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Medical Terminology.

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Presentation on theme: "Medical Terminology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Medical Terminology

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3 Basics Before we can start in with some new and interesting medical terms, you need to learn a few fundamentals of how medical terminology is constructed as a language. There are three basic parts to medical terms: a word root (usually the middle of the word and its central meaning), a prefix (comes at the beginning and usually identifies some subdivision or part of the central meaning), and a suffix (comes at the end and modifies the central meaning as to what or who is interacting with it or what is happening to it). An example may make better sense.

4 Word root therm = heat hypothermia (less heat), thermometer (measuring heat) Let’s look at a real medical term and take it apart. Myocarditis (prefix) (root) (suffix) myo = muscle card = heart itis = inflammation Don’t get blown away by that big, intimidating word! We haven’t introduced word roots yet. I just wanted to demonstrate the major parts of a medical term. Let’s see how prefix and suffix changes can alter the meaning of a term without changing its central meaning by keeping the root the same.

5 Prefix change: myocarditis = muscle layer of heart inflamed
pericarditis = outer layer of heart inflamed Endocarditis = inner layer of heart inflamed

6 Suffix change: cardiologist = a physician specializing in the heart
cardiomyopathy = damage to heart muscle layer cardiomegaly = enlargement of the heart Again, we haven’t introduced heart terms yet. These basics are just to introduce the parts of medical terms and demonstrate how moving the parts around modifies the central meaning without changing the “root” (cardio).

7 Useful prefixes and suffixes
Following, in no particular order, are frequently used word beginnings (prefixes) and word endings (suffixes) used to make up many medical terms. You don’t need to memorize whether an item is a prefix or suffix, or even if it is a word root, just what it means! I know this is all “Greek” to you (and some of it really is!), but there will be so much reinforcement as we go along that you can’t help but remember meanings. Be patient with yourself.

8 -itis = inflammation tonsillitis, appendicitis
-osis = abnormal condition cyanosis (of blueness, due to cold or low oxygen) -ectomy = to cut out (remove) appendectomy, tonsillectomy -otomy = to cut into tracheotomy (to cut into the windpipe, temporary opening) -ostomy = to make a “mouth” colostomy (to make a permanent opening in colon) a/an = without, none anemia (literally no blood but means few red cells) micro = small microstomia (abnormally small mouth, see “stomy” in colostomy above?) macro = large macrostomia (abnormally large mouth) Mega/megaly = enlarged megacolon (abnormally large colon = large intestine) -scopy/scopic = to look, observe colonoscopy (look into colon)

9 -graphy/ -graph = recording an image mammography (imaging the breasts)
-gram = the image (X-ray) mammogram -ology/ -ologist = study, specialize in cardiologist, nephrologist (study the heart, the kidneys)

10 WORD ROOTS Stomato = mouth stomatitis Dento = teeth dentist
Glosso/linguo = tongue glossitis, lingual nerve Gingivo = gums gingivitis Encephalo = brain encephalitis Gastro = stomach gastritis Entero = intestine gastroenteritis Colo = large intestine colitis, megacolon Procto = anus/rectum proctitis, proctologist Hepato = liver hepatitis, hepatomegaly Nephro/rene = kidney nephrosis, renal artery

11 Orchido = testis orchiditis, orchidectomy
Oophoro = ovary oophorectomy Hystero/metro =uterus hysterectomy,endometritis Salpingo = uterine tubes hysterosalpingogram Dermo = skin dermatitis Masto/mammo = breast mammography, mastectomy Osteo = bones osteoporosis Cardio = heart electrocardiogram (ECG) Cysto = bladder cystitis Rhino = nose rhinitis (runny nose!) Phlebo/veno = veins phlebitis, phlebotomy Pneumo/pulmo = lung pneumonitis, pulmonologist Hemo/emia = blood hematologist, anemia

12 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM
Oste/o Bone Osteitis, osteoma, osteocyte Chondr/o Cartilage Chondritis, chondroma, chondrocyte Arthr/o Joint Arthritis, arthroplasty Myel/o Bone marrow Myeloma Ten/o, tendin/o Tendon Tendonitis, tenorrhaphy Ligament/o Ligament Ligamentous injury Burs/o Bursa, “bag” Bursitis My/o, myos/o Muscle Myoma, myositis -malacia Softening Osteomalacia, chondromalacia -porosis Porous Osteoporosis -asthenia Weakness, loss of strength Myasthenia gravis -trophy Development, stimulation, maintenance: Atrophy (shriveling of muscles), hypertrophy (increase in size and strength of muscles) -algia, algesia Pain Myalgia, arthralgia, analgesia

13 Abbreviations AC acromioclavicular joint BP blood pressure
ACL anterior cruciate ligament bpm beats per minute ADL activities of daily living CBC complete blood count AIIS anterior inferior iliac spine CF calcaneo-fibular lig. AMA against medical advice CNS central nervous system AP anterior-posterior c/o complains of AROM active range of motion CSF cerebral spinal fluid ASIS anterior superior iliac spine CT computerized tomography ATC athletic trainer, certified D/C discontinued or discharge ATF anterior talo-fibular ligament b.i.d. twice a day Abbreviations

14 DIP distal interphalangeal
L left joints LBP lower back pain DTR deep tendon reflex LCL lateral collateral ligament Dx diagnosis LE lower extemity ECG, EKG electrocardiogram LLQ left lower quadrant EENT Ear,eyes,nose, throat LOC loss of consciousness EMG electromyogram LUQ left upper quadrant ER external rotation Meds medications FH family history MCL medial collateral ligament FWB full weight bearing MI myocardial infarction Fx fracture MMT manual muscle test GI gastrointestinal MCP/MTP metacarpal/tarsalphalangeal HR heart rate Hx history MRI magnetic resonance imaging ICU intensive care unit neg. negative IM intramusclar NPO nothing by mouth IR internal rotation NWB non weight bearing IV intravenous

15 O.R. operating room PSIS posterior superior iliac spine ORIF open reduction, internal PT physical therapy, fixation physical therapist PA or PAC phyician’s assitant Pt., pt. patient PCL posterior cruciate ligament PTF posterior talo-fibular lig. PEARL pupils, equal, and PWB partial wieght bearing reactive to light q every PIP proximal interphalangeal jt. q.d. every day PNF propriceptive q.h. every hour neuromuscular q.i.d. four times a day facilitation q.2 h. every 2 hours pos. positive R right post-op after surgery RCL radial collateral ligament pre-op before surgery RLQ right lower quadrant PRE progressive resistive r/o rule out exercise ROM range of motion PROM passive range of motion prn whenever necessary

16 RROM resistive range of motion
VMO vastus medialis oblique RUQ right upper quadrant W/cm2 watts per square cm Rx prescription WNL within normal limits SC sternoclavicular joint WP Whirlpool SI sacroliac y/o years old SLR straight leg raise @ at SOAP subjective, objective, c with assessment, plan s without stat. immediately, at once a before (ante) Sx symptoms p after (post) tab tab x times (i.e. 3 x week) TENS transcutaneous electrical > greater than nerve stimulation < less than t.i.d. three times daily = equals TMJ temporomandibular joint + plus, positive Tx treatment - minus, negative UCL ulnar collateral ligament ~ approximately UE upper extremity down:decrease up:increase US ultrasound


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