Presentation on theme: "From Republic to Empire Julius Caesar, Mark Anthony, Cleopatra."— Presentation transcript:
From Republic to Empire Julius Caesar, Mark Anthony, Cleopatra
Objectives To whom did Cicero want to give power? Why did many senators consider Julius Caesar a threat? What role did the military play in Caesar’s rise to power? Who took over Rome after Caesar’s death? How did Octavian take power from Marc Anthony? Why is it significant that Octavian did not take the title of dictator? What areas of the world did the Romans conquer? Why did trade increase during Pax Romana? What type of law is based on the Roman law code? Why do people study Latin?
Terms and People Currency is physical money – bills or coins. Pax Romana means “Roman Peace.” Aqueducts were built to carry water from one place to another. Romance Languages are the languages that came from the Roman Latin. Civil Law is law keeping order between people, rather than prosecuting crimes. Well, that place is in peace...and they better stay peaceful, or we’ll slaughter them! Criminal Law
Terms and People Cicero was a famous Roman speaker Julius Caesar was a military general that people thought was trying to become emperor. Pompey was a military general Caesar Augustus became the first emperor. Wise minds are instructed by reason, average minds by experience, stupid ones by necessity, and the brute ones by instinct. Cleopatra was the last pharaoh of Egypt.
Caesar added the yellow portions in the west. They were great friends; Pompey even married Caesar’s daughter, Julia. Gaius Julius Caesar Gnaeus Pompeius (Pompey) The red portion of this map shows Roman Republic after the Punic Wars. Caesar and Pompey were both generals of Rome that expanded the Republic. Pompey added the blue portions in the south and east.
Gaius Julius Caesar With his popularity, some feared Caesar might try to make himself king. Although they were both Patricians, Caesar stood with the common people. Caesar was in Gaul (France) with his army and the senate ordered him to return.
No Roman general was allowed to bring an army into Italy. Even today, when people commit an action for which there is no return, we say, “He’s crossed his Rubicon.” The border then was a river called the Rubicon. When Caesar crossed the Rubicon with his army, he broke the law. Caesar’s enemies knew he would invade Rome.
Caesar entered Rome with his army. Caesar’s enemies, now including Pompey, fled Rome. Then he made himself dictator for life.
A civil war began, and Caesar chased Pompey’s forces around the republic.
After his defeat, Pompey fled from Caesar’s forces. He went to Alexandria, Egypt. King Ptolemy of Egypt was only thirteen years old at that time. He had Pompey beheaded in front of his wife and children in order to impress Caesar and become an ally of Rome.
When Caesar arrived in Egypt two days later, Ptolemy presented him with Pompey's severed head; Caesar was enraged. Although he was Caesar's political enemy, Pompey was a Roman consul and Caesar’s son-in-law. Caesar seized the Egyptian capital.
King Ptolemy At that time, two different people claimed the Egyptian throne. …and Cleopatra They were brother and sister and hated each other.
Cleopatra had herself rolled up inside a carpet and smuggled into Caesar’s room. Cleopatra and Caesar became lovers. When Caesar came to Egypt, he planned to add it to the Roman Republic. Instead, he ended up backing Cleopatra’s claim to the throne.
Caesar brought Cleopatra back to Rome. The relationship between Cleopatra and Caesar was obvious to the Roman people. It was a scandal because the Roman dictator was already married. Many Romans hated her, but Caesar erected a golden statue of Cleopatra represented as Isis in the temple of Venus
The Senate knew that Caesar, already dictator, was about to make himself emperor and destroy the republic. To save the republic, the Senate created a plan.
The senators of Rome assassinated Julius Caesar on the floor of the senate building.
A man named Mark Anthony was one of the consuls of Rome at the time. He was Julius Caesar’s nephew. He gave a speech that turned the people against Caesar’s killers.
Mark Antony Octavian Together, they defeated Caesar’s killers at the Battle of Philippi in October 42 BC. With the sister negotiating between them, it seemed they would rule the republic together. Antony formed an alliance with Octavian, another powerful Roman. Mark Antony married Octavian’s sister to cement their alliance.
Then Mark Antony met Cleopatra. Mark Antony left his wife and had children with Cleopatra.
Octavian, still in Rome, was able to turn Romans against Mark Antony. In 32 BC, the Senate deprived Mark Antony of his powers and declared war against Cleopatra, but not Antony. Octavian, now close to absolute power, invaded Egypt in August 30 BC.
Cleopatra spread the rumor that she had been killed. Knowing that he was defeated, and believing Cleopatra dead, Mark Antony prepared to commit suicide. Cleopatra came to warn him, but arrived too late, and Mark Antony died in her arms.
Octavian came to meet her.
Cleopatra knew that she would be paraded as a captive in Octavius’s return to Rome. She committed suicide by pressing a poisonous snake called an asp against her breast.
In the end, murdering Caesar failed to stop Rome from becoming an empire. Octavius became Rome’s first emperor. He became Caesar Augustus.
While criminal law existed for a long time, the Romans invented civil law. What is civil law?
Cicero, wise man of Rome, wanted to give the power to the Senate and prevent military rule.