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Temperature Relationship between four scale is formulated as follow: C:R: F : K = 100 : 80 : 180 : 100 or C : R : F : K = 5 : 4 : 9 : 5

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Relationship between Celsius and Reamur t R = 4 t c or t c = 5 t R 54 In which: t R = thermometer reamur t c = Thermometer celsius

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Relationship between Celsius and Fahrenheit t F = 9 t c + 32 or t c = 5. (t F – 32) 59 59 In which: t F = thermometer Fahrenheit t c = Thermometer Celsius

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Relationship between Celsius and Kelvin T K = T C + 273 or t c = T K – 273 In which:t k = thermometer Kelvin

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Pemuaian Menghitung Muai panjang pada zat Padat Rumus-rumus: l = æ.l o. t lt= lo (1 + æ.t) in which: æ = koefisien muai panjang (L 0 C) lo = Panjang awaln (m) lo = Panjang awaln (m) lt = panjang akhir (m) l= perubahan panjang (m) l= perubahan panjang (m) t = perubahan suhu ( 0 C) t = perubahan suhu ( 0 C)

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A = ß. A O. t A = ß. A O. t At= A o (1 + ß. t) In which: ß= koefisien muai luas (L 0 c) Ao= luas mula-mula (m 2 ) At = luas akhir (m 2 ) t = perubahan suhu t = perubahan suhu Muai Luas

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Muai volume ( Ruang) V = ý.Vo. t V = ý.Vo. t Vt= Vo (1 + ý. t) In which: ý= koefisien muai panjang (l 0 C ) Vo = volume awal Vt= voluma akhir t= perubahan suhu t= perubahan suhu

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KALOR Q= m. c. t In which:m= massa benda (kg) c = kalor jenis (J/kg 0 c) Q = banyaknya kalor (J) t= perubahan suhu ( 0 C) t= perubahan suhu ( 0 C)

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Capacity of Kalor C = Q t In which: Q= kalor (J) t= perubahan suhu t= perubahan suhu C= kapasitas kalor Q = m. U In which: Q= kapasitas kalor (J) m= massa (Kg) U=kalor uap/ kalor embun (J/kg)

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Q = m.L In which: Q= Banyaknya kalor (J) m= massa (Kg) L = kalor lebur (J/kg) Melebur dan membeku

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ASAS BLACK Q lepas = Q serap m 1. c 1. t 1 = m 2.c 2. t 2 Ket: m= massa (kg) c = kalor jenis (J/kg 0 C) t= perubahan suhu ( 0 c) t= perubahan suhu ( 0 c)

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Force and Newton's law Force is quantity that can cause something moves or on the contrary causes the moving thing to be a rest.

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Weight = mass x gravitational acceleration (berat = masa x percepatan gravitasi) w = m.g in which: w = weight/berat (N) in which: w = weight/berat (N) m = mass/masa (kg) g = Earth gravitational acceleration g = Earth gravitational acceleration /percepatan gravitasi bumi (m/s 2 )

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There are there opinion about Newton’s Law: Newton’s 1 Law Newton’s 1 Law Newton’s 2 Law Newton’s 2 Law Newton’s 3 Law Newton’s 3 Law

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Newton’s 1 Law Newton’s Law explains: “Every body will be at rest or moves in uniform rectilinear if there is no forces change that condition.” The formula of Newton’s 1 law as follow: € F= 0 Which means force resultant on the body is equal to zero

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Newton’s 2 Law The body that influence force will have acceleration which its magnitude is directly proportional to the magnitude of the sum of forces and inversely proportional to its mass. The formula of Newton’s 2 Law: a = F/m or F = m.a In which: F= the force acting on the body / gaya yang bekerja pada benda (N) m= mass of the body (kg) m= mass of the body (kg) a=acceleration of the body/percepatan benda (m/s 2 ) a=acceleration of the body/percepatan benda (m/s 2 )

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Newton’s 3 Law If a body makes force (making action) to another body, appears reaction force from the body to the former body with equal magnitudes, while the direction are in opposite. The formula of Newton’s 3 Law: F ACTION = - F REACTION In which: F 1 = Action force/gaya aksi F 2 = reaction force/gaya reaksi F 2 = reaction force/gaya reaksi The sign (-) shows those two forces are in opposite direction

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PRESSURE The formula of pressure: P = F/A In which: P = Pressure / tekanan (N/m 2 ) F= Force/ gaya (N) A= Plane area/ luas bidang (m 2 ) The pressure unit= force unit/area unit= N/m 2 = Pascal (Pa) So, 1 Pa= 1 N/m 2 In cgs system pressure pressure unit in is dyne/cm 2. Another pressure units are as follows 1 atm = 76 cm Hg and 1 N/m 2 = 100.000 dyne/cm 2

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PRESSURE IN SOLID Liquid pressure in motionless is called Hydrostatics pressure. Hydrostatics pressure depends on density, height or depth of liquid, also earth gravitational acceleration, so the formulated as follow: p= p.g.h In which: p= hydrostatics pressure (N/m 3 or Pa) p = density of Liquid (kg/m 3 ) g= Earth gravitational acceleration (m/s 2 ) h= height or depth of the liquid (m)

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Pascal’s Law Pascal expressed that: Pressure given to liquid in closed chamber will be continued by the liquid to every direction with uniform and the same magnitude. The formula of Pascal’s law as follow: P =F A In which: P= Pascal’s Law (N/m 2) F= Force (N) A= Section area (m 2 )

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Archimedes’s Law The formula of Archimedes's Law as follow: F A =p V g In which: F A = Buoyancy force (N) p = density of liquid (kg/m 3 ) V = Volume of liquid moved (m 3 ) g = Earth gravitational acceleration (m/s 2 )

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Relationship between height of place and air pressure is formulated as follow: h= { 76 – x }. 10 m 0,1 0,1 In which: h= height of place above sea level (m) x= pressure of place above sea level (cmHg)

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In mercury manometer pressure in a chamber is formulated as follow: P= 76 cmHg + t In which:t= difference of mercury height in both manometer legs. The addition sign (+) is used if chamber pressure is larger than atmospheric pressure. On the contrary the minus sign (-) is used if chamber pressure is smaller than atmospheric pressure.

