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Balance in Language Teaching Dr Rob Waring Jeju SETA November 25, 2011.

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1 Balance in Language Teaching Dr Rob Waring Jeju SETA November 25, 2011

2 The goals of language teaching Ensure they can read, write, speak and listen Build pragmatic, cultural as well as linguistic knowledge Develop learning strategies Develop independence Develop a sense of ownership of the language Build confidence and a ‘can do’ attitude

3 What do learners need to know? Learners need 7000-8000 word families to read native novels easily About 2000 everyday words occur in all types of English. Learners need ‘specialist words’ as well. There are two stages in word learning. 1. The form-meaning relationship (its pronunciation, spelling and meaning) 2. The deeper word knowledge – its different meanings – Its derivations (useful, useless, uselessness, etc.) – if it’s typically spoken, or written – if it’s useful or rare, polite or rude – the topic are we usually find it in (e.g. science, music, biology) – its collocations and colligations

4 What’s a collocation? Collocations are words which often appear together. We sayWe don’t (usually) say beautiful girl handsome girl blonde hairyellow hair big surpriselarge surprise black and whitewhite and black go to workgo to job catch firedo fire / go fire high costexpensive cost demand a responseask a response make a mistakedo a mistake

5 What’s a colligation? Colligations are words which often appear together grammatically We sayWe don’t (usually) say depend on someonedepend of someone be good at somethingbe good on something ask for something ask on something give something to someonegive something someone

6 What collocations do they need to learn? Verb uses of one word - Idea… “Abandon an idea.” abandon, absorb, accept, adjust to, advocate, amplify, advance, back, be against, be committed/dedicated/ drawn to, be obsessed with, be struck by, borrow, cherish, clarify, cling to, come out/up with, confirm, conjure up, consider, contemplate, convey, debate, debunk, defend, demonstrate, develop, deny, dismiss, dispel, disprove, distort, drop, eliminate, encourage, endorse, entertain, explode, explore, expound, express, favor, fit, fit in with, follow up, form, formulate, foster, get, get accustomed/used to, get rid of, give up, go along with, grasp, hammer out, have, hit upon, hold, implement, imply, impose – on sb, incorporate, inculcate, instill, jot down, keep to, launch, meet, modify, negate, oppose, pick up, pioneer, plant, play with, popularize, present, promote, propose, put an end to, put forward, put – into practice, raise, refute, reinforce, reject, relish, resist, respond to, revive, ridicule, rule out, spread, squash, stick to, subscribe to, suggest, support, take to, take up, test, tinker with, toy with, turn down, warm to …

7 What else do they need to know? III Lexical phrases and chunks of language How’s things? I’d rather not … If it were up to me, I’d … So, what do you think? We got a quick bite to eat. What’s the matter? What do you mean by that? Well, what do you know? Look what the cat just dragged in Plus THOUSANDS more

8 What else do they need to know? IV The grammar systems (e.g. the present perfect tense) A government committee has been created to … He hasn’t seen her for a while, has he? No, he hasn’t. Why haven’t you been doing your homework? There’s been a big accident in Market Street. Have you ever seen a ghost? It’s very hard to see the patterns – there are many forms: Statement, negative, yes/no and wh- question forms, Simple or continuous Active or passive Short answers and questions tags (Yes, I have. …… hasn’t he?) Regular and irregular - has vs. have walked vs. bought Present perfect for ‘announcing news’, PP for ‘experiences’, etc. etc.

9 The forms of the present perfect tense I have given. You have given. He/she/it has given. We have given. They have given. Have I given? Have you given? Has he/she/it given? Have we given? Have they given? I haven’t given. You haven’t given. He/she/it haven’t given. We haven’t given They haven’t given. What have I given? What have you given? What has he/she/it given? What have we given? What have they given? I have been given. You have been given. He/she/it has been given. We have been given. They have been given. Have I been given? Have you been given? Has he/she/it been given? Have we been given? Have they been given? I haven’t been given. You haven’t been given. He/she/it hasn’t been given. We haven’t been given They haven’t been given. What have I been given? What have you been given? What has he/she/it been given? What have we been given? What have they been given? I have been giving. You have been giving. He/she/it has been giving. We have been giving. They have been giving. Have I been giving? Have you been giving? Has he/she/it been giving? Have we been giving? Have they been giving? I haven’t been giving. You haven’t been giving. He/she/it hasn’t been giving. We haven’t been giving They haven’t been giving. Yes, I have. No, I haven’t. Yes, you have. No, you haven’t. Yes, he/she/it has. No, he/she/it hasn’t. Yes, we have. No, we haven’t. Yes, they have. No, they haven’t ……, have I? ….., haven’t I? ……, have you? ……, haven’t you? ….., has he/he/it? ….., hasn’t he/she/it? ….., have we?..…, haven’t we? ….., have they? ….., haven’t they?

