Burns Severity MinorModerateMajor Adult <10% TBSAAdult 10-20% TBSAAdult >20% TBSA Young or old < 5% TBSAYoung or old 5-10% TBSAYoung or old >10% TBSA <2% full thickness burn2-5% full thickness burn>5% full thickness burn High voltage injuryHigh voltage burn Possible inhalation injuryKnown inhalation injury Circumferential burn Significant burn to face, joints, hands or feet Other health problemsAssociated injuries
Sunburn Prevention Avoid sun exposure between 10 am & 4 pm – Seek shade – UV index 0-11+ Risk of sunburn http://www.epa.gov/sunwise/uvindex.html Sunscreen – SPF 30 or greater – UVA/UVB – Apply generously 15-30 minutes before exposure – Reapply every two hours
Sunburn Treatment Take a cool shower/bath or use cool compresses Liberal use of moisturizer Hydrate Anti-inflammatory – Ibuprofen – 1% Hydrocortisone
Burn First Aid for Minor Burns Cool the burn – Don’t use ice Apply a sterile bandage – Observe for infection Hydrate Take an anti-inflammatory – Ibuprofen
Poison Oak Prevention Learn to spot poison oak in all seasons Wear protective clothing when exposed to brush If exposed scrub with soap and water, or rubbing alcohol, within 10 minutes. Scrub under your nails, plant oil can be spread by oil on your fingers If your pet has been exposed wash in shampoo and water, wear rubber gloves Wash exposed equipment with soap and water, the oil can stay potent for as long as five years.
West Nile Virus Spread by infected mosquitos Can cause encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) or meningitis (inflammation around the brain and spinal column) People over 60 and the chronically ill are most at risk Incubation period is generally 2-6 days Most people are infected June – September
West Nile Virus Symptoms 70-80% of people exposed to West Nile Virus do not develop symptoms About 1 in 5 people who are infected will develop a fever with other symptoms such as headache, body aches, joint pains, vomiting, diarrhea, or rash. Most people with this type of West Nile virus disease recover completely, but fatigue and weakness can last for weeks or months.
West Nile Virus Symptoms Less than 1% of people who are infected will develop a serious neurologic illness such as encephalitis or meningitis. The symptoms of neurologic illness can include headache, high fever, neck stiffness, disorientation, coma, tremors, seizures, or paralysis. Recovery from severe disease may take several weeks or months. Some of the neurologic effects may be permanent. About 10 percent of people who develop neurologic infection due to West Nile virus will die.
West Nile Virus Prevention Avoid mosquito infected areas Reduce mosquito breeding grounds Wear protective clothing Use mosquito repellant – Of the products registered with the EPA, those containing DEET, picaridin, IR3535, and some oil of lemon eucalyptus and para-menthane-diol products provide longer-lasting protection. Report dead birds to the local health department
Lyme Disease Caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks
Early Lyme Disease Symptoms “Bull’s-eye” rash: Erythema Migrans (EM) Fatigue, chills, fever, headache, muscle and joint aches, and swollen lymph nodes 3-30 days post-tick bite
Lyme Disease Early Disseminated Stage Additional EM lesions in other areas of the body Facial or Bell's palsy Severe headaches and neck stiffness due to meningitis
Lyme Disease Early Disseminated Stage Pain and swelling in the large joints (such as knees) Shooting pains that may interfere with sleep Heart palpitations and dizziness due to changes in heartbeat
Lyme Disease Late Disseminated Stage Approximately 60% of patients with untreated infection may begin to have intermittent bouts of arthritis, with severe joint pain and swelling. Large joints are most often affected, particularly the knees.
Lyme Disease Late Disseminated Stage Up to 5% of untreated patients may develop chronic neurological complaints months to years after infection – shooting pains – numbness or tingling in the hands or feet – problems with short-term memory.
Lyme Disease Prevention Be extra vigilant in warmer months (April- September) when ticks are most active. Avoid wooded and bushy areas with high grass and leaf litter. Wear protective clothing. Use repellents that contain 20% or more DEET on the exposed skin. Use products that contain permethrin on clothing.
Lyme Disease Prevention Find and remove ticks from your body. Pull upward with steady, even pressure. Don't twist or jerk the tick After removing the tick, thoroughly clean the bite area and your hands with rubbing alcohol, an iodine scrub, or soap and water.
Lyme Disease Testing & Treatment Testing blood for evidence of antibodies against the Lyme disease bacteria Antibiotics for 2-3 weeks Symptom management
Abrasions Use soap and water to clean the wound. – Irrigate as needed Apply pressure to stop the bleeding Apply topical antibiotic cream – Bacitracin not Neosporin due to skin allergies Apply a sterile dressing Observe for infection
Abrasions When to Seek Medical Attention If you are unable to control the bleeding. Wound edges of the cut are jagged or gape open The cut is deep (1/4 inch or more), or you can see fat or muscle. You can't get all of the dirt or debris out of the wound, or the wound was caused by something very dirty or rusty. You have a puncture wound or a deep cut and haven't had a tetanus shot in the past 5 years. The wound is from an animal or human bite. You have numbness, loss of sensation, or loss of movement.
Minor Lacerations Glue Me Dermabond Clean and irrigate wound Approximate wound edges Gently apply adhesive to the external skin surface Wipe off excess adhesive immediately Hold wound edges together for 30 seconds Adhesive acts as its own water-resistant bandage, and no added coverings are needed. No ointment, it will cause adhesive to fail. Adhesive will spontaneously peel off in five to 10 days.
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