Presentation on theme: "Early years of his life Henry was born on 28 June 1491 at The Palace of Placentia in Greenwich as the third child of Henry VII and Elizabeth York. Only."— Presentation transcript:
Early years of his life Henry was born on 28 June 1491 at The Palace of Placentia in Greenwich as the third child of Henry VII and Elizabeth York. Only three of the Henry's brothers and sisters - Arthur - Prince of Wales, Margaret and Mary - survived infancy. His father was a king by conquest, but strengthened his position by marrying Elizabeth, the sister of Edward V. Already in early childhood Henry has received many titles of nobility: in 1493 Constable of Dover Castle, Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, in 1494 the Duke of York, Lord Marshal of England and Lord of Ireland governor.
In his youth, he loved sports, hunting, tournaments and fun. For writing a popular treaty surrendering criticism of Martin Luther in 1521 he received from the pope the title of "Defender of the Faith". During his reign, built a few buildings, such as King's College Chapel, Church of Christ Church, Oxford, Hampton Court Palace, the Palace Nonsuchoraz Westminster Abbey. Invest in the fleet, increased the number of ships from 5 to 53 in the "Mary Rose", whose remains are located in the Maritime Museum in Portsmouth
In 1501 years attended the wedding of his older brother Arthur to Catherine of Aragon, having then 15 and 16 years old. Families left for Wales, but Arthur soon became ill and died. Consequently, at the age of eleven, Henry was the rightful heir to tronui declared him the Prince of Wales. Henry VII still wanted to maintain the marital relationship between England and Spain through the marriage of his son Henry to Catherine of Aragon.
However, in order to marry his brother's widow, the Prince of Wales had to first obtain a dispensation from the pope. Catherine maintained that her first marriage was never consummated. If she was telling the truth, would not be required dispensation. Still, both the English and Spanish recognized the need to obtain it in order to dismiss any doubts about the validity of the marriage.
Due to the impatience of Queen Isabella, Catherine's mother, the Pope hastily issued a bull which gave dispensation. And so, 14 months after her husband's death, Catherine was engaged to the Prince of Wales.
Henry became involved in a large European policy, seeking to play an important role in it; initially decided against France (1512-1514, 1522-1525), becoming the same side of Spain - when France supported the Scots, in 1513 the English army smashed them in the Battle of Flodden field.
In 1525 the threat of hegemony of Emperor Charles V in Europe prompted Henry VIII to change the political orientation and support of France against the Habsburgs. There has been a shift in initially successful marriage with Catherine; among their children lived only daughter Maria. Henry VIII could no longer count on the 40-year-old Catherine was born him a son heir to the throne.
In 1527, Henry began efforts to annul the marriage on basis of an argument for non-compliance included the wedding. encountered, however, refusal of Pope Clement VII. After several years of fruitless treatments and long hesitation Henry VIII decided on a radical steps. Making the decision easier for him to increase the Reformation in English society, although Henry VIII himself does not become a advocate of deep reforms in the Church; saw while the possibility of complete independence of his power from external centers (the papacy), and complete control of the Church in the country and its assets. Religious upheaval
In 1532, Henry VIII received support for his plans from the convocation of the clergy and the English Parliament. In 1533 Cranmer annulled the first marriage of the king. In the 1533-1534 Parliament adopted a series of laws switched English Church from the pope, including the Act of Supremacy - King was head of the Church of England, the resistance of the opponents of this principle was considered treason.
In 1536 conducted dissolution of the monasteries; the sale of their assets was allocated royal treasure. It is estimated that during the reign of Henry VIII of England died about 500 Catholics, including two cardinals, 2 archbishops, 18 bishops, 13 abbots, an unspecified number of abbots and monks.
Church has been given a new doctrinal assumptions, the action the king did not form a consistent line: in 1536 10 Articles of faith clearly tended toward Protestantism, in 1539 the 6 Articles of faith Henry VIII returned to doctrine Catholic. Henry VIII took care also about strengthening the forces of England at sea; for his reign built shipyards and ships, fortified coast. In 1544-1546 the king got into another costly war with France
Significant legislation enacted during his reign several laws separating the Church of England from the Church Catholic and establishing Henry VIII head of the Church Anglican; Acts of Union in 1536-1543 connecting England and Wales in one Nation Decree of sodomy in 1533 - First English law against sodomy The act of witchcraft in 1542 - punishing with death "invoking or conjuring evil spirits"
Killed wives of Henry VIII Anne Boleyn had to die because the king gave birth to only one child Elizabeth I, instead of the desired son, and then (probably two times) miscarried. The king had been keeping an eye on one of her maidservants, Jane Seymour, and had to somehow get rid of Anna. He could not be with her as the just divorce, the marriage had to be canceled. Anna accused of incestuous relationship with her own brother (George Boleyn), and affairs with several other courtiers. From our point of view, the evidence were none – forced torture, absurd and contradictory testimony, and devoid of context fragments of conversation.
