Download presentation

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1
Language Modeling

2
**Roadmap (for next two classes)**

Review LM evaluation metrics Entropy Perplexity Smoothing Good-Turing Backoff and Interpolation Absolute Discounting Kneser-Ney

3
**Language Model Evaluation Metrics**

4
Applications

5
**Entropy and perplexity**

Entropy – measure information content, in bits 𝐻 𝑝 = 𝑥 𝑝 𝑥 × − log 2 𝑝 𝑥 − log 2 𝑝 𝑥 is message length with ideal code Use log 2 if you want to measure in bits! Cross entropy – measure ability of trained model to compactly represent test data 𝑤 1 𝑛 𝑖=1 𝑛 1 𝑛 × − log 2 𝑝 𝑤 𝑖 𝑤 1 𝑖−1 Average logprob of test data Perplexity – measure average branching factor 2 𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑦

6
**Entropy and perplexity**

Entropy – measure information content, in bits 𝐻 𝑝 = 𝑥 𝑝 𝑥 × − log 2 𝑝 𝑥 − log 2 𝑝 𝑥 is message length with ideal code Use log 2 if you want to measure in bits! Cross entropy – measure ability of trained model to compactly represent test data 𝑤 1 𝑛 𝑖=1 𝑛 1 𝑛 × − log 2 𝑝 𝑤 𝑖 𝑤 1 𝑖−1 Average logprob of test data Perplexity – measure average branching factor 2 𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑦

7
**Entropy and perplexity**

Entropy – measure information content, in bits 𝐻 𝑝 = 𝑥 𝑝 𝑥 × − log 2 𝑝 𝑥 − log 2 𝑝 𝑥 is message length with ideal code Use log 2 if you want to measure in bits! Cross entropy – measure ability of trained model to compactly represent test data 𝑤 1 𝑛 𝑖=1 𝑛 1 𝑛 × − log 2 𝑝 𝑤 𝑖 𝑤 1 𝑖−1 Average logprob of test data Perplexity – measure average branching factor 2 𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑦

8
**Entropy and perplexity**

Entropy – measure information content, in bits 𝐻 𝑝 = 𝑥 𝑝 𝑥 × − log 2 𝑝 𝑥 − log 2 𝑝 𝑥 is message length with ideal code Use log 2 if you want to measure in bits! Cross entropy – measure ability of trained model to compactly represent test data 𝑤 1 𝑛 𝑖=1 𝑛 1 𝑛 × − log 2 𝑝 𝑤 𝑖 𝑤 1 𝑖−1 Average logprob of test data Perplexity – measure average branching factor 2 𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑦

9
**Language model perplexity**

Recipe: Train a language model on training data Get negative logprobs of test data, compute average Exponentiate! Perplexity correlates rather well with: Speech recognition error rates MT quality metrics LM Perplexities for word-based models are normally between say 50 and 1000 Need to drop perplexity by a significant fraction (not absolute amount) to make a visible impact

10
Parameter estimation What is it?

11
Parameter estimation Model form is fixed (coin unigrams, word bigrams, …) We have observations H H H T T H T H H Want to find the parameters Maximum Likelihood Estimation – pick the parameters that assign the most probability to our training data c(H) = 6; c(T) = 3 P(H) = 6 / 9 = 2 / 3; P(T) = 3 / 9 = 1 / 3 MLE picks parameters best for training data… …but these don’t generalize well to test data – zeros!

12
Parameter estimation Model form is fixed (coin unigrams, word bigrams, …) We have observations H H H T T H T H H Want to find the parameters Maximum Likelihood Estimation – pick the parameters that assign the most probability to our training data c(H) = 6; c(T) = 3 P(H) = 6 / 9 = 2 / 3; P(T) = 3 / 9 = 1 / 3 MLE picks parameters best for training data… …but these don’t generalize well to test data – zeros!

