# Language Modeling.

## Presentation on theme: "Language Modeling."— Presentation transcript:

Language Modeling

Review LM evaluation metrics Entropy Perplexity Smoothing Good-Turing Backoff and Interpolation Absolute Discounting Kneser-Ney

Language Model Evaluation Metrics

Applications

Entropy and perplexity
Entropy – measure information content, in bits 𝐻 𝑝 = 𝑥 𝑝 𝑥 × − log 2 𝑝 𝑥 − log 2 𝑝 𝑥 is message length with ideal code Use log 2 if you want to measure in bits! Cross entropy – measure ability of trained model to compactly represent test data 𝑤 1 𝑛 𝑖=1 𝑛 1 𝑛 × − log 2 𝑝 𝑤 𝑖 𝑤 1 𝑖−1 Average logprob of test data Perplexity – measure average branching factor 2 𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑦

Entropy and perplexity
Entropy – measure information content, in bits 𝐻 𝑝 = 𝑥 𝑝 𝑥 × − log 2 𝑝 𝑥 − log 2 𝑝 𝑥 is message length with ideal code Use log 2 if you want to measure in bits! Cross entropy – measure ability of trained model to compactly represent test data 𝑤 1 𝑛 𝑖=1 𝑛 1 𝑛 × − log 2 𝑝 𝑤 𝑖 𝑤 1 𝑖−1 Average logprob of test data Perplexity – measure average branching factor 2 𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑦

Entropy and perplexity
Entropy – measure information content, in bits 𝐻 𝑝 = 𝑥 𝑝 𝑥 × − log 2 𝑝 𝑥 − log 2 𝑝 𝑥 is message length with ideal code Use log 2 if you want to measure in bits! Cross entropy – measure ability of trained model to compactly represent test data 𝑤 1 𝑛 𝑖=1 𝑛 1 𝑛 × − log 2 𝑝 𝑤 𝑖 𝑤 1 𝑖−1 Average logprob of test data Perplexity – measure average branching factor 2 𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑦

Entropy and perplexity
Entropy – measure information content, in bits 𝐻 𝑝 = 𝑥 𝑝 𝑥 × − log 2 𝑝 𝑥 − log 2 𝑝 𝑥 is message length with ideal code Use log 2 if you want to measure in bits! Cross entropy – measure ability of trained model to compactly represent test data 𝑤 1 𝑛 𝑖=1 𝑛 1 𝑛 × − log 2 𝑝 𝑤 𝑖 𝑤 1 𝑖−1 Average logprob of test data Perplexity – measure average branching factor 2 𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑦

Language model perplexity
Recipe: Train a language model on training data Get negative logprobs of test data, compute average Exponentiate! Perplexity correlates rather well with: Speech recognition error rates MT quality metrics LM Perplexities for word-based models are normally between say 50 and 1000 Need to drop perplexity by a significant fraction (not absolute amount) to make a visible impact

Parameter estimation What is it?

Parameter estimation Model form is fixed (coin unigrams, word bigrams, …) We have observations H H H T T H T H H Want to find the parameters Maximum Likelihood Estimation – pick the parameters that assign the most probability to our training data c(H) = 6; c(T) = 3 P(H) = 6 / 9 = 2 / 3; P(T) = 3 / 9 = 1 / 3 MLE picks parameters best for training data… …but these don’t generalize well to test data – zeros!

Parameter estimation Model form is fixed (coin unigrams, word bigrams, …) We have observations H H H T T H T H H Want to find the parameters Maximum Likelihood Estimation – pick the parameters that assign the most probability to our training data c(H) = 6; c(T) = 3 P(H) = 6 / 9 = 2 / 3; P(T) = 3 / 9 = 1 / 3 MLE picks parameters best for training data… …but these don’t generalize well to test data – zeros!

Parameter estimation Model form is fixed (coin unigrams, word bigrams, …) We have observations H H H T T H T H H Want to find the parameters Maximum Likelihood Estimation – pick the parameters that assign the most probability to our training data c(H) = 6; c(T) = 3 P(H) = 6 / 9 = 2 / 3; P(T) = 3 / 9 = 1 / 3 MLE picks parameters best for training data… …but these don’t generalize well to test data – zeros!

