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Pauline Interpretation of Christianity: ROMANS February 7, 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Pauline Interpretation of Christianity: ROMANS February 7, 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pauline Interpretation of Christianity: ROMANS February 7, 2012

2 Today’s Schedule 4:00-5:20 Paul’s Doctrine of Justification: Pros and Cons of a Forensic/Theological Reading of Paul. Formulating a teaching using a role of scripture: Part C of Form! 5:20-6:15 Romans 2:1-3:31 Sin, Atonement, Law, Christ 6:15-6:40 Discussing your Interpretations and Next Week

3 Next Week Please sign up Also look at Webhttp://www.vanderbilt.edu/AnS/religious_studies/212-S10/212.htm

4 I am not ashamed of the Gospel (1:16) Theological Forensic Reading = an emphatic “I confess the gospel” “I affirm the truth of the gospel” (“I am mighty proud of the gospel”): Michel, Barrett, Stuhlmacher (28) and others = a negative formulation of “I confess” (like Mark 8:38; “Those who are ashamed of me and of my words... of them the Son of Man will also be ashamed when he comes in the glory of his Father with the holy angels"). What Paul “confesses” the truth of the content of the Gospel revealed to him when he was set apart for it (1:1- 4), he is not ashamed of preaching it. (Part of the defense of the truth of the gospel, that Romans is. “His gospel and his person are ‘slandered’ all the way to Rome (cf. 3:8): “Paul will not give in to this criticism” (PS, 28))

5 I am not ashamed of the Gospel 1:16 Pastoral Reading “For Paul, the shameful issue of the letter is the gospel itself, which proclaimed Christ crucified and resurrected. Although the word cross is absent in Romans and the verb “crucified” appears only once (Rom 6:6), it is clear from 1 Cor 2:2 that Paul assumed the gospel was the message about “Jesus Christ and him crucified.”..., the gospel that Paul hopes to proclaim in Rome and thereafter in Spain was innately shameful as far as Mediterranean cultures were concerned. The message about a redeemer being crucified was a "stumbling block to Jews and foolishness to Gentiles" (1 Cor 1:23)... There were deeply engrained social reasons why Paul should have been ashamed to proclaim such a gospel; his claim not to be ashamed signals that a social and ideological revolution has been inaugurated by the gospel.” [Jewett, Romans. Hermeneia Commentary (forthcoming), on Rom 1:16; DP’s emphasis] [New Perspective/Pastoral Reading]

6 I am not ashamed of the Gospel 1:16 Apocalyptic/Messianic Reading = an emphatic “I confess the gospel” “I testify to the manifestation of the gospel”; I confess the gospel as power of God; precisely because it manifests the power of God, I do not fear to confess it; it does not shame me; I am mighty proud of it. (Byrne, 51). This is related to Käsemann’s interpretation which insists that this phrase means that Paul confesses, testifies to “God’s declaration of salvation to the world, which is outside human control, independent even of the church and its ministers, and which constantly becomes a reality itself in proclamation of the power of the Spirit”… Paul is not ashamed of the gospel, because “it is the power of God” (Käsemann, 21-22

7 Romans 1:16-18 NRSV + 16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel; it is the power of God for salvation to everyone who has faith [NAB, NIV who believes], to the Jew first and also to the Greek. 17 For in it the righteousness of God [NJB the saving justice of God = performed by God] is revealed through faith for faith [[NAB, BBE, YLT, from faith to faith; NJB a justice based on faith and addressed to faith NIV that is by faith from first to last; as it is written] "The one who is righteous will live by faith." [[NJB Anyone who is upright through faith will live.]]

8 Romans 1:16-18 NRSV + the righteousness of God as 1. a quality of God = the righteousness that God has 2. the righteousness given by God to believers = the forgiveness given by God which absolves the guilty from condemnation 3. the saving justice of God = performed by God "The one who is righteous 1. will live by faith. 2. is upright (righteous) through faith (will live.)

9 Romans 3:21-26 NRSV + 21 But now, apart from law, the righteousness of God [quality of God? Given by God? Justice performed by God?] has been disclosed [manifested, revealed], and is attested [[testified to as a witness; or L & P “bear witness to”] by the law and the prophets, 22 the righteousness of God [see above] [NIV come] through faith in Jesus Christ for all who believe. [[(come) through the faith{fulness }of Jesus Christ for all who have faith]] For there is no distinction, 23 since all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God; 24 they are now justified by his grace as a gift, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus, 25 whom God put forward as a sacrifice of atonement by his blood, effective through faith. He did this to show his righteousness, because in his divine forbearance he had passed over the sins previously committed; 26 it was to prove at the present time that he himself is righteous and that he justifies the one who has faith in Jesus.