13
Parameter estimation Model form is fixed (coin unigrams, word bigrams, …) We have observations H H H T T H T H H Want to find the parameters Maximum Likelihood Estimation – pick the parameters that assign the most probability to our training data c(H) = 6; c(T) = 3 P(H) = 6 / 9 = 2 / 3; P(T) = 3 / 9 = 1 / 3 MLE picks parameters best for training data… …but these don’t generalize well to test data – zeros!

14
**Smoothing Take mass from seen events, give to unseen events**

Robin Hood for probability models MLE at one end of the spectrum; uniform distribution the other Need to pick a happy medium, and yet maintain a distribution 𝑥 𝑝 𝑥 =1 𝑝 𝑥 ≥0 ∀𝑥

15
**Smoothing techniques Laplace Good-Turing Backoff Mixtures**

Interpolation Kneser-Ney

16
**Laplace From MLE: 𝑝 𝑥 = 𝑐 𝑥 𝑥 ′ 𝑐 𝑥 ′ To Laplace:**

𝑝 𝑥 = 𝑐 𝑥 𝑥 ′ 𝑐 𝑥 ′ To Laplace: 𝑝 𝑥 = 𝑐 𝑥 +1 𝑥 ′ 𝑐 𝑥 ′ +1

17
**Good-Turing Smoothing**

New idea: Use counts of things you have seen to estimate those you haven’t

18
**Good-Turing Josh Goodman Intuition**

Imagine you are fishing There are 8 species: carp, perch, whitefish, trout, salmon, eel, catfish, bass You have caught 10 carp, 3 perch, 2 whitefish, 1 trout, 1 salmon, 1 eel = 18 fish How likely is it that the next fish caught is from a new species (one not seen in our previous catch)? Slide adapted from Josh Goodman, Dan Jurafsky

19
**Good-Turing Josh Goodman Intuition**

Imagine you are fishing There are 8 species: carp, perch, whitefish, trout, salmon, eel, catfish, bass You have caught 10 carp, 3 perch, 2 whitefish, 1 trout, 1 salmon, 1 eel = 18 fish How likely is it that the next fish caught is from a new species (one not seen in our previous catch)? 3/18 Assuming so, how likely is it that next species is trout? Slide adapted from Josh Goodman, Dan Jurafsky

20
**Good-Turing Josh Goodman Intuition**

Imagine you are fishing There are 8 species: carp, perch, whitefish, trout, salmon, eel, catfish, bass You have caught 10 carp, 3 perch, 2 whitefish, 1 trout, 1 salmon, 1 eel = 18 fish How likely is it that the next fish caught is from a new species (one not seen in our previous catch)? 3/18 Assuming so, how likely is it that next species is trout? Must be less than 1/18 Slide adapted from Josh Goodman, Dan Jurafsky

21
**Some more hypotheticals**

Species Puget Sound Lake Washington Greenlake Salmon 8 12 Trout 3 1 Cod Rockfish Snapper Skate Bass 14 TOTAL 15 How likely is it to find a new fish in each of these places?

22
**Good-Turing Smoothing**

New idea: Use counts of things you have seen to estimate those you haven’t

23
**Good-Turing Smoothing**

New idea: Use counts of things you have seen to estimate those you haven’t Good-Turing approach: Use frequency of singletons to re-estimate frequency of zero-count n-grams

24
**Good-Turing Smoothing**

New idea: Use counts of things you have seen to estimate those you haven’t Good-Turing approach: Use frequency of singletons to re-estimate frequency of zero-count n-grams Notation: Nc is the frequency of frequency c Number of ngrams which appear c times N0: # ngrams of count 0; N1: # of ngrams of count 1 𝑁 𝑐 = 𝑥:𝑐 𝑥 =𝑐 1

25
**Good-Turing Smoothing**

Estimate probability of things which occur c times with the probability of things which occur c+1 times Discounted counts: steal mass from seen cases to provide for the unseen: 𝑐 ⋆ = 𝑐+1 𝑁 𝑐+1 𝑁 𝑐 MLE 𝑝 𝑥 = 𝑐 𝑥 𝑁 GT 𝑝 𝑥 = 𝑐 ⋆ 𝑥 N

26
GT Fish Example

27
**Enough about the fish… how does this relate to language?**

Name some linguistic situations where the number of new words would differ

28
**Enough about the fish… how does this relate to language?**

Name some linguistic situations where the number of new words would differ Different languages: Chinese has almost no morphology Turkish has a lot of morphology Lots of new words in Turkish!