Smoothing Take mass from seen events, give to unseen events
Robin Hood for probability models MLE at one end of the spectrum; uniform distribution the other Need to pick a happy medium, and yet maintain a distribution 𝑥 𝑝 𝑥 =1 𝑝 𝑥 ≥0 ∀𝑥

Smoothing techniques Laplace Good-Turing Backoff Mixtures
Interpolation Kneser-Ney

Laplace From MLE: 𝑝 𝑥 = 𝑐 𝑥 𝑥 ′ 𝑐 𝑥 ′ To Laplace:
𝑝 𝑥 = 𝑐 𝑥 𝑥 ′ 𝑐 𝑥 ′ To Laplace: 𝑝 𝑥 = 𝑐 𝑥 +1 𝑥 ′ 𝑐 𝑥 ′ +1

Good-Turing Smoothing
New idea: Use counts of things you have seen to estimate those you haven’t

Good-Turing Josh Goodman Intuition
Imagine you are fishing There are 8 species: carp, perch, whitefish, trout, salmon, eel, catfish, bass You have caught 10 carp, 3 perch, 2 whitefish, 1 trout, 1 salmon, 1 eel = 18 fish How likely is it that the next fish caught is from a new species (one not seen in our previous catch)? Slide adapted from Josh Goodman, Dan Jurafsky

Good-Turing Josh Goodman Intuition
Imagine you are fishing There are 8 species: carp, perch, whitefish, trout, salmon, eel, catfish, bass You have caught 10 carp, 3 perch, 2 whitefish, 1 trout, 1 salmon, 1 eel = 18 fish How likely is it that the next fish caught is from a new species (one not seen in our previous catch)? 3/18 Assuming so, how likely is it that next species is trout? Slide adapted from Josh Goodman, Dan Jurafsky

Good-Turing Josh Goodman Intuition
Imagine you are fishing There are 8 species: carp, perch, whitefish, trout, salmon, eel, catfish, bass You have caught 10 carp, 3 perch, 2 whitefish, 1 trout, 1 salmon, 1 eel = 18 fish How likely is it that the next fish caught is from a new species (one not seen in our previous catch)? 3/18 Assuming so, how likely is it that next species is trout? Must be less than 1/18 Slide adapted from Josh Goodman, Dan Jurafsky

Some more hypotheticals
Species Puget Sound Lake Washington Greenlake Salmon 8 12 Trout 3 1 Cod Rockfish Snapper Skate Bass 14 TOTAL 15 How likely is it to find a new fish in each of these places?

Good-Turing Smoothing
New idea: Use counts of things you have seen to estimate those you haven’t

Good-Turing Smoothing
New idea: Use counts of things you have seen to estimate those you haven’t Good-Turing approach: Use frequency of singletons to re-estimate frequency of zero-count n-grams

Good-Turing Smoothing
New idea: Use counts of things you have seen to estimate those you haven’t Good-Turing approach: Use frequency of singletons to re-estimate frequency of zero-count n-grams Notation: Nc is the frequency of frequency c Number of ngrams which appear c times N0: # ngrams of count 0; N1: # of ngrams of count 1 𝑁 𝑐 = 𝑥:𝑐 𝑥 =𝑐 1

Good-Turing Smoothing
Estimate probability of things which occur c times with the probability of things which occur c+1 times Discounted counts: steal mass from seen cases to provide for the unseen: 𝑐 ⋆ = 𝑐+1 𝑁 𝑐+1 𝑁 𝑐 MLE 𝑝 𝑥 = 𝑐 𝑥 𝑁 GT 𝑝 𝑥 = 𝑐 ⋆ 𝑥 N

GT Fish Example

Enough about the fish… how does this relate to language?
Name some linguistic situations where the number of new words would differ

Enough about the fish… how does this relate to language?
Name some linguistic situations where the number of new words would differ Different languages: Chinese has almost no morphology Turkish has a lot of morphology Lots of new words in Turkish!

