rio GrandeToledo Bend Reservoir createdWater is used for industry and agricultureRed River: between Texas and OklahomaBegins in eastern NM and flows to ArkansasFlows to Gulf of Mexico after flood control system put into place
10 Texas Rivers, con’t Other important rivers Canadian River Pecos River In Panhandle of TexasBegins in NM and crosses Texas to Oklahoma; joins Arkansas RiverOnly major Texas River that does not flow into Gulf of MexicoPecos RiverTributary of Rio GrandeStarts in NM and flows south to TexasProvides irrigation for farms in NM and Pecos, TXOthers (all flow into Gulf of Mexico)Neches, Trinity, San Jacinto, Brazos, Colorado, Guadalupe, San Antonio, & NeucesMany important Texas cities are located along these rivers
14 Regions of TexasRegions are determined by physical geography (landforms)Very diverseTexas has 4 large natural regionsCoastal PlainsNorth Central PlainsGreat PlainsMountains and Basins
15 Vocabulary Subregion: a smaller division of a geographic region Escarpment: a cliff or abrupt break in the land’s surfaceGrowing Season: average # of days crops grow based on weatherSteppe: a vast, treeless plainAquifer: underground layer of porous rock, gravel, or sand that contains water…water can reach surface of land through springs or wells(see page 540…This Land of Ours…info about the Ogallala Aquifer)
17 Balcones EscarpmentThe Balcones Fault Zone extends from Dallas to the north and Del Rio to the southwest. The West Austin Hill Country is part of a larger geographical area called the Edwards Plateau.
21 Coastal Plains Region About 1/3 of Texas Extends east & south from Balcones Escarpment to Gulf of MexicoMost of Texas’ largest cities hereSubregions:Piney Woodsarea of pine forestsExtends from Texas-Louisiana border west for about 125 milesExtends from Oklahoma state line south to where coastal prairies begin…about 25 miles from coastRainiest part of TexasElevation: feet above sea levelCaddo Lake is in Piney WoodsOnly natural lake in TexasGiant cypress trees, floating lotus, and lots of fish
22 Coastal Plains Region, con’t Subregions, con’tPost Oak BeltWest of Piney WoodsLong, narrow zoneHas oak, hickory, and other hardwood trees (not pine)Elevation: feet above sea levelBlackland PrairieLong, narrow area—15-70 miles wide, 300 miles wideRuns from Balcones Escarpment near OK border through San Antonio to Texas/Mexico borderElevation: feet above sea levelSoil not good for growing trees…most vegetation is prairie grass with a few hardwood trees
23 Coastal Plains Region, con’t Gulf Coastal PlainForms a large arc that follows the coast of Gulf of Mexico from Sabine River to KingsvilleGoes inland about milesElevation: below 100 feet, humid climateSouth Texas PlainRuns from about San Antonio south to Rio Grande270 miles long; 250 miles wideElevation: sea level to 1000 feet above sea levelClimate warm year round
24 Coastal Plains Cities and Ways of Making a Living Brownsville, Harlingen, Corpus Christi, San Antonio, Houston, Beaumont, Waco, Austin, Tyler, Texarkana, Dallas, GalvestonWays of Making a LivingAgriculture, tourism, timber industry, oil/gas, shipping, commercial fishing, manufacturing, food and food products
25 North Central Plains Region Begins at Balcones Escarpment and goes west to Caprock EscarpmentArea of rolling plains covered by small oak trees, mesquite trees, brush, and scattered grassSubregionsGrand PrairieLong narrow belt extends from Red River south to Temple and KilleenElevation: feet above sea levelVegetation: tall grasses and a few hardwood trees by streams
26 North Central Plains Region, con’t Subregions, con’tCross TimbersArea surrounds Grand PrairieEastern Cross Timbers and Western Cross TimbersGood area for growing trees—post oak, hickory, pecan, elmElevation: feetRolling PlainsLargest subregion of North Central PlainsBegins west of the Cross Timbers and ends at Caprock EscarpmentElevation: 900 feet in east; 2000 feet in westRegion is a steppe (vast, treeless plain)Vegetation: short grasses, brushy plants, some mesquite treesMostly used as grazing lands for large ranches