10 Romans 3:21-26 NRSV + For there is no distinction, 23 since all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God; 24 they are now justified [made righteous = forensic imputed righteousness; or made just = people performing justice, no longer under the bondage of sin] by his grace as a gift [1) this imputed righteousness as a gracious gift, with grace = forgiveness; 2) “grace” = a gracious gift, with grace = the power of the Gospel & God transforming sinners & their situations], through the redemption [ = 1) forgiveness or 2) freedom from bondage] that is in Christ Jesus, 25 whom God put forward as a sacrifice of atonement by his blood, effective through faith. He did this to show his righteousness, because in his divine forbearance he had passed over the sins previously committed; 26 it was to prove at the present time that he himself is righteous and that he justifies the one who has faith in Jesus.

11 Romans 3:21-26 NRSV + through the redemption [ = 1) forgiveness or 2) freedom from bondage] that is in Christ Jesus, 25 whom God put forward as a sacrifice of atonement by his blood, effective through faith. [[BBE Forensic : Whom God has put forward as the sign of his mercy, through faith, by his blood, NAB, RSV whom God set forth as an expiation, through faith, by his blood, NJB: Pastoral/covenantal: God appointed him as a sacrifice for reconciliation, through faith, by the shedding of his blood,

12 Propitiation vs. Expiation vs. Redemption Propitiation = something that ameliorates God’s wrath, dissolves hostility = vicarious death of Christ = punished instead of the sinners Vicarious/Scapegoat sacrifice Expiation = expunges, takes away the sin = takes away what separates sinners from God (the sinners’ anger against God) = what re-establish a right relationship with God through our being reconciled to God. Covenantal sacrifice (reestablishing proper covenantal relation with God) Redemption = Deliverance, being set free (from the power of sin; from the powers of idols, addictions, etc.); Passover Sacrifice resulting in and celebrating deliverance from bondage

13 Justification/righteousness For Peter Stuhlmacher (Forensic) 1) According to Peter Stuhlmacher, Paul’s view of justification is “forensic” (as he says on p. 20 and 30)? This means that “justification” or “being justified” is primarily understood as being forgiven as an individual sinner by God through Christ [[Stuhlmacher constantly refers to individual sinners]] & NOT primarily being chosen for a certain vocation/task as a member of God’s people through Christ & NOT primarily being transformed/powerfully affected by God’s power through Christ

14 Luther’s interpretation on 1:16-17 (Peter Stuhlmacher, 34-35; Luther, Works, 34:337) “The righteousness of God is that by which the righteous lives by a gift of God, namely faith” “The righteousness of God is revealed by the gospel, namely, the passive righteousness with which merciful God justifies us by faith” No “works-righteousness” Not the “righteousness of God” as “justice of God” (of a wrathful God) “The word of God, that is, what God does in us, the power of God, with which he makes us strong, the wisdom of God, with which he makes us wise, the strength of God, the salvation of God”

15 For Peter Stuhlmacher justification is “forensic” Does this mean that the two secondary understandings are ignored by Peter Stuhlmacher? Of course not. As a good scholar he pays close attention to everything which is in the text.

16 For Peter Stuhlmacher Forensic Justification is More than forgiveness 1. Being justified = being forgiven by God, “but not exhausted by the message of forgiveness for individuals” (30) 2. being justified FOR a certain vocation: (understood in forensic way as faithful response) Passing on the saving message to all peoples (30) 3. being subjected to God’s power manifested in Christ, the messianic Lord Christ as messianic Lord is a) guarantor of the justification (the gift of faith); b) the judge of the world; c) establishing God’s kingdom and reign

17 For the Pastoral/New Perspective Justification is “Covenantal” “Justification” or “being justified” is 1. PRIMARILY: Having been chosen (= saved in the past = by Christ’s death) to be a member of the people of God (body of Christ) for a certain vocation for /with others A privilege and a task SECONDARILY 2. Having been transformed by God’s power, freed from bondage (in Egypt, or other bondages) and empowered to serve God 3. And being forgiven by God, when one repents who otherwise would be right in withdrawing the election/vocation (we are not doing our job)

