2 Present Perfect Affirmative form singular plural I have arrived we have arrivedyou have arrived you have arrivedhe/she/it has arrived they have arrived
3 Present Perfect Negative form singular plural I haven’t arrived we haven’t arrivedyou haven’t arrived you haven’t arrivedhe/she/it hasn’t arrived they haven’t arrived* have not = haven’thas not = hasn’t
4 Present Perfect Interrogative form singular plural have I arrived have we arrivedhave you arrived have you arrivedhas he/she/it arrived have they arrived
5 Present Perfect USETo describe actions beginning in the past and continuing up to the present (and possibly into future)To refer to actions occuring or not occuring at an unspecified time in the past with some kind of connection to the present.e.g. Someonehas eaten all the cakes.A have never smoked a cigar.
6 Present Perfect USE PP + adverbials that suggest ‘up to now’: before (now), it’s the first time, so far, up till now, up to the present, ever, not ... ever, nevere.g. Have you ever been to Japan?
7 Present Perfect USE PP with ‘since’ and ‘for’ e.g. I’ve lived here since (point of time) (preposition)*since can be a conjuction:e.g. Jill hasn’t been home since she was a girl.or an adverb: I saw Eve in May and I haven’t seen her since.
8 Present Perfect USEI’ve lived here for 14 years. (period of time) (...= I still live here.)* I’m here for six weeks. (That’s how long I’m going to stay.)
9 Present Perfect USE Sometimes we don’t use time adverbials: e.g. Have you passed your driving test?Depending on context this can mean ‘at any time up to now’ or ‘after the test you have just taken’.
10 Present Perfect USE Another adverbs: just, recently, already, jet, still, at last, finallye.g. I’ve just seen film.Expressions like three/four/several timese.g. I’ve watched him on TV several times. (I expect to watch him again.)He’s attended classes regularly
11 Present Perfect USE Letters and postcards: e.g. I’ve just arrived in London.