Enough about the fish… how does this relate to language?
Name some linguistic situations where the number of new words would differ Different languages: Chinese has almost no morphology Turkish has a lot of morphology Lots of new words in Turkish! Different domains: Airplane maintenance manuals: controlled vocabulary Random web posts: uncontrolled vocab

Bigram Frequencies of Frequencies and GT Re-estimates

Good-Turing Smoothing
N-gram counts to conditional probability 𝑃 𝑤 𝑖 𝑤 1 .. 𝑤 𝑖−1 = 𝑐 ⋆ 𝑤 1 … 𝑤 𝑖 𝑐 ⋆ 𝑤 1 … 𝑤 𝑖−1 Use c* from GT estimate

General approach: Estimate of c* for Nc depends on N c+1 What if Nc+1 = 0? More zero count problems Not uncommon: e.g. fish example, no 4s

Modifications Simple Good-Turing
Compute Nc bins, then smooth Nc to replace zeroes Fit linear regression in log space log(Nc) = a +b log(c) What about large c’s? Should be reliable Assume c*=c if c is large, e.g c > k (Katz: k =5) Typically combined with other approaches

Backoff and Interpolation
Another really useful source of knowledge If we are estimating: trigram p(z|x,y) but count(xyz) is zero Use info from:

Backoff and Interpolation
Another really useful source of knowledge If we are estimating: trigram p(z|x,y) but count(xyz) is zero Use info from: Bigram p(z|y) Or even: Unigram p(z)

Backoff and Interpolation
Another really useful source of knowledge If we are estimating: trigram p(z|x,y) but count(xyz) is zero Use info from: Bigram p(z|y) Or even: Unigram p(z) How to combine this trigram, bigram, unigram info in a valid fashion?

Backoff vs. Interpolation
Backoff: use trigram if you have it, otherwise bigram, otherwise unigram

Backoff vs. Interpolation
Backoff: use trigram if you have it, otherwise bigram, otherwise unigram Interpolation: always mix all three

Backoff Bigram distribution 𝑝 𝑏 𝑎 = 𝑐 𝑎𝑏 𝑐 𝑎 But 𝑐 𝑎 could be zero…
𝑝 𝑏 𝑎 = 𝑐 𝑎𝑏 𝑐 𝑎 But 𝑐 𝑎 could be zero… What if we fell back (or “backed off”) to a unigram distribution? 𝑝 𝑏 𝑎 = 𝑐 𝑎𝑏 𝑐 𝑎 if 𝑐 𝑎 >0 𝑐 𝑏 𝑁 otherwise Also 𝑐 𝑎𝑏 could be zero…

Backoff What’s wrong with this distribution?
𝑝 𝑏 𝑎 = 𝑐 𝑎𝑏 𝑐 𝑎 if 𝑐 𝑎𝑏 >0 𝑐 𝑏 𝑁 if 𝑐 𝑎𝑏 =0, 𝑐 𝑎 >0 𝑐 𝑏 𝑁 𝑐 𝑎 =0 Doesn’t sum to one! Need to steal mass…

Backoff 𝑝 𝑏 𝑎 = 𝑐 𝑎𝑏 −𝐷 𝑐 𝑎 if 𝑐 𝑎𝑏 >0 𝛼 𝑎 𝑐 𝑏 𝑁 if 𝑐 𝑎𝑏 =0, 𝑐 𝑎 >0 𝑐 𝑏 𝑁 𝑐 𝑎 =0 𝛼 𝑎 = 𝑏 ′ :𝑐 𝑎 𝑏 ′ ≠0 1−𝑝 𝑏 ′ 𝑎 𝑏 ′ :𝑐 𝑎 𝑏 ′ =0 𝑐 𝑏 ′ 𝑁

Mixtures Given distributions 𝑝 1 (𝑥) and 𝑝 2 𝑥
Pick any number 𝜆 between 0 and 1 𝑝 𝑥 =𝜆 𝑝 1 𝑥 + 1−𝜆 𝑝 2 𝑥 is a distribution (Laplace is a mixture!)

Interpolation Simple interpolation
𝑝 ⋆ 𝑤 𝑖 𝑤 𝑖−1 =𝜆 𝑐 𝑤 𝑖−1 𝑤 𝑖 𝑐 𝑤 𝑖− −𝜆 𝑐 𝑤 𝑖 𝑁 𝜆∈ 0,1 Or, pick interpolation value based on context 𝑝 ⋆ 𝑤 𝑖 𝑤 𝑖−1 =𝜆 𝑤 𝑖−1 𝑐 𝑤 𝑖−1 𝑤 𝑖 𝑐 𝑤 𝑖− −𝜆 𝑤 𝑖−1 𝑐 𝑤 𝑖 𝑁 Intuition: Higher weight on more frequent n-grams