18 For Apocalyptic/Messianic Reading Justification is being “transformed” “Justification” or “being justified” is 1. Being saved (in present by resurrected Christ) = being transformed by God’s power, freed from evil powers and empowered to serve God Rather than being in bondage to oppressive powers (see chs. 5-8) 2. being chosen to be a member of the people of God for a certain vocation: Rather than being unable to do it 3. being forgiven by God, who otherwise would be right in condemning & destroying sinners who rebelled against God

19 For Peter Stuhlmacher Judgment 3) According to Stuhlmacher, did Paul’s gospel message directly relate to the coming of the apocalyptic final judgment when the unrighteous will be condemned? YES (p. 14; 68-69) For Paul “Justification involves an act of judgment” = the final judgment Difficult to miss in Rom 1:18: “For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and wickedness of those who by their wickedness suppress the truth.”

20 For Peter Stuhlmacher Judgment: Forensic view Judgment/Wrath of God is to be expected; but actually canceled by Jesus’ death (if we put ourselves to the benefit of his death) Because individuals willingly reject God and God’s will Thus they are responsible; found guilty, before God the judge. Root-problem: Located in the individual; especially “individual will” Beware, the Judgment is coming! = news necessary to change the will of people (threatens them; scares them; look at the consequences!)

21 Judgment: Pastoral view Judgment/Wrath of God is much needed: there is something wrong in this world!! Against community divisions; Jews vs. Gentiles; Gentiles vs. Jews; but also Against shunning people from the community and/or ostracizing them. Against not treating other as full and legitimate members of the community; marginalizing them; excluding them from the community; Against genocide: the Holocaust/Shoah; Darfur; Rwanda; Developed world/rich vs. the poor (gated communities) Root-problem: In community; which the community can change

22 Judgment: Messianic View Judgment/Wrath of God is much needed; there is something wrong in this world!! 26,500 children die every day of poverty, hunger, easily preventable diseases (=A 2004 Asian Tsunami occurring every week) Almost half the world—over three billion people—live on less than $2.50 a day. 95% of humanity lives on less than $10 a day Shaohua Chen and Martin Ravallion, The developing world is poorer than we thought, but no less successful in the fight against poverty. World Bank, August 2008 Root-problem: Systemic Evil; a power which keep people in bondage; transcendent Evil power; ideology as idolatry with power upon both individuals and communities; neither individuals nor communities can overcome this evil (only possible solution is a transcendent, divine intervention )

23 For Peter Stuhlmacher Forensic: Justification by faith alone = in order to be saved (from the future judgment) one must have a certain kind of faith. Faith as “believing that”: a certain belief about Christ = faith in Christ (see S. Discussion of the salvation of Israel: saved only when they will have faith in Christ ) Pastoral View: Justification by faith alone is justification by virtue of the grace of God alone; whether one knows it or not one is saved; the good news is the proclamation of this reality; all are unconditionally included Rejected by S. who does not want to say that whether one knows it or not one is saved

24 Justification by faith alone means Messianic/Apocalyptic: Justification by faith means immediate salvation for the believers because faith means recognizing that God is presently at work bringing about salvation to those who are under bondage; freeing them.

25 For Peter Stuhlmacher What is the view of salvation presupposed by Peter Stuhlmacher all along? From what do people need to be saved? From the anger (wrath) of God For what are people saved? or “sanctification” and serving God

26 For Peter Stuhlmacher, Paul’s primary view of SIN is Sin is rebelling against God, blurring of the difference between sin and God’s holiness (61) doing evil, what you feel guilty about it is NOT Sin as failing to carryout out one’s vocation as the people of God (Pastoral/Covenantal view) it is NOT Sin as a power which keeps people in bondage, darkening their mind, preventing them to have a true vision of God (Apocalyptic/Messianic view)

27 For Peter Stuhlmacher, Paul’s primary view of ATONEMENT is Christ died in order to bring about: The Satisfaction of a debt (before God as Judge); Vicarious death of Christ. (58-60) Rather than a Moral Transformation of believers so that they might be just, and carry out their vocation. (Pastoral/Covenantal) & Rather than Freedom from Bondage to evil powers (Redemption from bondage) (Apocalyptic/Messianic)

28 Pat Robertson, Haiti, Theodicy = Forensic View (without Good News): His declaration a year ago about Haiti as example of Forensic interpretation 1. Earthquake is “a blessing in disguise” 2. Haitians deserve the suffering = punishment, because they “swore a pact to the devil. They said ‘we will serve you if you will get us free from the French’... so the Devil said ‘O.K., it’s a deal.’ and they kicked the French out. … ever since they have been cursed by one thing after the other.”