10 How long will it take to teach them? An average word needs 30-50 meetings for it to be learnt receptively from reading (more for productive use) An average word’s meaning takes 10-15 meetings to learn from word cards or word lists To learn the collocations and ‘deeper’ aspects of language learning takes MUCH longer. There’s little research into the rate learning of collocation, colligation or lexical phrases from reading We know nothing at all about how long it takes to master a particular grammatical form e.g. a tense

11 How well are our courses presenting the language students need? Research suggests an average language course: does not systematically recycle the grammatical forms outside the presentation unit / lesson has an almost random vocabulary selection without much regard to frequency or usefulness (mostly based on topic) rarely, if ever, recycles taught words either later in the unit, the book, or the series provide little additional practice in review units or workbooks has an overwhelming focus on new material in each lesson

12 The number of words a learner will probably learn from course work (225,000 words over 3 years) Probably knownPartially KnownProbably unknown 50+30-4920-2910-195-91-4Total Course book only 5232102294725801,2613,275 Data from Sequences, Foundations, Page Turners and Footprints by Heinle Cengage 225,000 60,800 570,000 174,000 (=1,029,000) Add one reader a week 1,0232832505395701,3253,990 Add two readers a week 1,3723803676948772,8826,572

13 How are we going to teach what? Discrete knowledge‘Fuzzy’ knowledge  Intentional learning e.g word cards Selection issues – what do we teach? Sequence issues – in what order? Scaffolding issues – how do we consolidate previous learning? Presentation issues – what method?  Incidental learning e.g extensive reading Rough grading Ensuring recycling Engaging text Matching input text to intentionally learnt materials Individual words Important lexical phrases False friends Loanwords Important collocations and colligations Basic grammatical patterns Important phrasal verbs, idioms etc. Word, phrase and sentence level awareness Register, Genre … Pragmatic knowledge Restrictions on use Most collocations and collocations A ‘sense’ of a word’s meaning and use A ‘sense’ of how grammar fits with lexis - the tenses, articles etc. Discourse level awareness

14 A Typical Reading Text Short texts Many difficult words Many exercises Definitions given

15 What’s the optimum vocabulary coverage for building fluency? Slow Reading speed High % of known vocabulary 100% Low Comprehension High 90% 98% Reading Pain (too hard, poor comprehension, high effort, de-motivating) Intensive reading (Instructional level, can learn new words and grammar) Speed reading practice (very fast, fluent, high comprehension, natural reading, enjoyable) Extensive reading (fast, fluent, adequate comprehension, enjoyable)

16 Graded readers

17 Graded readers are GRADED PhonicsEasy vocabMore difficult vocab Easy grammarMore difficult grammar Native books

18 Why can’t Korean students read, listen, speak and write well? Their language knowledge is often abstract, separated, discrete and very fragile to forgetting There’s too much work on “the pieces-of-language” and not enough comprehensible, meaningful discourse They haven’t met the words and grammar enough times to feel comfortable using it They CANNOT speak until they feel comfortable using their knowledge Not enough exposure. To acquire a 7000 word vocabulary requires them to meet about 10-15,000,000 words. A typical Junior high 3- year course book series has 250,000 words. They haven’t developed a ‘sense’ of language yet

19 Questions Make a list of say 20 activities you (or your students) most often do in your classes. e.g. explain things on the board, use the course book, discussions, pronunciation practice, read aloud, ……. Compare with a partner

20 The Balanced Curriculum ReceptiveProductive Language Study Explicit teaching Dictionary work Studying from a grammar book Intensive reading Language awareness activities Conscious word learning Controlled language production activities. Language and pronunciation drills Gap fill exercises Memorized dialogs Sentence completion tasks Tests Fluency Practice Extensive reading Extensive listening Watching movies Browsing the Internet Listening to the radio or music ‘Free’ language production activities. Casual conversations Debates and discussions Email, and online chat Diary writing Essays

21 The Balanced Curriculum ReceptiveProductive Language Study Fluency Practice Build language knowledge and get control over it Develop learning strategies Build language knowledge and get control over it Develop learning strategies Develop a sense of how the language works Build autonomy Build pragmatic and cultural knowledge Develop a sense of how the language works Build autonomy Build pragmatic and cultural knowledge

