Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS6) Child Labour 26 th August 2014 Zonal Dissemination.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS6) Child Labour 26 th August 2014 Zonal Dissemination."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS6) Child Labour 26 th August 2014 Zonal Dissemination

2 Outline Objectives of Child Labour, GLSS6 Concepts and definitions of Child Labour Demographic characteristics of the children Educational characteristics of the children Economic activity of the child Child labour and hazardous activity

3 Objectives of child Labour, GLSS6 Estimate the number of child workers Distribution of child workers by – Sex – Age-group – Educational status – Geographical and ecological zones and – Rural and urban spread

4 Objectives continues Provide up-to-date information on Child Labour in Ghana Provide the data needed for monitoring progress towards the elimination of Worst Forms of Child Labour (WFCL) in Ghana Estimate the prevalence of child labour

5 Concepts and definitions Child Labour: “work that deprives the child of his/her health, education or development or posses a danger to the health, safety or morals of children under 18 years”

6 Concepts and definitions contin… Worst Forms of Child Labour ILO Convention 182 classifies the worst forms of Child Labour as follows: – all forms of slavery or practices similar to slavery, such as the sale and trafficking of children, debt bondage and serfdom and forced or compulsory labour, forced or compulsory recruitment of children for use in armed conflict – the use, procuring or offering of a child for prostitution, for the production of pornography or for pornographic performances; – the use, procuring or offering of a child for illicit activities, in particular for the production and trafficking of drugs as defined in the relevant international treaties; and – work, which by its nature or the circumstances in which it is carried out, is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children

7 Concepts and definitions (cont’d) Light work or permissible work National laws and regulations may permit light work for children under the following conditions: Work not likely to be harmful to their health or development; Not such work as to prejudice – their attendance at school, – their participation in vocational orientation or – training programmes approved by the competent authority or – their capacity to benefit from the instruction received.

8 Concepts and definitions (cont’d) Economic Activity Economic activity is any work or activity performed in the last 7 days prior to the day of interview for pay (in cash or in kind), for profit or for family gain

9 MEASUREMENT FRAME WORK

10 Age groupGeneral production boundary SNA productionNon-SNA production (1a) Light work 3 (1b) Regular work 4 Worst forms of child labour(3a) Hazardous unpaid household services 1 (3b) Other non-SNA production (2a) Hazardous work (2b) Worst forms of child labour other than hazardous work Children below the minimum age specified for light work (for example, 5 – 11 years) Employment below the minimum age for light work Employment below the general minimum working age Employment in industries and occupations designated as hazardous, or work for long hours and/or at night in industries and occupations not designated as hazardous Children trafficked for work; forced and bonded child labour; commercial sexual exploitation of children; use of children for illicit activities and armed conflict Unpaid household services for long hours; involving unsafe equipment or heavy loads; in dangerous locations; etc. Children within the age range specified for light work (for example, 12 – 14 years) Children at or above the general minimum working age (for example, 15 – 17 years) 1 (3a) is applicable where the general production boundary is used as the measurement framework for child labour. Denotes child labour as defined by 18 th ICLS resolution Denotes activities not considered child labour

11 International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour Child Labour Measurement Framework Child labour (prohibited work) Worst forms of CL = ‘Hazardous work’ + ‘WFCL Other than hazardous’ (i.e., CSEC, forced labour, illicit activities, armed conflict, etc.) Employment below the minimum age Hazardous unpaid household services (household chores) SNA production boundary General production boundary Begging + Stealing

12 International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour Child Labour Measurement Framework Child labour (prohibited work) Worst forms of CL = ‘Hazardous work’ + ‘WFCL Other than hazardous’ (i.e., CSEC, forced labour, illicit activities, armed conflict, etc.) Employment below the minimum age SNA production boundary Begging + Stealing

13 Child labour as a subset of “children in employment” or “working children” ILO definition of child labour is based on ILO Conventions on children at work, and on ILO definition of ‘work’ Thus, “working children” refer to those engaged in economic activities within the SNA production boundary, of which only a subset is child labour Child labour is defined by its consequences: -work that is mentally, physically, socially, or morally dangerous and harmful to children - work that interferes with their schooling ILO Definition of Child Labour

14 Conceptual framework of child labour ILO definition of Child Labour Hazardous work Child labour Children in economic activity

15 International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour Key Concepts of Child Labour used in the ILO Child Labour Measurement Framework The terms « working children », « children in economic activity » and « children in employment » are used interchangeably by ILO. All denote a broader concept than child labour Following the SNA production boundary, Hazardous work by children is a subcategory of child labour, which in turn is a subcategory of children in employment (children in economic activity or working children).

16 International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour Worst Forms of Child Labour (WFCL) Worst Forms of Child Labour (a) Hazardous Work (b) Worst Forms of Child Labour other than Hazardous Work (CSEC, Forced labour, illicit activities, armed conflict, etc) Note: Hazardous work by children should be defined at national level by Government, Workers and Employers.