29
**Enough about the fish… how does this relate to language?**

Name some linguistic situations where the number of new words would differ Different languages: Chinese has almost no morphology Turkish has a lot of morphology Lots of new words in Turkish! Different domains: Airplane maintenance manuals: controlled vocabulary Random web posts: uncontrolled vocab

30
**Bigram Frequencies of Frequencies and GT Re-estimates**

31
**Good-Turing Smoothing**

N-gram counts to conditional probability 𝑃 𝑤 𝑖 𝑤 1 .. 𝑤 𝑖−1 = 𝑐 ⋆ 𝑤 1 … 𝑤 𝑖 𝑐 ⋆ 𝑤 1 … 𝑤 𝑖−1 Use c* from GT estimate

32
**Additional Issues in Good-Turing**

General approach: Estimate of c* for Nc depends on N c+1 What if Nc+1 = 0? More zero count problems Not uncommon: e.g. fish example, no 4s

33
**Modifications Simple Good-Turing**

Compute Nc bins, then smooth Nc to replace zeroes Fit linear regression in log space log(Nc) = a +b log(c) What about large c’s? Should be reliable Assume c*=c if c is large, e.g c > k (Katz: k =5) Typically combined with other approaches

34
**Backoff and Interpolation**

Another really useful source of knowledge If we are estimating: trigram p(z|x,y) but count(xyz) is zero Use info from:

35
**Backoff and Interpolation**

Another really useful source of knowledge If we are estimating: trigram p(z|x,y) but count(xyz) is zero Use info from: Bigram p(z|y) Or even: Unigram p(z)

36
**Backoff and Interpolation**

Another really useful source of knowledge If we are estimating: trigram p(z|x,y) but count(xyz) is zero Use info from: Bigram p(z|y) Or even: Unigram p(z) How to combine this trigram, bigram, unigram info in a valid fashion?

37
**Backoff vs. Interpolation**

Backoff: use trigram if you have it, otherwise bigram, otherwise unigram

38
**Backoff vs. Interpolation**

Backoff: use trigram if you have it, otherwise bigram, otherwise unigram Interpolation: always mix all three

39
**Backoff Bigram distribution 𝑝 𝑏 𝑎 = 𝑐 𝑎𝑏 𝑐 𝑎 But 𝑐 𝑎 could be zero…**

𝑝 𝑏 𝑎 = 𝑐 𝑎𝑏 𝑐 𝑎 But 𝑐 𝑎 could be zero… What if we fell back (or “backed off”) to a unigram distribution? 𝑝 𝑏 𝑎 = 𝑐 𝑎𝑏 𝑐 𝑎 if 𝑐 𝑎 >0 𝑐 𝑏 𝑁 otherwise Also 𝑐 𝑎𝑏 could be zero…

40
**Backoff What’s wrong with this distribution?**

𝑝 𝑏 𝑎 = 𝑐 𝑎𝑏 𝑐 𝑎 if 𝑐 𝑎𝑏 >0 𝑐 𝑏 𝑁 if 𝑐 𝑎𝑏 =0, 𝑐 𝑎 >0 𝑐 𝑏 𝑁 𝑐 𝑎 =0 Doesn’t sum to one! Need to steal mass…

