Presentation on theme: "Medical Terminology."— Presentation transcript:
Basics Before we can start in with some new and interesting medical terms, you need to learn a few fundamentals of how medical terminology is constructed as a language. There are three basic parts to medical terms: a word root (usually the middle of the word and its central meaning), a prefix (comes at the beginning and usually identifies some subdivision or part of the central meaning), and a suffix (comes at the end and modifies the central meaning as to what or who is interacting with it or what is happening to it). An example may make better sense.
Word root therm = heat hypothermia (less heat), thermometer (measuring heat) Let’s look at a real medical term and take it apart. Myocarditis (prefix) (root) (suffix) myo = muscle card = heart itis = inflammation Don’t get blown away by that big, intimidating word! We haven’t introduced word roots yet. I just wanted to demonstrate the major parts of a medical term. Let’s see how prefix and suffix changes can alter the meaning of a term without changing its central meaning by keeping the root the same.
Prefix change: myocarditis = muscle layer of heart inflamed pericarditis = outer layer of heart inflamed Endocarditis = inner layer of heart inflamed
Suffix change : cardiologist = a physician specializing in the heart cardiomyopathy = damage to heart muscle layer cardiomegaly = enlargement of the heart Again, we haven’t introduced heart terms yet. These basics are just to introduce the parts of medical terms and demonstrate how moving the parts around modifies the central meaning without changing the “root” (cardio).
Useful prefixes and suffixes Following, in no particular order, are frequently used word beginnings (prefixes) and word endings (suffixes) used to make up many medical terms. You don’t need to memorize whether an item is a prefix or suffix, or even if it is a word root, just what it means! I know this is all “Greek” to you (and some of it really is!), but there will be so much reinforcement as we go along that you can’t help but remember meanings. Be patient with yourself.
-itis = inflammation tonsillitis, appendicitis -osis = abnormal condition cyanosis (of blueness, due to cold or low oxygen) -ectomy = to cut out (remove) appendectomy, tonsillectomy -otomy = to cut into tracheotomy (to cut into the windpipe, temporary opening) -ostomy = to make a “mouth” colostomy (to make a permanent opening in colon) a/an = without, none anemia (literally no blood but means few red cells) micro = small microstomia (abnormally small mouth, see “stomy” in colostomy above?) macro = large macrostomia (abnormally large mouth) Mega/megaly = enlarged megacolon (abnormally large colon = large intestine) -scopy/scopic = to look, observe colonoscopy (look into colon)
-graphy/ -graph = recording an image mammography (imaging the breasts) -gram = the image (X-ray) mammogram -ology/ -ologist = study, specialize in cardiologist, nephrologist (study the heart, the kidneys)
MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM Oste/o Bone Osteitis, osteoma, osteocyte Chondr/o Cartilage Chondritis, chondroma, chondrocyte Arthr/o Joint Arthritis, arthroplasty Myel/o Bone marrow Myeloma Ten/o, tendin/o Tendon Tendonitis, tenorrhaphy Ligament/o Ligament Ligamentous injury Burs/o Bursa, “bag” Bursitis My/o, myos/o Muscle Myoma, myositis -malacia Softening Osteomalacia, chondromalacia -porosis Porous Osteoporosis -asthenia Weakness, loss of strength Myasthenia gravis -trophy Development, stimulation, maintenance: Atrophy (shriveling of muscles), hypertrophy (increase in size and strength of muscles) -algia, algesia Pain Myalgia, arthralgia, analgesia
Abbreviations AC acromioclavicular joint ACL anterior cruciate ligament ADL activities of daily living AIIS anterior inferior iliac spine AMA against medical advice AP anterior-posterior AROM active range of motion ASIS anterior superior iliac spine ATC athletic trainer, certified ATF anterior talo-fibular ligament b.i.d. twice a day BP blood pressure bpm beats per minute CBCcomplete blood count CF calcaneo-fibular lig. CNS central nervous system c/o complains of CSF cerebral spinal fluid CT computerized tomography D/C discontinued or discharge
DIP distal interphalangeal joints DTR deep tendon reflex Dx diagnosis ECG, EKG electrocardiogram EENT Ear,eyes,nose, throat EMG electromyogram ER external rotation FH family history FWB full weight bearing Fx fracture GI gastrointestinal HR heart rate Hx history ICU intensive care unit IM intramusclar IR internal rotation IV intravenous L left LBP lower back pain LCL lateral collateral ligament LE lower extemity LLQ left lower quadrant LOC loss of consciousness LUQ left upper quadrant Meds medications MCLmedial collateral ligament MI myocardial infarction MMT manual muscle test MCP/MTP metacarpal/tarsalphalangeal MRI magnetic resonance imaging neg. negative NPO nothing by mouth NWB non weight bearing
O.R. operating room ORIF open reduction, internal fixation PA or PAC phyician’s assitant PCL posterior cruciate ligament PEARL pupils, equal, and reactive to light PIP proximal interphalangeal jt. PNF propriceptive neuromuscular facilitation pos. positive post-op after surgery pre-op before surgery PRE progressive resistive exercise PROM passive range of motion prn whenever necessary PSIS posterior superior iliac spine PT physical therapy, physical therapist Pt., pt. patient PTF posterior talo-fibular lig. PWB partial wieght bearing q every q.d. every day q.h. every hour q.i.d. four times a day q.2 h. every 2 hours R right RCL radial collateral ligament RLQ right lower quadrant r/o rule out ROM range of motion
RROM resistive range of motion RUQ right upper quadrant Rx prescription SC sternoclavicular joint SI sacroliac SLR straight leg raise SOAP subjective, objective, assessment, plan stat. immediately, at once Sx symptoms tab TENStranscutaneous electrical nerve stimulation t.i.d. three times daily TMJ temporomandibular joint Tx treatment UCL ulnar collateral ligament UE upper extremity US ultrasound VMO vastus medialis oblique W/cm2 watts per square cm WNL within normal limits WP Whirlpool y/o years at c with s without a before (ante) p after (post) x times (i.e. 3 x week) > greater than < less than = equals + plus, positive - minus, negative ~ approximately down:decrease up:increase