2 Kaedah Penyelidikan Quasi- Eksperimen dan ex-post facto
3 OBJEKTIF Menerangkan konsep, tujuan dan kepentingan kaedah penyelidikan Quasi-Eksperimen dan ex-post facto. Menilai kesesuaian penggunaan kaedah tersebut bagi permasalahan kajian yang dikemukakan. Merancang langkah-langkah pelaksanaan kajian mengikut kaedah tertentu.
4 Rekabentuk Quasi- Eksperimen The word "quasi" means as if or almost, so a quasi-experiment means almost a true experiment.
5 Kenapa Quasi-Eksperimen? Dinamakan Quasi-Eksperimental kerana penyelidikan yang dilakukan hampir menyerupai reka bentuk eksperimen, kecuali tiada pembahagian secara rawak dilakukan. Pembahagian rawak sukar dijalankan dalam keadaan tertentu seperti pemboleh ubah atribut (jantina, ras, pendapatan penjaga dll) kerana akan menjejaskan pemboleh ubah seperti rasa terasing dalam kumpulan baru dan sebagainya. Oleh itu reka bentuk ini digunakan. Kaedah reka bentuk quasi-eksperimen bukan sebenar-benar eksperimen kerana tiada pembahagian rawak dilakukan. Gunakan kumpulan sedia wujud dalam (intact group).
6 QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS; are usually constructions that already exist in the real world. Those designs that fall into the quasi-experimental category fall short in some way of the criteria for the true experimental group. A quasi-experimental design will have some sort of control and experimental group, but these groups probably weren't randomly selected. Random selection is usually where true-experimental and quasi-experimental designs differ. Some advantages of the quasi-experimental design include: Greater external validity (more like real world conditions) Much more feasible given time and logistical constraints Disadvantages: Not as many variables controlled (less causal claims)
7 Ciri-Ciri Rekabentuk Quasi-Eksperimen Dua atau lebih daripada kumpulan responden yang tidak diagih secara rawak. Memerlukan kawalan terhadap pemboleh ubah luaran yang tegas. Mengutamakan perbezaan antara kumpulan responden secara semula jadi.
8 Perbezaan antara eksperimen dengan quasi- eksperimen. Aktiviti bacaan: Sila baca artikel yang bertajuk; EXPERIMENTAL AND QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN True and Quasi-Experimental Designs.
9 Kaedah Ex Post Facto Perbandingan Sebab (Causal Comparative)
10 Ex post facto The Latin term "Ex post facto" means, in a UK legal context: "by reason of a subsequent act".
13 Causal-Comparative Studies Go beyond relationships/associations to examine cause-and-effects. Two types of these studies: Ex Post Facto Correlational
Ex post facto ‘from what is done afterwards’ Ex post facto The Latin term "Ex post facto" means, in a UK legal context: "by reason of a subsequent act". Ex-post-facto designs ("after the fact")
13 Definisi: Kaedah ini digunakan untuk mengenal pasti punca atau penyebab (IV) sesuatu kesan (DV) yang diperhati dimana IV adalah sesuatu yang telah berlaku dan tidak boleh dimanipulasikan(diluar kawalan penyelidik. Casual Research explores the effect of one thing on another and more specifically, the effect of one variable on another. Lihat contoh dalam Noraini Idris (2010), ms. 230
17 Causal-Comparative Studies Important Issues: Primary purpose should be developing cause-and- effect relationships when experimentation is not possible The “intervention” (IV) must have already occurred Must identify and consider extraneous variables Differences between the groups not due to the independent variable should be controlled Be careful with causal conclusions
15 Reka bentuk ini menekankan sebab yang dijangka. Contoh 1: Adakah program pendidikan pemulihan meningkatkan prestasi 3M murid-murid yang lemah? Contoh 2: Adakah program kaunseling individu meningkatkan motivasi murid bermasalah? Tafsiran sebab-akibat (cause-effect relationship) Penyelidik perlu memastikan: Terdapat hubungan antara A (IV) dan B (DV); A datang dahulu daripada B; Tidak ada kesan pemboleh ubah luaran terhadap A, B atau interaksi A dan B.