41
Backoff 𝑝 𝑏 𝑎 = 𝑐 𝑎𝑏 −𝐷 𝑐 𝑎 if 𝑐 𝑎𝑏 >0 𝛼 𝑎 𝑐 𝑏 𝑁 if 𝑐 𝑎𝑏 =0, 𝑐 𝑎 >0 𝑐 𝑏 𝑁 𝑐 𝑎 =0 𝛼 𝑎 = 𝑏 ′ :𝑐 𝑎 𝑏 ′ ≠0 1−𝑝 𝑏 ′ 𝑎 𝑏 ′ :𝑐 𝑎 𝑏 ′ =0 𝑐 𝑏 ′ 𝑁

42
**Mixtures Given distributions 𝑝 1 (𝑥) and 𝑝 2 𝑥**

Pick any number 𝜆 between 0 and 1 𝑝 𝑥 =𝜆 𝑝 1 𝑥 + 1−𝜆 𝑝 2 𝑥 is a distribution (Laplace is a mixture!)

43
**Interpolation Simple interpolation**

𝑝 ⋆ 𝑤 𝑖 𝑤 𝑖−1 =𝜆 𝑐 𝑤 𝑖−1 𝑤 𝑖 𝑐 𝑤 𝑖− −𝜆 𝑐 𝑤 𝑖 𝑁 𝜆∈ 0,1 Or, pick interpolation value based on context 𝑝 ⋆ 𝑤 𝑖 𝑤 𝑖−1 =𝜆 𝑤 𝑖−1 𝑐 𝑤 𝑖−1 𝑤 𝑖 𝑐 𝑤 𝑖− −𝜆 𝑤 𝑖−1 𝑐 𝑤 𝑖 𝑁 Intuition: Higher weight on more frequent n-grams

44
**How to Set the Lambdas? Use a held-out, or development, corpus**

Choose lambdas which maximize the probability of some held-out data I.e. fix the N-gram probabilities Then search for lambda values That when plugged into previous equation Give largest probability for held-out set Can use EM to do this search

45
**Kneser-Ney Smoothing Most commonly used modern smoothing technique**

Intuition: improving backoff I can’t see without my reading…… Compare P(Francisco|reading) vs P(glasses|reading)

46
**Kneser-Ney Smoothing Most commonly used modern smoothing technique**

Intuition: improving backoff I can’t see without my reading…… Compare P(Francisco|reading) vs P(glasses|reading) P(Francisco|reading) backs off to P(Francisco)

47
**Kneser-Ney Smoothing Most commonly used modern smoothing technique**

Intuition: improving backoff I can’t see without my reading…… Compare P(Francisco|reading) vs P(glasses|reading) P(Francisco|reading) backs off to P(Francisco) P(glasses|reading) > 0 High unigram frequency of Francisco > P(glasses|reading)

48
**Kneser-Ney Smoothing Most commonly used modern smoothing technique**

Intuition: improving backoff I can’t see without my reading…… Compare P(Francisco|reading) vs P(glasses|reading) P(Francisco|reading) backs off to P(Francisco) P(glasses|reading) > 0 High unigram frequency of Francisco > P(glasses|reading) However, Francisco appears in few contexts, glasses many

49
**Kneser-Ney Smoothing Most commonly used modern smoothing technique**

Intuition: improving backoff I can’t see without my reading…… Compare P(Francisco|reading) vs P(glasses|reading) P(Francisco|reading) backs off to P(Francisco) P(glasses|reading) > 0 High unigram frequency of Francisco > P(glasses|reading) However, Francisco appears in few contexts, glasses many Interpolate based on # of contexts Words seen in more contexts, more likely to appear in others

50
**Kneser-Ney Smoothing: bigrams**

Modeling diversity of contexts 𝑐 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝑤 =# of contexts in which w occurs = 𝑣:𝑐 𝑣𝑤 >0 So 𝑐 𝑑𝑖𝑣 glasses ≫ 𝑐 𝑑𝑖𝑣 (Francisco) 𝑝 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝑤 𝑖 = 𝑐 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝑤 𝑖 𝑤 ′ 𝑐 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝑤 ′

