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Action on Addiction Head Office, East Knoyle, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP3 6BE T: 01747 830733 F: 01747 832028 Action on Addiction is a company limited by.

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Presentation on theme: "Action on Addiction Head Office, East Knoyle, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP3 6BE T: 01747 830733 F: 01747 832028 Action on Addiction is a company limited by."— Presentation transcript:

1 Action on Addiction Head Office, East Knoyle, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP3 6BE T: 01747 830733 F: 01747 832028 Action on Addiction is a company limited by guarantee registered in England. Reg. Company Number 05947481 Reg. Charity Number 1117988 Patron – HRH The Duchess of Cambridge Emma Cox M-PACT Development Manager Lorna Templeton Independent Research Consultant

2 Children affected by parental substance misuse and/or having a parent in prison Focus on fathers as this relates more closely to the work undertaken at HMP Parc Summarise M-PACT programme Present qualitative findings from two M-PACT programmes completed at HMP Parc in Wales Highlight key successes and areas of learning from the work and the potential for M-PACT in the prison environment “Parental substance misuse can have potentially serious consequences for children, including, but not limited to, poor educational attainment, emotional difficulties, neglect, abuse and taking on inappropriate caring responsibilities’” (Velleman & Templeton, 2007)

3 Estimated that: 3.5 million children affected by parental alcohol misuse and 1.5 million by parental drug misuse in the UK (Manning et al., 2009) 160,000 children in the UK have a parent who is in prison and that this is greater than the number of children in care or on the ‘at risk’ register (Glover, 2009) Nearly half of sentenced prisoners (41% female and 43% male) have “some degree of drug dependence” (Laing & McCarthy, 2002)

4 Impact of parental substance misuse on children and of having a parent in prison, is well documented Individual, parenting, relationships, family life Cumulative risk if multiple problems present PSM/having a parent in prison – predictors of negative outcomes Resilience Not all children negatively affected in the same ways Individual, family & environmental protective factors Impact of the prison environment on children Link between supporting families (during and after a sentence) and reduction in re-offending Policy context – increased recognition but continued lack of services for/involving children

5 “....[M-PACT] is...a fresh idea, it’s quite innovative, it involves the family....it’s eye opening, it’s enlightening, it’s quite an exciting idea....” (prisoner)

6 ParentsChildren Addiction

7 To promote and support the health and well being of children/young people and adults in the context of their whole family Give children a voice and raise self esteem Reduce harm and increase safety Increase understanding and coping with addiction Improve communication and reduced conflict

8 Children aged 8-17 Adults (parents, carers) Using and non-using Capable of meaningful engagement Whole family approach Not all family members will choose to attend Different families at the same time Work with adults and children together and separately

9 The programme structure Individual family assessment 8 weekly gatherings of 2.5 hours Post-programme individual family review Aftercare - pathways to additional support and employment Continuum of support Reunion Structured sessions Flexible to respond to service users Four facilitators

10 Accredited training course Practitioner manual Evaluation of 13 community programmes run in a range of locations across England 21 areas across UK (Cornwall, PARC, Essex, Stockton on Tees) 25 programmes delivered The work at HMP Parc is the first time M-PACT has been delivered in the prison setting

11 Category B male prison and YOI in Bridgend, South Wales Opened in 1997 1300 prisoners, approximately 600 staff In 2010 the Family Interventions Unit (FIU) opened, under the Parc Supporting Families (PSF) initiative Only such Unit in the world for male prisoners Holds 60 prisoners Wide range of programmes/interventions available Other changes to support work of FIU Integrated Visits Centre (2011) Visits handled by Family Interventions Team

12 Six facilitators trained Members of Family Interventions Team, child play area co- ordinator, CARAT worker and two prison officers Two programmes delivered: May-June 2011 and December 2011-February 2012 Sessions delivered in the Integrated Visits Centre (mainly in the family room) Prisoners recruited mainly from FIU but also from elsewhere in the prison e.g. CARAT team

13 Approved by HMP Parc, informed consent Qualitative evaluation, involving interviews/focus groups and a drawing exercise Interviews conducted shortly after the 8 th (final) session Interviews conducted mainly in the family room – most were audio-recorded Families received an extra visit and children a gift voucher

14 10 families (5 each programme): 33 individuals Eleven male prisoners – all drug users, alcohol also a problem in small number of cases Fathers and step-fathers 13 children aged 8-20 years (roughly equal girls and boys) Nine other adult females (8 partners) Father attended with two of his children (one of whom attended the adult group) Brothers attended with their mother & children of one of the brothers All but one participant – White British

15 High engagement and completion rate All 10 families completed programme 29 individuals attended 6 or more sessions All 11 prisoners attended all 8 sessions 11 children attended 6 or more sessions Evaluation data: Programme 1 – focus groups with 5 families + 10 interviews Programme 2 – 11 interviews Children – 8 interviews & 5 completed drawing exercise

