Judgmental Heuristics : Mental shortcuts people use to make judgments quickly and efficiently HEURISTICS AND AUTOMATIC PROCESSING.

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Judgmental Heuristics : Mental shortcuts people use to make judgments quickly and efficiently HEURISTICS AND AUTOMATIC PROCESSING

The conditions that lead to the use of heuristics rather than more careful decision making : We simply do not have time to engage in systematic analysis We are overloaded with information so that it is impossible to process all that is meaningful and relevant We consider the issues in question to be not very important We have little other knowledge or information to use in making a decision We are in a positive mood, signaling to us that everything is fine and no effortful thinking is necessary

Beberapa faktor dalam heuristic : 1. Availability heuristic (ketersediaan informasi) A strategy for making judgments on the basis of how easily specific kinds of information can be brought to mind. The easier information we can bring to mind, the greater its impact on our judgments. Mis : Bagi orang Amerika, Bali lebih besar daripada Indonesia krn mereka punya informasi yang lebih banyak tentang Bali. Relying on availability in making social judgments, can also lead to errors. For instance, it can lead us to overestimate the events that are dramatic but rare, because they are easy to bring to mind. Mis : Naik pesawat lebih berbahaya daripada mobil Mobil SUV lebih aman daripada mobil sedan

When viewing scenes such this Olaha Airlines 1988 disaster, many people exaggerate the risk of flying

Physician have been found to use the availability heuristic when making diagnoses. Their diagnoses are influenced by how easily they can bring different diseases to mind

2. The Representativeness Heuristic : How similar is A to B A mental shortcut whereby people classify something according to how similar it is to a typical case Is this woman from California or Michigan? People often make such judgments by using the representativeness heuristic, such as how similar the woman is to your conception of Californians.

3. Base rate information Berpikir heuristic yang didasarkan pada informasi khusus tentang satu orang anggota kelompok saja, lalu dipukul rata pada semua anggota kelompok. Memicu prasangka, permusuhan Mis : salah satu kasus di Poso, tawuran antar pelajar yang dipicu kasus satu orang

Controlled Social Cognition : High-Effort Thinking Thinking that is conscious, intentional, voluntary and effortful in the sense that it requires mental energy. People have capacity to think in a conscious, controlled way about only one thing at a time Example : racial prejudice can be the result of automatic or controlled thinking.

Racial profiling is official action toward people based on their race, ethnicity, or national origin instead of their behavior. Since the tragic events of september 2001, some innocent people who looked like of Middle Eastern have not been allowed on airplanes

ASPEK-ASPEK DASAR KOGNISI SOSIAL  Memperhatikan yang inkonsisten Segala yang tidak konsisten lebih diperhatikan daripada yang konsisten. Mis : ulama yang menipu, koruptor yang beramal  Memperhatikan yang negatif Kecenderungan ini sering dilakukan karena dgn memperhatikan aspek negatif, kita dapat lebih waspada thdp bahaya, kerugian. Namun hal ini dapat mempersulit hubungan antarpribadi Mis : ibu yang hanya bercerita kenakalan anaknya saja

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