Anna and her brother were tried in the Tower. As peers answers before the court, presided their own uncle, the Duke of Norfolk. And even though they were innocent, May 15, 1536, considered to be guilty of treason state. Neither Anna nor her brother pleaded not guilty, but declared they deserve to be punished. This is what the convicts to avoid revenge king on their families and confiscation of assets. Interestingly, Anna is not dead as queen.
Stuck courtiers and Anna's brother were beheaded on May 17 on a hill Tower, and Anne's execution took place on May 19 inside the Tower of London, as feared her last speech. Especially for Anna brought "executioner of Calais", known for his professionalism. She died from a cutting sword. She was buried in a mass grave for traitors state in the nearby chapel of St. Peter in Chains. The next day, Henry VIII became engaged to Jane Seymour, and May 30 pair got married.
The fifth wife of monarch Catherine Howard was also beheaded; what is interesting, she was a close cousin of Anne Boleyn and lady of the manor fourth queen Anne of Cleve. Catherine was younger than Henry for about 30 years. She was queen for about a year and a half. At the end of October 1541, Henry and Catherine returned from the annual royal tour. During the ceremony in the royal chapel on November 1st Henry thanked God for the happines that he found at the side of Catherine, after the difficult experiences of previous wives. And the followng day archbishop Cranmer gave the king a letter which concluded that Caterine is a woman of so-called “the past”.
The king didn’t want to belive it at first, however instituded covert investigation and gradually flowed more and more scandalus facts, suspicions and rumours. Initially, they pertained to this period in the life of Catherine, when she hasn’t married to Henry yet. On 22nd November the Council took Catherine the title of queen and two days later she was accused of dissolute life before the wedding, concealment of a prenuptial agreement with Dereham, showing him “special goodwill” and that confessing Thomas Culpeper love, she encouraged him to intercourse.
Two days later she was accused of dissolute life before the wedding, concealment of a prenuptial agreement with Dereham, showing him “special goodwill” and that confessing Thomas Culpeper love, she encouraged him to intercourse. Against Catherine used The loss of Rights Act. Without a trial, on the basis of “the terrible presumption” about adultery she was sentenced to death. Queen, Dereham and Culpeper wasn’t admitted to adultery, but Catherine herself stated that she deserved to this punishment for her wicked misdeeds against the king. On February 10th she was transported to the Tower of London. She was executed early in the morning on February 13th. She died from a single cut of ax. Catherine was came to rest in the same mass grave for traitors, in which Anne Boleyn was buried.
Trivia Henry VIII – unusual king Henry VIII was a talented musican, composer and poet. He is credited with authorship of the song “Greensleeves”. King played cards and dice, hunted, likes tennis and football, which due to the lack of established rules was very violent and dangerous sport. He also had a private arena to fight bears. Dururing the tournament in 1536, Henry was injured. Complicated wound on his thigh hindered him the movement and long didn’t want to heal. It was probably the indirect cause of his death in 1547. Henry had almost 190 cm tall, before his death, he weighed 140 kg. He was considered a very handsome man.
Wives of Henry VIII Henry VIII was married six times: in 1509 with Catherine of Aragon, in 1533 with Anne Boleyn, in 1536 with Jane Seymour, in 1540 with Anne of Cleve, in 1540 with Caterine Howard, in 1543 with Catherine Parr. Catherine of Aragon was in fact only six years older then Henry VIII. After death her heart was black, which believed that she was poisoned. Probably she died of a tumor. Anne Boleyn was sick on polydactyly, so she had six fingers on her left hand. Therefore, it was thought, she was a witch. Jane Seymour was the only wives of Henry VIII, who rests with him in a common grave in the Chapel of St. George at Windsor Castle.
Courtship during the reign of Tudors Dynasty The ideal women XV and XVII century is a pale blonde with blue eye and full figure. In contemporary England per excellent considered women with large breasta, abundant thighs and plump hips. Handsome man must have a pale complexion and beautifully sculpted silhouette. Henry VIII as the best part of his body considered legs, so he oftenshowed it. In higher spheres popular was makeup which accentuated pallor complexion. Whitening effect was obtaind thanks to elements such as protein from eggs, powdered egg shells, white poppy seeds. The mixture was applied to the neck, chest, hands and at pure white skin was drawn blue veins. Lips and cheeks were eagerly emphasized on red.