2Aims Myth busting What does Islam say about mental illness? Types of mental health problemsCausesTreatmentWhat can you do to help someone with mental illness?Where to turn for help?What can we do as a Muslim community?Useful Resources
4Timings 2.00 Prayers 2.15 Introduction 2.30 Quiz 2.40 Mental illness – causes, typesGroup work – Impact of Mental IllnessBreak3.30 Treatment, how to help someone, JinnGroup work – What can Muslim community do?4.20 Q&A4.30 End
5What is ‘Mental Health’? Being mentally healthy isn’t just not having a mental health problem.Good mental health:Make the most of your potentialCope with lifePlay a full part in your family, workplace, community and among friendsAlso called ‘Emotional health’ or ‘Well-being’We all have times when we feel down or stressed or frightened. Most of the time those feelings pass.Everyone is different. You may bounce back from a setback while someone else may feel weighed down by it for a long time.1. But sometimes they develop into a more serious problem.
6Mental illness and Islam All diseases are trial and test from AllahSins are forgivenAbu Hurayrah narrates that The Prophet pbuh said: “There is no disease that Allah has created, except that He also has created its remedy.” (Bukhari 7.582)Usamah ibn Shuraik narrated: “… ‘O Allah’s Messenger! Should we seek medical treatment for our illnesses?’ He replied: ‘Yes, you should seek medical treatment, because Allah, the Exalted, has let no disease exist without providing for its cure, except for one ailment, namely, old age’.” (Tirmidhi)To seek treatment!
7Mental illness and Islam Amber Haque (2004), "Psychology from Islamic Perspective: Contributions of Early Muslim Scholars and Challenges to Contemporary Muslim Psychologists", Journal of Religion and HealthAbu Zayd Al-Balkhi ( )Described several types of mental illnessCriticised medical doctors for ignoring the psychological aspect of diseaseAdvocated psychotherapyIbn Sina ( )
8Myth 1 – “not a real disease” MYTH: Mental illness is caused by weakness rather than a medical disorder. Psychiatric disorders are not true medical illnesses like heart disease and diabetes. People who have a mental illness are just "crazy”.FACT: It is a medical condition that disrupts a person’s thinking, feeling, mood, and ability to relate to others and daily functioning. Research shows there are genetic and biological causes for psychiatric disorders, and they can be treated effectively. (Imbalance of neurotransmitters).
9Causes of Mental illness Genetic – family historySmall increased risk, most people do not have family members affectedStressors – past and presentDifficult family background e.g. abuse - sexual, domestic violence, emotional, physical, financial, torture, etc.Stressful life events e.g. work, family, marriage, bereavement, relationship difficulties, financial, abuse, etc.Physical illness – head injury, long-term physical illness, epilepsyLong term substance abuseSocial problems - poverty, domestic violence, isolation, poor housing and addiction
10Myth 2 – “addiction is your own fault” MYTH: Addiction is a lifestyle choice and shows a lack of willpower. People with a substance abuse problem are morally weak or "bad"FACT: Addiction is a disease that generally results from changes in brain chemistry. It has nothing to do with being a "bad" person
12Depression Common Lowers your mood Feel hopeless, worthless, unmotivated, exhaustedAffects sleep, appetite, libido, self-esteemTearfulMild, moderate, severeSelf-harm, suicidal thoughtsAnxiety and Depression are most common mental health problems
13AnxietyCommonConstant unrealistic worry about any aspect of daily lifeRestless, sleeping problems, increased heart beat, stomach upset, feeling shaky, muscle tension (headaches)Panic attacksPhobias
14SchizophreniaHearing voices and/or seeing (hallucinations) and believing (delusions) things other people don’t share and that are abnormal for your contextConfusion re thoughts, withdrawn, suspicious of othersReluctant to believe help neededUp to 4% of population hear voices – most have no problemThought insertion, thought withdrawal, thought broadcastVoices – 1 or more, familiar or not, friendly or criticalGandhi, Anthony Hopkins, John Forbes Nash (Nobel peace prize 1994, film- A Beautiful Mind), Charles Dickens, Winston Churchill, Sigmund Freud
15Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Obsessions – repeated unwelcome thoughts, ideas, urges e.g.contaminated by dirt/germsworrying that you haven’t locked the doorCompulsions – repetitive activities that you feel you have to do a set number of times.Obsessions interrupts your thoughts and concentration on work – feel anxiousCompulsions takes up time and relief is short lived
16Eating Disorders Eating too much or too little Anorexia – lose weight To feel controlBulimia – More common. Weight is steady.Binge, vomiting, laxativesConstantly thinking about food, weight, self-imageTo disguise emotional pain, deeper issues1 in 20 women
17Bipolar Disorder (Manic Depression) Extreme swings in moodMania – overactive, excited behaviour, euphoriaDepressionHearing voices and/or seeing (hallucinations) and believing (delusions) things other people don’t share and that are abnormal for your context
18Impact of Mental illness Time to use your brain!IndividualFamilySocietyOther
19Myth 3 – “pull yourself together” MYTH: If you have a mental illness, you can will it away. Being treated for a psychiatric disorder means an individual has in some way "failed" or is weak.FACT: A serious mental illness cannot be willed away. Ignoring the problem does not make it go away, either. It takes courage to seek professional help.
20Treatment SUPPORT Exercise Relaxation – music, art, reading , walking, restingTalking therapiesCognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT)CounsellingPsychotherapyGroup therapyIslamic CounsellingRelationship or family therapyMedicationMinor tranquillisers or sleeping pills – to help someone calm down or sleepAnti-depressants – to lift depression and anxietyAnti-psychotics – to control disturbing thoughtsMood stabilisers – to control extremes of mood
21What can you do to help someone with a mental illness? You don’t need to be an expert to help!TALK – Don’t be afraid to ask how they are. They may want to talk about it or not. To let them know they don’t need to avoid the issue with you.ASK – how can I help? Accompany to appointment. Exercise together. Help with shopping.Be open-minded and LISTEN.Talk about other things you would normally talk about too.Learn about the mental health problemLook after yourselfEmergency – A+E, Samaritan’s helpline, NHS 111Non-emergency – leaflets, helpline, talking
22Jinn related illnessJinn mentioned in the Quran – made of smokeless fire, have free will, accountable for actions, can change form, have families, eat, dieMost scholars believe jinn possession is possible; some don’t80-90% of those who think jinn related illness are wrong. Possession is even more rare.Ruqya – recites verses from QuranPatient will experience seizure and the jinn will speak through the client.No seizure occurs, but signs indicate that jinn caused the problem and is now gone.Nothing happens, in which case the problem was physiological or psychological.
23What can we as a Muslim community do to help those with mental illness? Discuss...IndividualsSociety, mosquesWorkHomeFriends, familyGovernmentEtc.
25Resources - videos www.talkingfromtheheart.org Videos in Somali, Urdu, Bengali/SylhetiVideos and transcripts of people's experience with having a mental health problem. Also of parents, siblings, carers.Videos and transcript of Sara (Muslim), aged 20, talking about her mental health problems and the stigma she faced from her family.They are 10-15mins long each and the Somali video has a patient talking about her mental health problems. They also contain an Imam and health professionals in each of the 3 videos.Healthtalkonline.org is a great resource with people's stories about a whole range of health problems.Youthhealthtalk.org is a great resource with young people's stories about a range of health problems
26QuestionsIs there a link between Domestic Violence and mental health concerning both women and their children, particularly in adulthood?A woman runs a social support group, one of the stakeholders presents to her that she has frequent and numerous suicidal thoughts. She doesn't appear to be an immediate danger to herself or anyone else. In such a circumstance, what do you recommend she does in response?