22 Balance in Language Teaching ReceptiveProductive Language Study Fluency Practice - provides new knowledge about language features -raises awareness of how the language works - raises awareness of learning strategies - Learners get a feel for how the language works - consolidates the discretely learned language features - allows learners to meet huge amounts of text -gives practice in checking whether something is known - allows learners to actively construct language - focuses on accurate control over language features - gives real time opportunities to experiment with language use - gives feedback on the success of language use - builds fluency of language production

23 The Balanced Curriculum ReceptiveProductive Language Study Fluency Practice Box 1 - Formal Learning Building knowledge about the language Awareness raising Box 2 - “Getting Control” Linking knowledge Accuracy focus Box 3 - Fluency Input Networking knowledge Comprehending input fluently Box 4 - Fluency Output Experimenting with language Developing fluency

24 How does learning happen? Notice something We don’t understand Get feedback Try it out Get more input Understand and add to our knowledge Correct use Incorrect use “Then they saw an ancient temple …”

25 Notice something Get more input (feedback) Try it out Add to our knowledge The Cycle of Learning

26 The Balanced Curriculum and the Cycle of Learning ReceptiveProductive Language Study Fluency Practice Notice things Add to your knowledge Get more input Notice things Add to your knowledge Get more input Try it out (controlled ) Try it out (free production)

27 What happens if they don’t do these things? ReceptiveProductive Language Study Fluency Practice - Fewer chances to notice new things - Hard to add new knowledge - Can’t check the accuracy of what they learnt - Not enough input - Few chances to develop automatic processing - Can’t develop fluent eye movements - Can’t experiment with their knowledge fluently

28 Beginner (young learners) Aim: basic language building Receptive Productive Language Study Fluency Practice Phonics Matching sounds to words Flashcards Games Some basic word order Listening to VERY easy stories Read along with the teacher Read and repeat Read aloud

29 Lower Elementary Aim: Consolidation ReceptiveProductive Language Study Fluency Practice Alphabet Flashcards Word study Some grammar Study skills Spelling Writing simple sentences Fun tests to check understanding Simple memorized dialogs Reading very simple stories Listening to simple stories Read aloud

30 Elementary / Lower Intermediate Aim: Initial fluency ReceptiveProductive Language Study Fluency Practice Word building Grammar Intensive reading Intensive listening Complex spellings Some tests Controlled production Role-plays Extensive reading Extensive listening Speed reading Topic controlled conversation Free chatting Journals / diaries Emails

31 Intermediate Aim: Fluency and speed ReceptiveProductive Language Study Fluency Practice Intensive reading Collocation Colligation Lexical chunks Extensive Reading Extensive Listening Simple movies Simple songs Speed reading Debates Essays Pushed output Speeches Discussions Control over complex discourse markers Cohesion, coherence

32 Advanced Aim: High level language control ReceptiveProductive Language Study Controlled production Fluency Practice Intensive reading Colligations Idioms etc. High level lexis Native texts Native movies Songs Radio, TV shows Debates Formal Essays Pushed output Complex discourse

33 Making them fluent Give opportunities for fluency…. F ast and efficient reading and listening practice L ink their practice to real tasks U nderstanding is primary E ncourage speed development work N urture confidence and motivation T ry extensive reading and listening

34 Be careful about using Native-level (L1) materials to build fluency Native books, magazines etc. are too hard to read fluently for MOST Korean learners Children’s books for natives are full of difficult words, phrases and concepts Native children already know 5000 words and almost all the grammar BEFORE they start to read Korean children know almost no English words and no grammar before they start English. Native texts usually are NOT suitable. Don’t confuse the final target (to read native texts) with the starting point and the way to get there.

35 The balance of teacher roles ReceptiveProductive Language Study knowledge source provider of accurate models controller elicitor tester feedback organizer prompter judge Fluency Practice counsellor guide resource observer assessor participant facilitator manager goal setter observer

36 True or false? The balanced curriculum tells us what needs to be done. The balanced curriculum suggests activities be done in the order, Box 1, 2, 3 and then 4. The balanced curriculum should replace your curriculum. Students can easily understand the balanced curriculum. TBC is an ideational framework for teachers planning curriculums and lessons.

37 Thank you for your time Dr. Rob Waring

38 ReceptiveProductive Language Study Fluency Practice

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