How to Set the Lambdas? Use a held-out, or development, corpus
Choose lambdas which maximize the probability of some held-out data I.e. fix the N-gram probabilities Then search for lambda values That when plugged into previous equation Give largest probability for held-out set Can use EM to do this search

Kneser-Ney Smoothing Most commonly used modern smoothing technique

Kneser-Ney Smoothing Most commonly used modern smoothing technique

Kneser-Ney Smoothing Most commonly used modern smoothing technique

Kneser-Ney Smoothing Most commonly used modern smoothing technique
Intuition: improving backoff I can’t see without my reading…… Compare P(Francisco|reading) vs P(glasses|reading) P(Francisco|reading) backs off to P(Francisco) P(glasses|reading) > 0 High unigram frequency of Francisco > P(glasses|reading) However, Francisco appears in few contexts, glasses many

Kneser-Ney Smoothing Most commonly used modern smoothing technique
Intuition: improving backoff I can’t see without my reading…… Compare P(Francisco|reading) vs P(glasses|reading) P(Francisco|reading) backs off to P(Francisco) P(glasses|reading) > 0 High unigram frequency of Francisco > P(glasses|reading) However, Francisco appears in few contexts, glasses many Interpolate based on # of contexts Words seen in more contexts, more likely to appear in others

Kneser-Ney Smoothing: bigrams
Modeling diversity of contexts 𝑐 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝑤 =# of contexts in which w occurs = 𝑣:𝑐 𝑣𝑤 >0 So 𝑐 𝑑𝑖𝑣 glasses ≫ 𝑐 𝑑𝑖𝑣 (Francisco) 𝑝 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝑤 𝑖 = 𝑐 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝑤 𝑖 𝑤 ′ 𝑐 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝑤 ′

Kneser-Ney Smoothing: bigrams
𝑐 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝑤 =# of contexts in which w occurs = 𝑣:𝑐 𝑣𝑤 >0 𝑝 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝑤 𝑖 = 𝑐 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝑤 𝑖 𝑤 ′ 𝑐 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝑤 ′ Backoff: 𝑝 𝑤 𝑖 𝑤 𝑖−1 = 𝑐 𝑤 𝑖−1 𝑤 𝑖 −𝐷 𝑐 𝑤 𝑖−1 if 𝑐 𝑤 𝑖−1 𝑤 𝑖 >0 𝛼 𝑤 𝑖−1 𝑝 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝑤 𝑖 otherwise

Kneser-Ney Smoothing: bigrams
𝑐 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝑤 =# of contexts in which w occurs = 𝑣:𝑐 𝑣𝑤 >0 𝑝 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝑤 𝑖 = 𝑐 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝑤 𝑖 𝑤 ′ 𝑐 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝑤 ′ Interpolation: 𝑝 𝑤 𝑖 𝑤 𝑖−1 = 𝑐 𝑤 𝑖−1 𝑤 𝑖 −𝐷 𝑐 𝑤 𝑖−1 +𝛽 𝑤 𝑖−1 𝑝 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝑤 𝑖

OOV words: <UNK> word
Out Of Vocabulary = OOV words

OOV words: <UNK> word
Out Of Vocabulary = OOV words We don’t use GT smoothing for these

OOV words: <UNK> word
Out Of Vocabulary = OOV words We don’t use GT smoothing for these Because GT assumes we know the number of unseen events Instead: create an unknown word token <UNK>

OOV words: <UNK> word
Out Of Vocabulary = OOV words We don’t use GT smoothing for these Because GT assumes we know the number of unseen events Instead: create an unknown word token <UNK> Training of <UNK> probabilities Create a fixed lexicon L of size V At text normalization phase, any training word not in L changed to <UNK> Now we train its probabilities like a normal word

OOV words: <UNK> word
Out Of Vocabulary = OOV words We don’t use GT smoothing for these Because GT assumes we know the number of unseen events Instead: create an unknown word token <UNK> Training of <UNK> probabilities Create a fixed lexicon L of size V At text normalization phase, any training word not in L changed to <UNK> Now we train its probabilities like a normal word At decoding time If text input: Use UNK probabilities for any word not in training Plus an additional penalty! UNK predicts the class of unknown words; then we need to pick a member

Class-Based Language Models
Variant of n-gram models using classes or clusters

Class-Based Language Models
Variant of n-gram models using classes or clusters Motivation: Sparseness Flight app.: P(ORD|to),P(JFK|to),.. P(airport_name|to) Relate probability of n-gram to word classes & class ngram

Class-Based Language Models
Variant of n-gram models using classes or clusters Motivation: Sparseness Flight app.: P(ORD|to),P(JFK|to),.. P(airport_name|to) Relate probability of n-gram to word classes & class ngram IBM clustering: assume each word in single class P(wi|wi-1)~P(ci|ci-1)xP(wi|ci) Learn by MLE from data Where do classes come from?

