3BasicsBefore we can start in with some new and interesting medical terms, you need to learn a few fundamentals of how medical terminology is constructed as a language.There are three basic parts to medical terms: a word root (usually the middle of the word and its central meaning), a prefix (comes at the beginning and usually identifies some subdivision or part of the central meaning), and a suffix (comes at the end and modifies the central meaning as to what or who is interacting with it or what is happening to it). An example may make better sense.
4Word roottherm = heathypothermia (less heat), thermometer (measuring heat)Let’s look at a real medical term and take it apart.Myocarditis(prefix) (root) (suffix)myo = muscle card = heart itis = inflammationDon’t get blown away by that big, intimidating word! We haven’t introduced word roots yet. I just wanted to demonstrate the major parts of a medical term. Let’s see how prefix and suffix changes can alter the meaning of a term without changing its central meaning by keeping the root the same.
5Prefix change: myocarditis = muscle layer of heart inflamed pericarditis = outer layer of heart inflamedEndocarditis = inner layer of heart inflamed
6Suffix change: cardiologist = a physician specializing in the heart cardiomyopathy = damage to heart muscle layercardiomegaly = enlargement of the heartAgain, we haven’t introduced heart terms yet. These basics are just to introduce the parts of medical terms and demonstrate how moving the parts around modifies the central meaning without changing the “root” (cardio).
7Useful prefixes and suffixes Following, in no particular order, are frequently used word beginnings (prefixes) and word endings (suffixes) used to make up many medical terms. You don’t need to memorize whether an item is a prefix or suffix, or even if it is a word root, just what it means! I know this is all “Greek” to you (and some of it really is!), but there will be so much reinforcement as we go along that you can’t help but remember meanings. Be patient with yourself.
8-itis = inflammation tonsillitis, appendicitis -osis = abnormal condition cyanosis (of blueness, due to cold or low oxygen)-ectomy = to cut out (remove) appendectomy, tonsillectomy-otomy = to cut into tracheotomy (to cut into the windpipe,temporary opening)-ostomy = to make a “mouth” colostomy (to make a permanent opening in colon)a/an = without, none anemia (literally no blood but means few red cells)micro = small microstomia (abnormally small mouth, see “stomy” in colostomy above?)macro = large macrostomia (abnormally large mouth)Mega/megaly = enlarged megacolon (abnormally large colon = large intestine)-scopy/scopic = to look, observe colonoscopy (look into colon)
9-graphy/ -graph = recording an image mammography (imaging the breasts) -gram = the image (X-ray) mammogram-ology/ -ologist = study, specialize in cardiologist, nephrologist (studythe heart, the kidneys)
12MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM Oste/o Bone Osteitis, osteoma, osteocyteChondr/o Cartilage Chondritis, chondroma, chondrocyteArthr/o Joint Arthritis, arthroplastyMyel/o Bone marrow MyelomaTen/o, tendin/o Tendon Tendonitis, tenorrhaphyLigament/o Ligament Ligamentous injuryBurs/o Bursa, “bag” BursitisMy/o, myos/o Muscle Myoma, myositis-malacia Softening Osteomalacia, chondromalacia-porosis Porous Osteoporosis-asthenia Weakness, loss of strength Myasthenia gravis-trophy Development, stimulation, maintenance: Atrophy (shriveling of muscles), hypertrophy (increase in size and strength of muscles)-algia, algesia Pain Myalgia, arthralgia, analgesia
13Abbreviations AC acromioclavicular joint BP blood pressure ACL anterior cruciate ligamentbpm beats per minuteADL activities of daily livingCBC complete blood countAIIS anterior inferior iliac spineCF calcaneo-fibular lig.AMA against medical adviceCNS central nervous systemAP anterior-posteriorc/o complains ofAROM active range of motionCSF cerebral spinal fluidASIS anterior superior iliac spineCT computerized tomographyATC athletic trainer, certifiedD/C discontinued or dischargeATF anterior talo-fibular ligamentb.i.d. twice a dayAbbreviations
14DIP distal interphalangeal L leftjointsLBP lower back painDTR deep tendon reflexLCL lateral collateral ligamentDx diagnosisLE lower extemityECG, EKG electrocardiogramLLQ left lower quadrantEENT Ear,eyes,nose, throatLOC loss of consciousnessEMG electromyogramLUQ left upper quadrantER external rotationMeds medicationsFH family historyMCL medial collateral ligamentFWB full weight bearingMI myocardial infarctionFx fractureMMT manual muscle testGI gastrointestinalMCP/MTP metacarpal/tarsalphalangealHR heart rateHx historyMRI magnetic resonance imagingICU intensive care unitneg. negativeIM intramusclarNPO nothing by mouthIR internal rotationNWB non weight bearingIV intravenous
15O.R. operating roomPSIS posterior superior iliac spineORIF open reduction, internalPT physical therapy,fixationphysical therapistPA or PAC phyician’s assitantPt., pt. patientPCL posterior cruciate ligamentPTF posterior talo-fibular lig.PEARL pupils, equal, andPWB partial wieght bearingreactive to lightq everyPIP proximal interphalangeal jt.q.d. every dayPNF propriceptiveq.h. every hourneuromuscularq.i.d. four times a dayfacilitationq.2 h. every 2 hourspos. positiveR rightpost-op after surgeryRCL radial collateral ligamentpre-op before surgeryRLQ right lower quadrantPRE progressive resistiver/o rule outexerciseROM range of motionPROM passive range of motionprn whenever necessary
16RROM resistive range of motion VMO vastus medialis obliqueRUQ right upper quadrantW/cm2 watts per square cmRx prescriptionWNL within normal limitsSC sternoclavicular jointWP WhirlpoolSI sacroliacy/o years oldSLR straight leg raise@ atSOAP subjective, objective,c withassessment, plans withoutstat. immediately, at oncea before (ante)Sx symptomsp after (post)tab tabx times (i.e. 3 x week)TENS transcutaneous electrical> greater thannerve stimulation< less thant.i.d. three times daily= equalsTMJ temporomandibular joint+ plus, positiveTx treatment- minus, negativeUCL ulnar collateral ligament~ approximatelyUE upper extremitydown:decrease up:increaseUS ultrasound