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Core Maths An introduction Carrie Martin Bristol Metropolitan Academy Cabot Learning Federation

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“Within a decade the vast majority of pupils will be studying maths right through to 18” (Michael Gove, 2011)

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International Comparisons in Mathematics Education: Three studies

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Mathematics for HE and Employment: HEA & Sutton

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What mathematics (level and content) is required in the workplace today? How and why have the mathematical needs of the workplace changed over time? In what ways is mathematics used in today’s workplace? To what extent do specific workplaces have specific mathematical demands? What are the implications of mathematics use in the workplace for post-16 education?

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Does mathematics matter? A-level mathematics: Earnings 7-10% GCSE “C”/ Level 2 qualification: Likelihood of unemployment 7 % (Dolton & Vignoles, 2002; Layard, McIntosh, & Vignoles, 2002)

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Just before Christmas the most comprehensive survey of global educational achievement ever conducted showed just how daunting the challenge is. … But we haven’t been progressing relative to our competitors; we’ve been retreating. In the last ten years we have plummeted in the rankings: from 4th to 16th for science, 7th to 25th for literacy and 8th to 28th for maths. (Michael Gove, National Curriculum Review launch, 21/1/11)

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Numeracy performance by age

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Participation in upper secondary mathematics ENG >50% 20-26% Any Mathematics

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Studying Advanced Maths Japan85% Taiwan70% Korea57% New Zealand41% Singapore39% Scotland23% Hong Kong23% Sweden21% Finland20% US (Massachussetts)16% England13% Germany8-14% Russian Federation1%

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Studying Advanced Maths Japan85% Taiwan70% Korea57% New Zealand41% Singapore39% Scotland23% Hong Kong23% Sweden21% Finland20% US (Massachussetts)16% England13% Germany8-14% Russian Federation1% Near compulsory

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Studying Advanced Maths Japan85% Taiwan70% Korea57% New Zealand41% Singapore39% Scotland23% Hong Kong23% Sweden21% Finland20% US (Massachussetts)16% England13% Germany8-14% Russian Federation1% “Free choice” Breadth Flexibility

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New Zealand: Pathways Basic ‘Level 1’ Numeracy (and Literacy) required Two ‘different’ subjects at advanced level – Mathematics with calculus / with statistics Mathematics with statistics – A distinct and separate subject – Small ‘bite-sized’ units – Respected and valued by HE / employers – Strong links to the school curriculum

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14 A-level trends over time , , ,000 JCQ data for England

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Progression from GCSE maths to A level maths A*ABCD Nos (000s) % going on to A level 74%35%5%<1%- Number going on to A level (000s)

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Progression from GCSE maths to A level maths A*ABCD Nos (000s) % going on to A level 74%35%5%<1%- Number going on to A level (000s) Number not going on to A level (000s)

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Core Maths Target Cohort A*ABC Number not going on to A level (000s) %3%14%30%53%

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18 Mathematics across the disciplines Proportion of Home (UK) students with A- Levels who also have A-level Mathematics 2013 (UCAS)

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What are the needs of HE? Mostly GCSE (Biology) y=mx+c (Psychology) Graphs, modern statistics & numerical approaches (Geography) HEA HE Maths Needs / Koenig (2011) / Hodgen & Marks (2013)

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Employment: Simple maths in complex settings Mostly GCSE content – Statistics – Multiplicative reasoning – Percentages – Approximation & estimation – Modelling & application – Spreadsheets Technology rich Collaboration

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The solution – Core Maths Level 3 Certificate (equivalent to an AS over two years) Focus on problem-solving, mathematical modelling, real world contexts 80% Higher GCSE, 20% Level 3 content

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Awarding Organisation Qualification Name AQAMathematical Studies City & Guilds Using and Applying Mathematics EdexcelMathematics in Context WJEC/Eduqas Mathematics for Work and Life OCRQuantitative Reasoning (MEI); Quantitative Problem Solving (MEI)

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AQA Level 3 Certificate Mathematical Studies Version 3.0 Copyright © AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. Compulsory topics Optional topics such as data finance such as data finance topics all students should have confidence and competence statistical techniques critical path and risk analysis graphical techniques statistical techniques critical path and risk analysis graphical techniques Allows teachers to teach topics that best suits their expertise allows students to study topics they’re interested in that support their choices for further study

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Introduction to Quantitative Reasoning Introduction to Quantitative Reasoning has been developed by modifying and expanding the content of Introduction to Quantitative Methods. Features of this component: Modelling Statistics Finance Working with graphs and gradients Working with exponentials Risk Estimation

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Edexcel L3 Certificate in Mathematics in Context – Applications of Statistics enables students to use data to understand the world, in readiness for study in many disciplines – Understanding of Probability and risk is a vital life skill with relevance to science, engineering, computer science, business and finance, gaming and everyday life – Linear programming develops students’ ability to use algebra and graphs to model real world contexts – Sequences and growth extends students’ financial maths skills and introduces applications of this topic to other real world phenomena

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‘It is essential that students keep up their maths skills but clearly A-level and AS-level mathematics aren’t for everybody. Core Maths gives students the opportunity to maintain and develop everyday maths skills that will be really useful to them both at university and when they start work.’ Dr Deidre Hughes OBE, chair of the National Careers Council, England

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Challenges The “FSMQ” problem – Availability and take-up by schools / colleges – Respected and valued by HE / Employers – Valued by students Core Maths needs to be different to GCSE Attitudes Teacher supply Policy changes – GCSE “harder”

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Personal reflections Teaching Core Maths at King’s Oak Academy since September Core Maths Support Programme - support - CPD - collaboration The start of something big

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Examples of activities Moving averages How income tax works Using gapminder

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What the students say Student voice clips

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