17 ILO Child Labour Measurement Framework Children in employment (5-17 years old) Para 12 In other industries In other occupations Not long hours of work Non-hazardous work conditions 5-11 yrs Para yrs15-17 yrs 14+ hrs Para Light work (<14 hrs) Not child labour Child labour Para In designated hazardous industries Para. 27 In designated hazardous occupations Para Long hours of work Para In other hazardous work conditions Para. 24 Hazardous work by children Para th International Conference of Labour Statisticians, Resolution concerning statistics of child labour (ILO, Geneva, 2008)

18 Child Labour Status (CLS) Children yrs In employment Not in employment Child labour Not child labour Hazardous work Other Child labour Permissible light work Other non child labour employment CLS = 2CLS = 3CLS = 1CLS = 4 CLS = 5 Missing values CLS = 9

19 Demographic characteristics

20 One-third of the population (33.0%) is in the age group

21 Children aged 5-17 are fairly distributed among the sub-populations of interest

22 More than 3/4 of the children(77.2%) live in households where their parents are heads

23 More than 1/10 of children in Volta and Upper West live with other relatives

24 EDUCATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS

25 About 6% of the children had never attended school

26 Reasons for not attending school Reasons cited for children not attending school are: - there are no schools or the school is too far (19.2%), - the child is too young to be in school (16.0%), - household cannot afford the cost of education (14.8%) 26

27 More than a quarter of the children in the Northern region (25.7%) had never attended school

28 There are variations in the highest level of educational attainment between rural and urban

29 Economic activity

30 Economic Activity Participation of children 5-17 years in economic activity 28.5 percent of children participated in economic activity within the reference period while majority of them (71.5%) did not 29.2 percent of males are in economic activity 27.9 percent of females are in economic activity By locality: 16.8 percent of children in urban areas and 39.0 percent in rural areas are in economic activity For rural savannah 44.3 percent compared to 22.1 percent in rural coastal are in economic activity By age categorization the older the child the more likely he/she is to participate in an economic activity. (10.0 percent for 5-7 years compared to 43.7 percent for those years) 30

31 Major occupation of children are: Agric. (76.8%) and Services (14.9%)

32 Major Industry of children are: Agric. (77.2%) and sales (12.4%)

33 Proportion of females (81.8%) working in informal sector higher than males (72.5%)

34 No child in the Volta and Eastern region worked in the formal sector

35 About 1/3 of child workers in Greater Accra work day and night

36 About 1/3 of children who worked (33.3%) suffered serious injuries at work

37 Less than 10% of children who worked in Central (5.9%) and Eastern (8.6%)suffered serious injuries

38 About 4% of children were beaten or physically hurt while at work

39 CHILD LABOUR AND PARTICIPATION IN HAZARDOUS WORK

40 Population distribution of children 5-17 year by economic activity, child labour and participation in hazardous work

41 Child Labour 21.8 percent of persons 5-17 years engaged in child labour. Proportion of male children in child labour is slightly higher (22.7%) than females (20.8%). Urban children in child labour constitute 12.4 percent while that of the rural is 30.2 percent. The rural savannah (34.6%) has the highest proportion of children in child labour. Proportion of children engaged in child labour varies from one region to another with 5.2% in Greater Accra and 33.5% in Upper West 41

42 Hazardous Activity 14.2 percent of children are engaged in hazardous forms of child labour Proportion of males engaged in hazardous forms of child labour (15.4%) is slightly higher than females (12.9%). A remarkable difference is observed between urban (7.7 percent) and rural areas (20.0 percent) with rural savannah recording 20.9 percent. Proportion of children engaged in hazardous form of child labour varies from region to region with 1.9 percent in Greater Accra and 24.4 percent in Brong Ahafo 42

43 Percentage distribution of children (5 - 17years) currently attending school and engaged in child labour in last 7 days by sex, locality, age and region by

44 Percentage distribution of children (5 - 17years) and their participation in household chores by sex, locality, age and region

45 Child Labour/Hazardous Work and Economic Activity 76.4 percent who participated in economic activity were involved in child labour out of which 49.7 percent participated in hazardous work Both urban and rural localities recorded figures above 70 percent All children in the younger age groups (5-7 and 8-11 years) engaged in child labour with more than 40 percent of all children in hazardous forms of child labour 45

46 Children working in Volta region are more likely to be engaged in hazardous work (69.0%)

47 Percentage distribution of children (5 - 17years) engaged in child labour who suffered an injury or health effects as a result by sex, locality, age and region

48 Child Labour/Hazardous Work and Non-Economic Activity 25.3 percent of children engaged in household chores are in child labour while 16.6 percent are in hazardous forms of child labour Of children who did not participate in household chores 9.0 % of the child labourers are engaged in economic activities and 5.2 % of them are in hazardous activities 34.0 percent of children living in rural areas engaged in household chores are child labourers, compared to 15.4 percent of their counterparts in the urban areas. the older a child is, the more likely it is for him/her to be engaged in household activities at the regional level, participating in household chores and in child labour varies from 6.9 percent in Greater Accra to 40.7 percent in the Brong Ahafo region. 48

49 Summary A third (33.0) of the estimated population are in the age group 5-17 years 31.6 percent are in the age group 8-11years and 24.4 percent in the 5-7 years age group There are more children 5-17 years in rural areas (34.7%) than in the urban areas (31.3%) 57.5 percent of the children live with both father and mother The proportion of children who live with both parents decreases with increasing age of the child 88.9 percent of children are currently attending school 19.2 percent of children currently not in because schools are “too far or that there are no schools” 28.5 percent of children participated in economic activity within the reference period The older the child the more likely he/she is to participate in an economic activity. 49

50 Summary (cont’d) Majority of the children (76.8%) work as skilled agriculture and fishery workers 76.3% of the economically active population of the children are employed in the private informal sector 1.2 percent of working children work in the night 4.1 percent of working children work both in the daytime and at night 21.8 percent of persons 5-17 years engage in child labour 14.2 percent of children are engaged in hazardous forms of child labour with the Brong Ahafo leading with 24.4 percent 50

51 Your attention is highly appreciated


Download ppt "Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS6) Child Labour 26 th August 2014 Zonal Dissemination."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google