29 Haiti and Theodicy: = Forensic View Bishop Éric Toussaint, standing near his damaged cathedral, said a year ago: “Why give thanks to God? Because we are here. What happened is the will of God. We are in the hands of God now.” Survivor: “God must have been watching out for me; it’s a miracle I survived” … whereby those who died were presumably not being “watched out for by God.” President Obama movingly invoked “our common humanity,” and said that “we stand in solidarity with our neighbors to the south, knowing that but for the grace of God, there we go.” (Thus the Haitians were not protected by God’s grace? Were cursed?)

30 “Law” CDC Theodore Jennings Law. OT, torah (instruction) refers to narrative instruction, social regulation, and directives concerning, e.g., temples, vestments, and liturgies. In Judaism “Torah” = Pentateuch, = relatively little material that would be termed “legal” in the later Roman sense. Reducing Torah to its legal codes (decalogue) is a later Christian innovation. In the NT, nomos (“law”) often = Torah. Yet for many interpreters, Paul restricts nomos to mosaic legal codes that do not apply to Gentiles. love of neighbor “fulfills” or completes the Law.

31 “Law” CDC Theodore Jennings When Roman Empire became Christian, emphasis on the “positive law” of legislation or decree. Codes of Justinian and Theodosius as the basis of church- sanctioned law; then OT Law and cosmic laws = “natural law” that grounds moral law. The Reformation regarded law negatively, as that which the human cannot fulfill (because of sin). = indicates the need a) for salvation “apart from the Law” (through the gospel of grace) and b) for punishing criminal behavior (murder, theft) in a fallen world. a “third use of the Law” (= “positive law”) governs Christian communities and commonwealths.

32 “Law” CDC Theodore Jennings [Covenantal view] For Radical Reformation movements the Law is fulfilled interhuman justice by love of the neighbor (Paul) or fulfilled through and mercy (Gospels). [Covenantal] Recent European discussion: justice (radical welcome of the other, Derrida, Levinas) is heterogeneous to law yet indissociable from it. [Messianic/Apocalyptic] Messianic movements (in all traditions) maintain that law is both consummated and abrogated with the coming of the Messiah and emphasize the violence of the law in contrast to a justice, which, like love, cannot be coerced (Agamben) Then Law = promise fulfilled (thus abrogated) in the Messiah and in Messianic time

33 R 2:1-3:31 “Sin” “Atonement” “Law” and “Christ” JESSICA CINEFRO Vs. Moo Sarah Jane Camper & Zachary King JESSE REESE vs. Jewett Miladys Pérez & Erica Geurts MICHAEL DURHAM vs. Byrne Benjamin Taylor & Jill Davis

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36 Greeks* and Barbarians* Forensic Use of these terms shows that Paul accepts this stereotypical division of the world in the Roman Empire And use it here as an alternative to the description of his mission to Gentiles… all Gentiles. (see Minear, on “indebtedness*) We must serve every one including the “gentiles” who ever they might be … those viewed as not worthy (by the Jews)

37 Greeks* and Barbarians* Pastoral Paul accepts this stereotypical division of the world in the Roman Empire Jewett is quoted: “a stereotypical formula in which "Greeks" are typically mentioned first and "Barbarians" second. In the bilingual context of Rome, "Greek" means "Greco-Roman" while "Barbarian" refers to alien tribes who cannot speak Greek or Latin and are uncultured, wild, crude, fierce, and, in a basic sense, uncivilized.… Particularly relevant to Paul's letter that prepared the way for a mission to Spain is that the Spaniards were viewed as Barbarians par excellence because so large a proportion continued to resist Roman rule. ….[Paul] conveys the sweeping inclusivity of the gospel of Christ crucified for all” Paul here challenges the Honor/shame system… a new sense of inclusive community, “honor” and “shame’ have changed

38 Greeks* and Barbarians* Messianic/Apocalyptic Greeks* and Barbarians* Use of these terms shows that Paul is challenging the Roman ideology (see Neil Elliot) (Jewett’s comments/evidence are relevant though he concludes something else) “Imperial The triumph of Rome over the Barbarians was celebrated in public art and monuments, in victory parades, in the gladiatorial games, and on coins that reveal that this antithesis was basic to the imperial worldview. Yves Albert Dauge shows that from the second century BCE to the fifth century CE, the Romans viewed Barbarians as inherently "inhuman, ferocious, arrogant, weak, warlike, discordant... unstable, etc.”


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