16 Enjoyment and learning Meeting other families – sharing & making friends Realising not alone – helpful for children Prisoners supporting each other M-PACT part of the wider ethos of Parc & FIU FIU and family room – it doesn’t feel like prison Facilitators – approach, didn’t wear uniform Time for adults and children to work separately Genogram session Delivery challenges – time to release, engagement of families, knowledge of children, structure of prison life, multi-disciplinary team

17 “[it was] so interesting, and to listen to other people, how they feel about things as well, it was really really nice....the kids all seemed to get on as well” (partner) “.....before I listened to what they were saying I thought I was the only one....so then I listened to them [and I realised I wasn’t the only one]” (child) “....we could sit by each other and speak more....[with] normal visits there’s a table but now we can hug each other and everything” (child) “....it’s nice to show your support and have support off [the other families] which is hard to find in the real world” (partner)

18  Readiness and motivation to change  M-PACT does not focus on criminality  ‘Breaking the Cycle’ – prisoners wanting this for themselves and also for their children (relates to drug misuse & offending)  Increase confidence  Shift in communication about their problems  More involved with their children & families  Involvement with other courses and training in prison; getting ‘tagged’, moving to an open prison  Changes in health & lifestyle  Wanting to be a “better man”

19 "....I've been up for a change for quite some time and that's why I put myself on the family intervention unit and I've been participating in all the courses available and I heard about M-PACT coming up and it suited me and the reasons I'm in here....I just wanted to change and so that's why I took part“ "I’ve been on the drugs since I was fifteen and I’ve got kids now....so it’s time to grow up now, I’ve just had a big sentence this one the biggest one I’ve ever had so kind of hit home a bit especially being on the family interventions unit as well it’s more focused on the families" “I take an active part now and I'm learning to do that more and more....I am trying to take an active part as a Dad can from jail.....I take an interest now because I want to” “it was nice to see what the kids have been doing [at school] and the improvements they’ve made....and I think the kids enjoyed me commenting on how they’ve done” “....my dad says that prison has brought them closer and he’ll never go back and do it again” (child)

20 Liked spending more time with their fathers Less sad, happier More confident Less angry Change in behaviour/more helpful at home Had more of a voice in their family Helped them understand more about their fathers being in prison Benefitted from reduction in conflict and improved relationships between their parents ? Reducing future risks? – breaking the cycle

21 “I want to see my Dad and I want to come in and see him and if it’s on a Monday or Thursday [and I have to miss my class] I still want to come” (child) "it made us realise as well how much of an impact everything has on the children....it's getting to hear their points of view of it all and it can sort of hit home......the children [have] got points of view as well...they're part of the family so therefore they've got their points of view as well” (partner) “....when I came to M-PACT it brought me and my family closer and I could speak out more....I could act myself rather than asking my mum stuff....[|I could] speak out loud....it’s better to speak out for myself” (child) “....an eye opener for him, for him not to fall in the same footsteps with drugs and all this crap....you’ve got to try and break the cycle”

22 Whole family approach Prisoners compared this to other courses Families hadn’t received help as a family before Spending time together – different to normal prison visits Helps keep families together when father in prison Families planning for the future Benefits for adult females – less bitter and angry, ?look to children less for support Caution – onus for change is placed on the prisoner? Indirect benefits for other family members (who didn’t attend M- PACT) A reunion for one father and his children

23 "I decided to take part in it because it was something new, I’ve done a lot of programmes to address my offending behaviour but none of them actually involved your family....with this....you’re sharing a learning curve with your family it’s about sharing that learning process I think it was something we [were] able to do" “as well as you doing the sessions it was also getting quality time together as a family....which in prison which is invaluable....money can’t buy that kind of stuff...it was really helpful in more ways than one” “it was an enjoyable experience, an enlightening journey, it was a journey that we took together, it’s brought us closer together as a family, as individuals it’s motivated us....given us a bit more confidence....” “....it was quite nice that we could learn a bit more [about] being a family.....it was really good and I liked doing it....because we could do something together” (child) “we felt like our family had drifted apart and we weren’t a family any more but now we are, I realise, we are a family, you know, we are a special little family....” (partner)

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26 Listening to children & families Openness and honesty about the problems Talking about things and feelings that haven’t been talked about before Realising children knew more than adults realised Addiction: more than just drugs etc. Increase in prisoner awareness about impact of their problems – seeing points of view of others Caution – it’s my fault, I’ve messed up, I’ve let them down Importance of the children’s voice Children understand problems are not their fault

27 “....with this you actually [get] to hear first-hand how they felt...it was eye opening, it was upsetting at times.....but it was necessary I think you know you had to hold on to that feeling and move forward” “I thought it was a great course, a real eye opener....the fact that you were bringing out stuff....that [I’d] never talked to him about before and the effects it has on him and the family and everything.....I would have known a lot of it until I heard it coming from him” “I didn’t want [my son] to look up to me [like I did to my father] with all that, like the wrong ways so I think he knows”