51
**Kneser-Ney Smoothing: bigrams**

𝑐 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝑤 =# of contexts in which w occurs = 𝑣:𝑐 𝑣𝑤 >0 𝑝 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝑤 𝑖 = 𝑐 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝑤 𝑖 𝑤 ′ 𝑐 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝑤 ′ Backoff: 𝑝 𝑤 𝑖 𝑤 𝑖−1 = 𝑐 𝑤 𝑖−1 𝑤 𝑖 −𝐷 𝑐 𝑤 𝑖−1 if 𝑐 𝑤 𝑖−1 𝑤 𝑖 >0 𝛼 𝑤 𝑖−1 𝑝 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝑤 𝑖 otherwise

52
**Kneser-Ney Smoothing: bigrams**

𝑐 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝑤 =# of contexts in which w occurs = 𝑣:𝑐 𝑣𝑤 >0 𝑝 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝑤 𝑖 = 𝑐 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝑤 𝑖 𝑤 ′ 𝑐 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝑤 ′ Interpolation: 𝑝 𝑤 𝑖 𝑤 𝑖−1 = 𝑐 𝑤 𝑖−1 𝑤 𝑖 −𝐷 𝑐 𝑤 𝑖−1 +𝛽 𝑤 𝑖−1 𝑝 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝑤 𝑖

53
**OOV words: <UNK> word**

Out Of Vocabulary = OOV words

54
**OOV words: <UNK> word**

Out Of Vocabulary = OOV words We don’t use GT smoothing for these

55
**OOV words: <UNK> word**

Out Of Vocabulary = OOV words We don’t use GT smoothing for these Because GT assumes we know the number of unseen events Instead: create an unknown word token <UNK>

56
**OOV words: <UNK> word**

Out Of Vocabulary = OOV words We don’t use GT smoothing for these Because GT assumes we know the number of unseen events Instead: create an unknown word token <UNK> Training of <UNK> probabilities Create a fixed lexicon L of size V At text normalization phase, any training word not in L changed to <UNK> Now we train its probabilities like a normal word

57
**OOV words: <UNK> word**

Out Of Vocabulary = OOV words We don’t use GT smoothing for these Because GT assumes we know the number of unseen events Instead: create an unknown word token <UNK> Training of <UNK> probabilities Create a fixed lexicon L of size V At text normalization phase, any training word not in L changed to <UNK> Now we train its probabilities like a normal word At decoding time If text input: Use UNK probabilities for any word not in training Plus an additional penalty! UNK predicts the class of unknown words; then we need to pick a member

58
**Class-Based Language Models**

Variant of n-gram models using classes or clusters

59
**Class-Based Language Models**

Variant of n-gram models using classes or clusters Motivation: Sparseness Flight app.: P(ORD|to),P(JFK|to),.. P(airport_name|to) Relate probability of n-gram to word classes & class ngram

60
**Class-Based Language Models**

Variant of n-gram models using classes or clusters Motivation: Sparseness Flight app.: P(ORD|to),P(JFK|to),.. P(airport_name|to) Relate probability of n-gram to word classes & class ngram IBM clustering: assume each word in single class P(wi|wi-1)~P(ci|ci-1)xP(wi|ci) Learn by MLE from data Where do classes come from?

61
**Class-Based Language Models**

Variant of n-gram models using classes or clusters Motivation: Sparseness Flight app.: P(ORD|to),P(JFK|to),.. P(airport_name|to) Relate probability of n-gram to word classes & class ngram IBM clustering: assume each word in single class P(wi|wi-1)~P(ci|ci-1)xP(wi|ci) Learn by MLE from data Where do classes come from? Hand-designed for application (e.g. ATIS) Automatically induced clusters from corpus

