Presentation on theme: "Gilberto Câmara Director for Earth Observation"— Presentation transcript:
1The Importance of Improving Collection and Access to Environmental Data in the Americas Gilberto CâmaraDirector for Earth ObservationNational Institute for Space Research
2With thanks to... Carlos Nobre, CPTEC/INPE Antonio Nobre, INPA Eduardo Assad, EMBRAPAJoão Vianei Soares, Miguel Monteiro, INPEDaniel Hogan, UNICAMPIma Vieira, Peter Toledo, Mike Hopkins, MPEGLeandro Ferreira, Ana Albernaz, MPEGLuiz Bevilacqua, AEB/Brazilian Academy of Sciencesand the whole INPE team....
3What is Environmental Data? Environment == “catch-all” word“Enviromental Data” Earth Sciences dataAthmosphere, oceans, biosphereGeneral featureCollected on a geographical locationEither “in situ” or by remote sensingIn many cases, in “someone else’s backyard”
4LBA Flux Towers on Amazonia Source: Carlos Nobre (INPE)
7Challenges of Sustainable Development Unlike other factors of production (such as capital and labor), natural resources are inflexible in their location. The Amazonian Forest is where it is; the water resources for our cities cannot be very far away from them.The challenge posed by sustainable development is that we can no longer consider natural resources as indefinitely replaceable, and move people and capital to new areas when existing resources become scarce or exhausted: there are no new frontiers in a globalized world.(Daniel Hogan)
8Sustainability Science Core Questions How can the dynamic interactions between nature and society be better incorporated in emerging models and conceptualizations that integrate the earth system, human development and sustainability?How are long-term trends in environment and development, including consumption and population, reshaping nature-society interactions in ways relevant to sustainability?What determines vulnerability/resilience of nature-society interactions for particular places and for particular types of ecosystems and human livelihoods?Source: Sustainability Science Workshop, Friibergh, SE, 2000
9Sustainability Science Core Questions Can scientifically meaningful ‘limits’ or ‘boundaries’ be defined that would provide effective warning of conditions beyond which the nature-society systems incur a significantly increased risk of serious degradation?How can today’s relatively independent activities of research planning, monitoring, assessment and decision support be better integrated into systems for adaptative management and societal learning?”Source: Sustainability Science Workshop, Friibergh, SE, 2000
10Public Policy IssuesWhat are the acceptable limits to land cover change activities in the tropical regions in the Americas?What are the future scenarios of land use?How can food production be made more efficient and productive?How can our biodiversity be known and the benefits arising from its use be shared fairly?How can we manage our water resources to sustain our expected growth in urban population?
11The Importance of Environmental Data Our knowledge of earth system science is very incompleteSupport for earth science modellingUnderstanding of processesSupporting “conjectures and refutations”Helps address sustainability science questionsFrom scientific questions to public policy issuesData collection brings new questions and helps formulate new onesBreaking the five orders of ignorance
12The Five Orders of Ignorance 0th Order Ignorance (0OI): Lack of IgnoranceI (provably) know something1st Order Ignorance (1OI): Lack of KnowledgeI do not know something2nd Order Ignorance (2OI): Lack of AwarenessI do not know that I do not know something3rd Order Ignorance (3OI): Lack of ProcessI do not know a suitably effective way to find out that I don’t know that I don’t know something4th Order Ignorance (4OI): Meta-IgnoranceI do not know about the Five Orders of IgnoranceThe five orders of ignorance, Phillip G. Armour, CACM, 43(10), Oct 2000
13Why is Environmental Data Different? Cannot be re-created or synthesized in a laboratoryUnlike data in Physical, Chemical and Biological SciencesRequirement of access to a data collection sizeGranted by mutual consentImplicitly conceded by international conventionsRemote Sensing is ruled by COPUOSBiodiversity collection is guided by Biodiversity conventionExtremely sensitive topicMany governments and politicians think of data collection as “stealing our valuable resources”
14Amazonia (LBA - GEOMA): Scientific Questions that need Good Data What is the age of the trees in Amazonia?What is the extension of the Amazonian wetlands?What is the environmental impact of the forest fires?What is the CO2 balance of the rain forest?What are the driving factors of deforestation?What are the true extent of biodiversity in Amazonia?
15The Challenges Data Collection over large regions is tough work... ConsequencesSparse dataIn many cases, limited by reachability of field campaignsFast degradation of infra-structureCan indirect data help?How can improvements in Remote Sensing help us?There is a need for much more in situ data collectionWhat do you do with bad or incomplete data?
16LBA Sites Operational site Planned site Up to 5 years of data
17Dados com boa taxonomia e bons dados de distribuição......... Flora Neotropica etc: Mimosoideae: Inga; Lauraceae: Nectandra; Sapotaceae, Chrysobalanaceae, algumas Annonaceae, Marantaceae: Montagma, etc, 1425 spp geo-referenciadas até grau de longitude/latitude e mapeadas em Arcview.