Class-Based Language Models
Variant of n-gram models using classes or clusters Motivation: Sparseness Flight app.: P(ORD|to),P(JFK|to),.. P(airport_name|to) Relate probability of n-gram to word classes & class ngram IBM clustering: assume each word in single class P(wi|wi-1)~P(ci|ci-1)xP(wi|ci) Learn by MLE from data Where do classes come from? Hand-designed for application (e.g. ATIS) Automatically induced clusters from corpus

Class-Based Language Models
Variant of n-gram models using classes or clusters Motivation: Sparseness Flight app.: P(ORD|to),P(JFK|to),.. P(airport_name|to) Relate probability of n-gram to word classes & class ngram IBM clustering: assume each word in single class P(wi|wi-1)~P(ci|ci-1)xP(wi|ci) Learn by MLE from data Where do classes come from? Hand-designed for application (e.g. ATIS) Automatically induced clusters from corpus

LM Adaptation Challenge: Need LM for new domain
Have little in-domain data

LM Adaptation Challenge: Need LM for new domain
Have little in-domain data Intuition: Much of language is pretty general Can build from ‘general’ LM + in-domain data

LM Adaptation Challenge: Need LM for new domain
Have little in-domain data Intuition: Much of language is pretty general Can build from ‘general’ LM + in-domain data Approach: LM adaptation Train on large domain independent corpus Adapt with small in-domain data set What large corpus?

LM Adaptation Challenge: Need LM for new domain
Have little in-domain data Intuition: Much of language is pretty general Can build from ‘general’ LM + in-domain data Approach: LM adaptation Train on large domain independent corpus Adapt with small in-domain data set What large corpus? Web counts! e.g. Google n-grams

Incorporating Longer Distance Context
Why use longer context?

Incorporating Longer Distance Context
Why use longer context? N-grams are approximation Model size Sparseness

Incorporating Longer Distance Context
Why use longer context? N-grams are approximation Model size Sparseness What sorts of information in longer context?

Incorporating Longer Distance Context
Why use longer context? N-grams are approximation Model size Sparseness What sorts of information in longer context? Priming Topic Sentence type Dialogue act Syntax

Long Distance LMs Bigger n!
284M words: <= 6-grams improve; 7-20 no better

Long Distance LMs Bigger n! Cache n-gram:
284M words: <= 6-grams improve; 7-20 no better Cache n-gram: Intuition: Priming: word used previously, more likely Incrementally create ‘cache’ unigram model on test corpus Mix with main n-gram LM

Long Distance LMs Bigger n! Cache n-gram: Topic models:
284M words: <= 6-grams improve; 7-20 no better Cache n-gram: Intuition: Priming: word used previously, more likely Incrementally create ‘cache’ unigram model on test corpus Mix with main n-gram LM Topic models: Intuition: Text is about some topic, on-topic words likely P(w|h) ~ Σt P(w|t)P(t|h)

Long Distance LMs Bigger n! Cache n-gram: Topic models:
284M words: <= 6-grams improve; 7-20 no better Cache n-gram: Intuition: Priming: word used previously, more likely Incrementally create ‘cache’ unigram model on test corpus Mix with main n-gram LM Topic models: Intuition: Text is about some topic, on-topic words likely P(w|h) ~ Σt P(w|t)P(t|h) Non-consecutive n-grams: skip n-grams, triggers, variable lengths n-grams

Language Models N-gram models: Issues: Zeroes and other sparseness
Finite approximation of infinite context history Issues: Zeroes and other sparseness Strategies: Smoothing Add-one, add-δ, Good-Turing, etc Use partial n-grams: interpolation, backoff Refinements Class, cache, topic, trigger LMs