16 1.Perhubungan statistik yang signifikan antara pemboleh ubah bebas dan bersandar wujud dengan sah. 2.Pemboleh ubah bebas wujud sebelum pemboleh ubah bersandar. 3.Pemboleh ubah lain tidak mempengaruhi pemboleh ubah bersandar. Tiga Jenis Bukti Yang Perlu Untuk Mengesahkan Hubungan Sebab-akibat
17 1.Begin with subjects who differ on an independent variable (such as their principal instrument/voice) and study how they differ on dependent variables (such as levels of performance anxiety or music theory test scores). 2.Begin with subjects who differ on a dependent variable (such as attrition from music--comparing those students who drop out of music with those who persist) and study how they differ on various independent variables (such as how much they practice, how they feel about their relationship with their teacher, how they feel about themselves as musicians, etc.). Two Basic Approaches to Ex Post Facto Research
18 This type of study is very common and useful when using human subjects in real-world situations and the investigator comes in "after the fact." For example, it might be observed that students from one town have higher grades than students from a different town attending the same high school. Would just "being from a certain town" explain the differences? In an ex post facto study, specific reasons for the differences would be explored, such as differences in income, ethnicity, parent support, etc.
Studies that investigate possible cause and effect relationships by observing an existing condition or state of affairs and searching back in time for plausible causal factors. The ex post facto design is a variation of the "after-only with control group" experimental design. The chief difference is that both the experimental and control groups are selected after the experimental variable is introduced rather than before. Explores possible causes and effects. The independent variable is not manipulated, it has already been applied. Focuses first on the effect, then attempts to determine what caused the observed effect.
Characteristics of Ex Post Facto Researcher takes the effect/dependent variable and examines it retrospectively Establishes causes, relationships or associations and their meanings. Researcher has little to no control over independent variables. Flexible by nature. There is a control or comparison group. Intact groups are used. The treatment is not manipulated, it has already occurred. There may be both “treatment” and “control” groups, however these will be existing, not assigned by the researcher. There is no manipulation of conditions
21 Ex Post Facto research Researcher cannot manipulate some variables and therefor selects participants that have certain values for those variables by themselves (gender, personality, illness,...)
22 The experimenter does not manipulate the IV... that is subjects cannot be randomly assigned to the levels of the IV - rather they assign themselves because the IV is not manipulated, it also qualifies as a descriptive technique
When to use this? You can use this where more powerful experimental designs are not possible; when you are unable to select, control and manipulate the factors necessary to study cause and effect relationships directly, or when control variables except a single independent variable may be unrealistic and artificial.
Ex post facto advantages and disadvantages Advantages Show a correlation where more rigorous experimentation is not possible Exploratory tool Useful to avoid articiality in the research. Shows cause and effect relationships Disadvantages Lack of control for independent variable and randomizing subjects. Never certain if causative factor has been included or identified Relationship between two factors does not est. cause and effect. May be regarded as too flexible.
25 Melibatkan perbandingan antara kumpulan yang sedia wujud Contoh: Menyelidik murid-murid yang menonton rancangan belajar bahasa Inggeris melalui siaran TV dan membandingkan prestasi mereka untuk mengkaji sama ada menonton program bahasa Inggeris di TV dapat membantu meningkatkan pencapaian mata pelajaran tersebut. Murid-murid dikumpulkan dalam beberapa kumpulan mengikut banyaknya mereka menonton siaran tersebut.
26 Examples of Ex Post Facto Studies What is the effect of day care on the social skills of children? What is the relationship between participation in extracurricular activities and self concept? "smoking causes cancer”
27 Ex Post Facto - example Depression in rape victims
28 Research design X 1 = rape victim X 2 = control Y ij = average depression score in group i, at time j ---- indicates possible unequality of groups in both conditions
29 Kajian perbandingan sebab perlu digunakan apabila kajian eksperimen tidak dapat dilakukan. Keadaan sebab mesti berlaku sebelumnya. Pemboleh ubah ekstranous perlu dikenal pasti dan dicatat. Perbezaan antara kumpulan perlu dikawal. Hubungan sebab-akibat perlu dinyatakan dengan berhati-hati! Tips… Baca Noraini Idris (2010), ms. 235 (Jadual 12.1)
What Is Mixed Methods Research? A mixed methods research design is a procedure for collecting, analyzing, and “mixing” both quantitative and qualitative research and methods in a single study to understand a research problem.