18Data from Floras.................. Reserva Ducke: “Best kinown area in Amazonia” in 1993 (ca spp.)By 1999, it had 2175 species, including between 50 – 100 undescribed onesTambém:Saül (Guiana Francesa – Mori et al.) – 1997 & 2002.Iquitos (Vásquez et al.)Flora of Ecuador (Renner et al.) – em progresso
19Sapotaceae “densidade das espécies” Alto Rio NegroSaülBelémSantarémTabatingaRio de Janeiro
20“1425 espécies”Isso é realmente a distribuição da diversidade de espécies neotropicais???De jeito nenhum!!!!!
21What are we doing? INPE’s role Some Programmes we are participating Production of basic dataCBERS, LANDSAT, NOAA imageryLBA dataIntegration of Remote Sensing, GIS, Meteorology, Climatology, Earth Sciences in Environmental ModelsSome Programmes we are participatingMonitoring Forest FiresMonitoring and Modelling DeforestationLBA Experiment in AmazoniaLand management and zoning for Brazil
28“Risque” soil moisture model (Woods Hole) integrated with INPE/CPTEC data/modelsD. NepstadC. NobreA SetzerJ. TomasellaU. LopesP. Lefebvre
29CO2 FLUXES OVER PANTANAL REGION UNDER DRY AND FLOOD CONDITIONS POSTER20 cm10 cmStart of floodingwater layer height20 cm55 cm14 cmPlinio Alvalá1, C. von Randow2, A. O. Manzi2, A. de Souza3, L. Sá1, R. Alvalá1
40Coarse resolution: Hot-spots map Terra do Meio, Pará StateSouth of Amazonas StateHot-spots map for Model 7:(lighter cells have regression residual < -0.4)
41Modelling Deforestation in Amazonia High coefficients of multiple determination were obtained on all models built (R2 from 0.80 to 0.86).The main factors identified were:Population density;Connection to national markets;Climatic conditions;Indicators related to land distribution between large and small farmers.The main current agricultural frontier areas, in Pará and Amazonas States, where intense deforestation processes are taking place now were correctly identified as hot-spots of change.
42Deforestation Alert – Sensors TERRA e AQUAMODIS - Moderate-resolutionImaging Spectroradiometer36 bandasResolução temporal: DiáriaResolução espacial: 250 mCBERS - China-Brazil Earth Resources SatelliteSensor WFI2 bandas260 m de resoluçãoRepetitividade: 5 dias
53Environmental Modelling in Brasil GEOMA: “Rede Cooperativa de Modelagem Ambiental”Cooperative Network for Environmental ModellingEstablished by Ministry of Science and TechnologyINPE/OBT, INPE/CPTEC, LNCC, INPA, IMPA, MPEGLong-term objectivesDevelop computational-mathematical models to predict the spatial dynamics of ecological and socio-economic systems at different geographic scales, within the framework of sustainabilitySupport policy decision making at local, regional and national levels, by providing decision makers with qualified analytical tools.
54Environmental Modelling in Brazil GEOMA NetworkThree Year Focus ( )Amazon regionModellingLand Use and Land Cover ChangePopulation dynamicsWetlandsBiodiversityHydrological systemsRegional economics
55The Road Ahead: Can Technology Help? Advances in remote sensing are giving computer networks the eyes and ears they need to observe their physical surroundings.Sensors detect physical changes in pressure, temperature, light, sound, or chemical concentrations and then send a signal to a computer that does something in response.Scientists expect that billions of these devices will someday form rich sensory networks linked to digital backbones that put the environment itself online.(Rand Corporation, “The Future of Remote Sensing”)
56The Road Ahead: Smart Sensors SMART DUST Autonomous sensing and communication in a cubic millimeterSources: Silvio Meira and Univ Berkeley, SmartDust project
58The Carbonsink of Amazonian Forest and climateSink Strength1 to 7 t C ha-1 yr-11 0.5?2Preliminary synthesis of the carbon cycle for Amazonian forests.Units: t C ha-1 yr-1. GPP= gross primary productivity; Ra= autotrophic respiration; Rh=heterotrophic respiration; VOC= volatile organic carbon compounds.Source: Carlos Nobre, Alterra, INPA, IH, Edinburgh Un., Washington Un.
60Limits for Models Uncertainty on basic equations Social and EconomicSystemsQuantumGravityParticlePhysicsLivingSystemsGlobalChangeChemicalReactionsAppliedSciencesMeteorologySolar System DynamicsComplexity of the phenomenonsource: John Barrow
61The Road Ahead... Producing environmental data in the Americas Tremendous impact of in the management of our natural resourcesTask outside of the resources and capabilities of a single countryBreaking the bottleneckEstablishment of continental research networksAdherence to agreed international protocols (Biodiversity Convention, Kyoto Protocol)
62The Rôle of Science and Scientists Science is more than a body of knowledge; it is a way of thinking. [...] The method of science ... is far more important than the findings of science. (Carl Sagan)Scientists have to understand the sensitivities involved in collecting, using and disseminating environmental data