62
**Class-Based Language Models**

Variant of n-gram models using classes or clusters Motivation: Sparseness Flight app.: P(ORD|to),P(JFK|to),.. P(airport_name|to) Relate probability of n-gram to word classes & class ngram IBM clustering: assume each word in single class P(wi|wi-1)~P(ci|ci-1)xP(wi|ci) Learn by MLE from data Where do classes come from? Hand-designed for application (e.g. ATIS) Automatically induced clusters from corpus

63
**LM Adaptation Challenge: Need LM for new domain**

Have little in-domain data

64
**LM Adaptation Challenge: Need LM for new domain**

Have little in-domain data Intuition: Much of language is pretty general Can build from ‘general’ LM + in-domain data

65
**LM Adaptation Challenge: Need LM for new domain**

Have little in-domain data Intuition: Much of language is pretty general Can build from ‘general’ LM + in-domain data Approach: LM adaptation Train on large domain independent corpus Adapt with small in-domain data set What large corpus?

66
**LM Adaptation Challenge: Need LM for new domain**

Have little in-domain data Intuition: Much of language is pretty general Can build from ‘general’ LM + in-domain data Approach: LM adaptation Train on large domain independent corpus Adapt with small in-domain data set What large corpus? Web counts! e.g. Google n-grams

67
**Incorporating Longer Distance Context**

Why use longer context?

68
**Incorporating Longer Distance Context**

Why use longer context? N-grams are approximation Model size Sparseness

69
**Incorporating Longer Distance Context**

Why use longer context? N-grams are approximation Model size Sparseness What sorts of information in longer context?

70
**Incorporating Longer Distance Context**

Why use longer context? N-grams are approximation Model size Sparseness What sorts of information in longer context? Priming Topic Sentence type Dialogue act Syntax

71
**Long Distance LMs Bigger n!**

284M words: <= 6-grams improve; 7-20 no better

72
**Long Distance LMs Bigger n! Cache n-gram:**

284M words: <= 6-grams improve; 7-20 no better Cache n-gram: Intuition: Priming: word used previously, more likely Incrementally create ‘cache’ unigram model on test corpus Mix with main n-gram LM

73
**Long Distance LMs Bigger n! Cache n-gram: Topic models:**

284M words: <= 6-grams improve; 7-20 no better Cache n-gram: Intuition: Priming: word used previously, more likely Incrementally create ‘cache’ unigram model on test corpus Mix with main n-gram LM Topic models: Intuition: Text is about some topic, on-topic words likely P(w|h) ~ Σt P(w|t)P(t|h)

74
**Long Distance LMs Bigger n! Cache n-gram: Topic models:**

284M words: <= 6-grams improve; 7-20 no better Cache n-gram: Intuition: Priming: word used previously, more likely Incrementally create ‘cache’ unigram model on test corpus Mix with main n-gram LM Topic models: Intuition: Text is about some topic, on-topic words likely P(w|h) ~ Σt P(w|t)P(t|h) Non-consecutive n-grams: skip n-grams, triggers, variable lengths n-grams

75
**Language Models N-gram models: Issues: Zeroes and other sparseness**

Finite approximation of infinite context history Issues: Zeroes and other sparseness Strategies: Smoothing Add-one, add-δ, Good-Turing, etc Use partial n-grams: interpolation, backoff Refinements Class, cache, topic, trigger LMs

Similar presentations

OK

1 CS 388: Natural Language Processing: N-Gram Language Models Raymond J. Mooney University of Texas at Austin.

1 CS 388: Natural Language Processing: N-Gram Language Models Raymond J. Mooney University of Texas at Austin.

© 2017 SlidePlayer.com Inc.

All rights reserved.

Ads by Google

Ppt on forest society and colonialism free download Ppt on mohandas karamchand gandhi about Ppt on leverages parker Ppt on new technology in electrical Ppt on event handling in javascript for loop Ppt on obesity diet foods Ppt on disaster recovery plan Ppt on 4 p's of marketing mix Ppt on layer 3 switching tutorial Difference between raster scan and random scan display ppt on tv