Combined Designs and Uses Mixed Methods Research Action Research Combining quantitative and qualitative data to understand and explain a research problem better. Using quantitative and qualitative data for individuals to study problems that they face in their setting
When to Use Mixed Methods Designs When both quantitative and qualitative data, together, provide a better understanding of your research problem than either type by itself When one type of research (qualitative or quantitative) is not enough to address the research problem or answer the research questions. To incorporate a qualitative component into an otherwise quantitative study To build from one phase of a study to another Explore qualitatively then develop an instrument Follow-up a quantitative study qualitatively to obtain more detailed information
Identifying a Mixed Methods Study in the Literature The title includes words such as “mixed methods” or “multimethod,” etc. Data collection section indicates both qualitative and quantitative data were collected. Purpose statement and/or research questions indicate that the researcher intends to collect both quantitative and qualitative data during the study. Priority or weight: Qualitative, quantitative, or both equally Sequence of collecting quantitative and qualitative data is indicated Analyze both data sets Combined in one analysis (integrated) Separate analysis
A Notation System for Designs Study #1 QUAL + QUAN + indicates the simultaneous or concurrent collection of quantitative and qualitative data Study #2 QUAN qual Shows sequential collection of quantitative and qualitative data Uppercase letters indicate a priority or increased weight for quantitative and/or qualitative data. Lowercase letters indicate a lower priority or weight for either quantitative and/or qualitative data. NOTATION USED
Types of Mixed Methods Designs I. Triangulation Mixed Methods Design II. Explanatory Mixed Methods Design III. Exploratory Mixed Methods Design QUAN Data and Results QUAN Data and Results + QUAL Data and Results QUAL Data and Results qual Data and Results quan Data and Results Interpretation Follow-up Building
Mixed Methods Designs: Explanatory Design Researcher places priority on quantitative (QUAN) data collection and analysis. Researcher collects quantitative data first in the sequence. Researcher uses the qualitative data to explain the results of the quantitative data.
Mixed Methods Designs: Exploratory Design Research emphasizes qualitative (QUAL) data rather than quantitative (quan) data. Researcher has a sequence of data collection that involves collecting qualitative data followed by quantitative data. Researcher plans on the quantitative data to build on or explain the initial qualitative findings.
Key Characteristics of Mixed Methods Designs Rationale for the design Collecting quantitative and qualitative data Priority Sequence Data analysis matched to design Diagram of the procedures
Key Characteristics of Mixed Methods Designs: Rationale Rationale Test findings of first phase Explain results of first phase in more detail Provide a more complete understanding than either quantitative or qualitative alone Collecting both quantitative and qualitative data Numeric data Text data
Key Characteristics of Mixed Methods Designs: Priority and Sequence Priority Equal weight QUAN carries more weight than qual QUAL carries more weight than quan Sequence Collect both quantitative and qualitative data at the same time Collect quantitative data first, followed by qualitative data Collect qualitative data first, followed by quantitative data
Key Characteristics of Mixed Methods Designs: Analysis and Diagram Analysis matched to design (“mixing”) Data analysis strategies for triangulation design Data analysis strategies for exploratory design Data analysis strategies for explanatory design Diagram of procedures Use notation system Identify priority Identify sequence
Examples of Visual Diagrams I. Triangulation Mixed Methods Design II. Embedded Mixed Methods Design QUAN (Data and Results) + QUAL (Data and Results) Interpretation QUAN Data and Results QUAN (Data and Results) Interpretation
III. Explanatory Mixed Methods Design IV. Exploratory Mixed Methods Design QUAN (Data and Results) QUAL (Data and Results) qual (Data and Results) quan (Data and Results) Follow-up Building Examples of Visual Diagrams (cont’d)
Steps for Conducting a Mixed Methods Study Determine if a mixed methods study is feasible Develop quantitative and qualitative research questions Collect quantitative and qualitative data Analyze data separately or concurrently Write the report as a one- or two-phase study Identify the data collection strategy and type of design Identify a rationale for a mixed methods study Step 1 Step 2 Step 4 Step 3 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Priority Sequence Visualization
Choosing Whether to Use a Quantitative or Qualitative Approach Match the approach to the problem Fit the approach to your audience Relate the approach to your experiences