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Boyle’s Law From that conclusion, that Boyle made a statement, that is: “At constant temperature, gas pressure in closed chamber is inversely proportional with its volume.” The statement above is known with Boyle’s Law: P x V = C In which:P= pressure V=volume C= constant Or can be written as follow: P 1 x V 1 = P 2 x V 2 In which: P 1 = Initial pressure V 1 = initial volume P 2 = final pressure V 2 =final volume

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Energy Mechanical energy (energy mekanik) Consist of two part: 1. Potential energy 2. Kinetic energy

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Formulated of potential energy and Kinetic energy Potential energy E P = m.g.h In which: E p = Potential energy (J) m= mass of the body (kg) g= Earth gravitational acceleration (m/s 2 ) h= height of the body to Earth surface (m) Kinetic Energy E k = ½. M.v 2 In which: E k = kinetic energy ( J) m= mass of the body ( kg) v= velocity of the body (m/s 2 )

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Law of mechanical Energy Conservation Formula as follow: E m = E P + E K IN WHICH: E m = MECHANICAL ENERGY (J) E p = potential energy (J) E k = kinetic energy (J) Or E MA = E MB In which: E MA =mechanical energy at A E MB = Mechanical energy at B

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The law of mechanical energy conservation Mechanical energy that a body has stored consist of potential energy and kinetic energy. Mechanical energy is formulated as follow. Em = Ep + Ek Em A = Em B Ep A + Ek A = Ep B + Ek B

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Work Work is formulated as follow: W = F. S In which :W= work/usaha (joule) F = force/gaya (N) s = displacement/perpindahan (m)

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The work done by force that works on a body is equal to the change of kinetic energy of the body. W = Ek 2 – Ek 1 W = ½ mv 2 2 – ½ mv 2 1

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Power Power is velocity to do work or work per unit time. Power is formulated as follow: P = W t Power unit according to SI is watt

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Mechanical advantage kM = load/power = w/F = l k / l b In which:F= power l k = power arm w = load l b = load arm l b = load arm

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Mechanical advantage of fixed pulley kM = 1 Mechanical advantage of moving pulley kM = w/F = w/w= 2 2 In pulley system the mechanical advantage obtained depends on the number of pulleys used. kM = n n = number of pulley

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In the sloping plane holds the following equation. F. S = w. H The mechanical advantage of sloping plane kM = w/F

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VIBRATION AND WAVE Relationship between period (T) and frequency (f) T= 1or f = 1 f T f T

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Relationship among length, period, frequency, and velocity of the wave. v = or v= . f T In which: v=velocity = leght = leght T = period f = frequency

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Sound Sound is a longitudinal wave. Sound velocity is the distance traveled by sound wave in every time unit. Sound velocity is formulated as follow: V = s t

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Sound velocity can be determined by using sound reflection. V = 2 s t

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LIGHT Light is an electromagnetic wave that spreads without medium.

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In the concave mirror and the convex mirror hold the formula: 1 = 1 + 1 or2 = 1 + 1 FS 0 S i RS 0 S i

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Image magnification in the concave mirror and the convex mirror is formulated as follow: M = S i = h i S 0 h 0 S 0 h 0

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The ability of a lens in collecting or spreading it receives is called the power of lens. The power of lens is formulated as follow: P = 1/ f

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Optical instrument Image magnification in the magnifying glass is stated as follow: 1. For the eyes doesn’t accommodate 2. For the eyes that accommodates at the distance x 3. For the eyes that accommodate maximum

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1. For the eyes doesn’t accommodate M = S n f 2. For the eyes that accommodates at the distance x M = S n + S n f x f x 3. For the eyes that accommodate maximum M = S n + 1 f

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The magnitude of the electric force between two charge is directly proportional to each charge and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. F= k. Q 1.Q 2 r 2 r 2Note: F= Coulomb’s force (attractive or repulsive force) (N) Q 1, Q 2= electric charge (C) R= the distance between the two charges (m 2 ) K= fundamental electric constant = 9 x 10 9 (Nm 2 /C 2 ) Coulomb’s Law

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Electric field is a vector quantity. Electric field intensity is mathematically formulated as: E = F qNote: E = electric field intensity (N/C) F = Coulomb’s force (N) q = electric charge (C)

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Electric potential V ab = W qNote: V AB = Electric potential between point A and B (Volt) W = The work required to move a charge (Joule) q = electric charge ( Coulomb)

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Electric Current I = Q tNOTE: Q= Electric charge (C) I = electric current (A ) t = time interval (s)

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Ohm’s Law V = I. R Note: R= Electric resistance (Ohm) V= potential difference (volt) I= electric current ( Ampere)

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Resistivity R = P. l ANote: R= Resistance of the wire (ohm) l = The length of the wire (m) A= The diameter of the wire p = resistively of the wire (ohm.m)

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Kirchhoff Current Law Kirchhoff current Law is the total electric current into the junction is equal to the total electric current. € I IN = € I out

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Resistors in parallel The equivalent resistance of resistors in parallel: 1 = 1 + 1 + 1 + … R p R 1 R 2 R 3

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Resistors in series The equivalent resistance of resistors in series: R SERIES = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 + …

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