28 Less secrecy, more honesty, openness & trust Helping families understand the prisoners and prison life Reduction in arguing and conflict Prisoners become more engaged with their lives of their children and families e.g. asking about school Changes in communication moves families together

29 “....the way we could all open up, cos I’m like a person who tells my girlfriend things so we could all open up on the course” “it’s changed our relationship towards my family.....they’ve got a better relationship and they talk softly” (child) "it's got us expressing feelings that we want and couldn't express beforehand“ “[it helped me] a little bit....it’s helped me share feelings with my mum and dad....and it helped me tell my mum and dad things” (child) “if that course didn’t happen I would never have talked to him about this”

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33 Wanting M-PACT to continue To keep on having family time Children want to see their fathers; they still have to cope with having a father who is in prison Maintaining learning from M-PACT Takes time to settle in to M-PACT – ? have a couple of ‘introductory’ sessions to aid this process Suggestions of refresher or booster sessions – particularly for prisoners who have more time left of their sentence Benefit of time inside before release – to ‘practice’ M-PACT learning Families did not tend to think they needed further help; prisoners wanted to benefit from opportunities in prison Need to make sure children still have someone they can talk to

34 “as soon as you started to get settled it was over....a week or two to get settled and then a bit longer, I think that would have been perfect” “To be honest I’d have enjoyed a couple more weeks of it because you spend the time with your family and you’re benefitting from it.....you can always improve can’t you....just build on the skills you’ve learned...I took so much out of it....” “....why I wanted to get on to this M-PACT, to move closer to my family....before getting out there you know....it’s just my goal...I want to get out to be with them, me and them, my life is them” “I feel happy but I feel sad because my dad’s in here, he done what he done but it’s not his fault.....now he’s done his prison sentence....”(child) “at the beginning it seemed like quite a long time but then at the end it didn’t seem long enough so it was quite strange”

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37 Being ready to change Higher engagement of non-using adults Focuses on families not offending ‘Breaking the cycle’ The idea of a ‘teachable moment’ for at least one prisoner (first sentence) Gender differences – more focus on mothers in the community, more focus on fathers (to date) at Parc Bonds between fathers and their children Engagement and completion – suggests importance of recruitment and assessment processes, and of individual and family motivation

38 Similarity with community programmes M-PACT meets its aims Strength in qualitative data and hearing from children M-PACT targets protective factors (particularly at individual and family levels) – potential to support resilience? Facilitating communication between prisoners and their children Longer-term follow-up needed Need to consider e.g. return to drug use, recidivism “it’s the first time a programme like this has ever run in prison....you can’t really over-estimate the size of the shift that’s been needed to do M-PACT.....it wouldn’t work if it was just M-PACT....it’s quickly become a very important part of what we’re doing”

39 There are many more services for families affected by substance misuse now than when M-PACT was developed, but bringing family units together is rare and so M-PACT is filling a much needed gap More staff from Parc, and from three other G4S prisons (in England) will be trained in 2012. Further programmes at Parc planned for 2012 M-PACT embedded within local areas/local services to respond to the needs of ALL children across the UK If you would like to find out how YOU can be involved then please contact: Emma Cox – 01747 832015 or 07500 858716 or emma.cox@actiononaddiction.org.uk emma.cox@actiononaddiction.org.uk

40 How might a programme like M-PACT work in the public prison sector? How might the programme work in a female prison? Would anything need to be different if the focus was on families where there were alcohol problems? What outcome measures could be used to support this work? How to measure the impact in the longer-term – including how to assess impact of programme in terms of reducing re-offending? “I had faith in the programme before, but now that I’ve delivered it I can see how the impact of the work children did has a lasting effect on everyone. My observations on the programme are, seeing the participants change as the sessions moved on………To each of them becoming a closer, more caring, understanding and supportive family. Families not just attending family learning, but learning to be families” (Facilitator)

41 “....you get the opportunity to practice the tools that you’ve developed because if say for instance I completed M-PACT last week and I was out next week everything’s still new, still fresh, still uncharted, it’s still un-practiced, it’s new to me, new to [my wife], new to [my daughter], it’s new to the whole family...we haven’t had a chance to implement it with maybe little disputes, everyday life, everyday conversation, everyday communication you know...you get the opportunity to practice and brush up and turn a tool into a skill...like second nature so to speak....if you’ve practiced these tools for a few months beforehand they’re going to come in a lot handier because they’re not going to be shaky.... positivity breeds positivity.....confidence breeds confidence....it’s a continuous cycle” “it made me think of things that I wouldn’t have thought of because of the input I had from [my family], it opened doors that I would probably have left closed...but by facing them I think I come out better at the other side.....this is my sixth sentence....and at first I thought this softly softly approach was quite pathetic but I think this sentence has done for me than any other sentence....M-PACT has been a major part [of that], it’s turned my thinking around.....I’m [age] and nothing has ever made me change my way of thinking”


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