27 North Central Plains Cities and Ways of Making a Living Ft. Worth, Abilene, Wichita Falls, San Angelo, ArlingtonWays of Making a LivingAgriculture, Oil/Gas, Tourism
28 Great Plains Region Made up of 3 subregions Subregions 2 are large plateaus (High Plains and Edwards Plateaus)1 is different than any other part of Texas (Llano Basin)SubregionsLlano BasinAlmost in center of TexasEgg-shaped area south of North Central Plains; west of Balcones EscarpmentMade up of granite (very hard rock formed when molten rock cools slowly under earth’s surface)Pink granite from Llano Basin was used to build Texas Capitol BuildingElevation: feet above sea levelVegetation: mesquite, live oak & post oak trees, short grasses. Pecan and oak trees grow along streams
29 Great Plains Region, con’t Subregions, con’tEdwards PlateauSouthern part of Great Plains regionNorth and west of Balcones EscarpmentElevation: feet above sea levelMostly made of limestone…some limestone has dissolved and formed caves and underwater streamsHas Edwards Aquifer which supplies water for San Antonio and other townsSee Texas Tidbits on page 56
30 Great Plains Region, con’t Subregions, con’tHigh PlainsExtends west from rolling plains to Pecos River in NMAlso known as Llano EstacadoOne of flattest places on earthVery dry climateElevation: feet above sea levelVegetation: short grasses, like a steppeMajor farming area in Texas
31 Great Plains Region Cities and Ways of Making a Living Midland, Odessa, Lubbock, AmarilloWays of Making a LivingAgriculture, Oil/Gas
32 Mountains and Basins Region No subregionsMade up of tall mountains separated by basins or closed valleysVegetation in Mountains: forests of oak, pinon, and ponderosa pine treesVegetation in Basins: (desert like area) cactus, shrubs, short grassesVery little rainElevation: varied…from feet above sea levelGuadalupe Peak: highest point in Texas
34 Mountains and Basins Cities and Ways of Making a Living El PasoWays of Making a LivingManufacturing, Oil/Gas, Agriculture
35 Where People Live in Texas Most Texans live in cities or urban areasLargest cities in Texas—Houston and DallasMost of largest cities are east of Balcones EscarpmentSeparates Central and East Texas from West TexasOut of 27 major cities in Texas, only 7 of them are west of Balcones Escarpment
36 VocabularyMetropolitan Area: a city and all the areas around it that depend on the central citySuburb: smaller community just outside a cityIndustry: making or preparing products to sellPer Capita Income: average amount of money a person makes a year in a certain areaHeritage: beliefs and customs that people get from their ancestors
37 Why Cities Grow People go where there are jobs Houston: oil industry, space programDallas: financial, telecommunications, electronics, fashion, DFW airport,Ft. Worth: cattle town, airplane/helicopter productionSan Antonio: military base, tourism: Alamo/River WalkAustin: state capital, UT (largest state university), computers (Dell)
38 Why Haven’t Other Areas Grown? Attracted less industry—except for OilWest Texas: further away from major cities…higher transportation, shipping, labor, and living costsDry climateNot much farming (not as much water)Land mostly used for ranchingWorkers don’t make as much money
39 Farming in Texas Agriculture—still major industry in Texas Texas has 2nd largest farm income in US (CA has more)Approximately 225,000 farmsRice (Houston), Citrus fruit and sorghum (Rio Grande Valley),Texas produces more cotton than any other stateHigh Plains: largest cotton growing area in US
40 Rich and Poor in Texas Per Capita Income Highest incomes in Texas? Big CitiesOil industry helps Texas per capita incomeLowest incomes in Texas? Along Rio Grande River, inner cities
41 Diverse Names of Texas Cities and Towns Names can reflect state’s heritageSpanish or Mexican influenceNames of SettlersNative AmericansHeroes of Texas RevolutionsPoliticiansImmigrants and immigrant groups of people
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