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Summer Skin Burns, Bites & Abrasions Alexa Colgrove Curtis PhD, FNP-BC Associate Professor SONHP Director, Nurse Practitioner Programs.

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Presentation on theme: "Summer Skin Burns, Bites & Abrasions Alexa Colgrove Curtis PhD, FNP-BC Associate Professor SONHP Director, Nurse Practitioner Programs."— Presentation transcript:

1 Summer Skin Burns, Bites & Abrasions Alexa Colgrove Curtis PhD, FNP-BC Associate Professor SONHP Director, Nurse Practitioner Programs

2 Summer Skin Burns – Sunburns & Skin Cancer – Burn First Aid – Poison Oak Bites – Mosquitos – Ticks Abrasions – Cuts & Scrapes

3 Burns

4

5

6 Burns Severity MinorModerateMajor Adult <10% TBSAAdult 10-20% TBSAAdult >20% TBSA Young or old < 5% TBSAYoung or old 5-10% TBSAYoung or old >10% TBSA <2% full thickness burn2-5% full thickness burn>5% full thickness burn High voltage injuryHigh voltage burn Possible inhalation injuryKnown inhalation injury Circumferential burn Significant burn to face, joints, hands or feet Other health problemsAssociated injuries

7 Sunburn Prevention Avoid sun exposure between 10 am & 4 pm – Seek shade – UV index Risk of sunburn Sunscreen – SPF 30 or greater – UVA/UVB – Apply generously minutes before exposure – Reapply every two hours

8 Sunburn Treatment Take a cool shower/bath or use cool compresses Liberal use of moisturizer Hydrate Anti-inflammatory – Ibuprofen – 1% Hydrocortisone

9 Burn First Aid for Minor Burns Cool the burn – Don’t use ice Apply a sterile bandage – Observe for infection Hydrate Take an anti-inflammatory – Ibuprofen

10 Poison Oak

11 Poison Oak Prevention Learn to spot poison oak in all seasons Wear protective clothing when exposed to brush If exposed scrub with soap and water, or rubbing alcohol, within 10 minutes. Scrub under your nails, plant oil can be spread by oil on your fingers If your pet has been exposed wash in shampoo and water, wear rubber gloves Wash exposed equipment with soap and water, the oil can stay potent for as long as five years.

12 Poison Oak Identification

13 Poison Oak Treatment Cool compresses Calamine lotion Hydrocortisone cream Steroids – Cream – Pills – Injectable

14 Skin Cancer cancer/ss/slideshow-skin-lesions-and-cancer cancer/ss/slideshow-skin-lesions-and-cancer ABCDE – Asymmetry – Border – Color – Diameter – Evolving

15 Bites Mosquitos

16 West Nile Virus Spread by infected mosquitos Can cause encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) or meningitis (inflammation around the brain and spinal column) People over 60 and the chronically ill are most at risk Incubation period is generally 2-6 days Most people are infected June – September

17 West Nile Virus Symptoms 70-80% of people exposed to West Nile Virus do not develop symptoms About 1 in 5 people who are infected will develop a fever with other symptoms such as headache, body aches, joint pains, vomiting, diarrhea, or rash. Most people with this type of West Nile virus disease recover completely, but fatigue and weakness can last for weeks or months.

18 West Nile Virus Symptoms Less than 1% of people who are infected will develop a serious neurologic illness such as encephalitis or meningitis. The symptoms of neurologic illness can include headache, high fever, neck stiffness, disorientation, coma, tremors, seizures, or paralysis. Recovery from severe disease may take several weeks or months. Some of the neurologic effects may be permanent. About 10 percent of people who develop neurologic infection due to West Nile virus will die.

19 West Nile VIrus Activity

20 West Nile Virus Prevention Avoid mosquito infected areas Reduce mosquito breeding grounds Wear protective clothing Use mosquito repellant – Of the products registered with the EPA, those containing DEET, picaridin, IR3535, and some oil of lemon eucalyptus and para-menthane-diol products provide longer-lasting protection. Report dead birds to the local health department

21 Bites Ticks

22 Lyme Disease Caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks

23 Early Lyme Disease Symptoms “Bull’s-eye” rash: Erythema Migrans (EM) Fatigue, chills, fever, headache, muscle and joint aches, and swollen lymph nodes 3-30 days post-tick bite

24 Lyme Disease Early Disseminated Stage Additional EM lesions in other areas of the body Facial or Bell's palsy Severe headaches and neck stiffness due to meningitis

25 Lyme Disease Early Disseminated Stage Pain and swelling in the large joints (such as knees) Shooting pains that may interfere with sleep Heart palpitations and dizziness due to changes in heartbeat

26 Lyme Disease Late Disseminated Stage Approximately 60% of patients with untreated infection may begin to have intermittent bouts of arthritis, with severe joint pain and swelling. Large joints are most often affected, particularly the knees.

27 Lyme Disease Late Disseminated Stage Up to 5% of untreated patients may develop chronic neurological complaints months to years after infection – shooting pains – numbness or tingling in the hands or feet – problems with short-term memory.

28 Lyme Disease Reported Cases in the U.S.

29 Lyme Disease Prevention Be extra vigilant in warmer months (April- September) when ticks are most active. Avoid wooded and bushy areas with high grass and leaf litter. Wear protective clothing. Use repellents that contain 20% or more DEET on the exposed skin. Use products that contain permethrin on clothing.

30 Lyme Disease Prevention Find and remove ticks from your body. Pull upward with steady, even pressure. Don't twist or jerk the tick After removing the tick, thoroughly clean the bite area and your hands with rubbing alcohol, an iodine scrub, or soap and water.

31 Lyme Disease Testing & Treatment Testing blood for evidence of antibodies against the Lyme disease bacteria Antibiotics for 2-3 weeks Symptom management

32 Abrasions Use soap and water to clean the wound. – Irrigate as needed Apply pressure to stop the bleeding Apply topical antibiotic cream – Bacitracin not Neosporin due to skin allergies Apply a sterile dressing Observe for infection

33 Abrasions When to Seek Medical Attention If you are unable to control the bleeding. Wound edges of the cut are jagged or gape open The cut is deep (1/4 inch or more), or you can see fat or muscle. You can't get all of the dirt or debris out of the wound, or the wound was caused by something very dirty or rusty. You have a puncture wound or a deep cut and haven't had a tetanus shot in the past 5 years. The wound is from an animal or human bite. You have numbness, loss of sensation, or loss of movement.

34 Minor Lacerations Glue Me Dermabond Clean and irrigate wound Approximate wound edges Gently apply adhesive to the external skin surface Wipe off excess adhesive immediately Hold wound edges together for 30 seconds Adhesive acts as its own water-resistant bandage, and no added coverings are needed. No ointment, it will cause adhesive to fail. Adhesive will spontaneously peel off in five to 10 days.

35 Have a Wonderful Summer


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