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Learning: Classical & Operant Conditioning Learning: Principles & Applications Classical Conditioning Objectives Terminology:  Neutral Stimulus  Unconditioned.

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Presentation on theme: "Learning: Classical & Operant Conditioning Learning: Principles & Applications Classical Conditioning Objectives Terminology:  Neutral Stimulus  Unconditioned."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Learning: Classical & Operant Conditioning

3 Learning: Principles & Applications Classical Conditioning Objectives Terminology:  Neutral Stimulus  Unconditioned Stimulus  Unconditioned Response  Conditioned Stimulus  Conditioned Response Objectives Performance Tasks:  Students should be able to locate real world examples of classical conditioning.  Students should be able to take what the have learned and use it to create their own classical conditioning experiment.

4 Classical Conditioning  Classical conditioning: person/animal’s old response becomes attached to new stimulus  This is a type of learning Ivan Pavlov "Ivan Pavlov - Biography". Nobelprize.org. 17 Apr /pavlov-bio.html

5  The Secret Behind Pavlov’s Discovery…  How did Pavlov stumble upon his discovery?  To find out please follow the link below and read the section titled “Pavlov’s drooling dogs”  dmore.html dmore.html

6 So how did Pavlov accidentally discover a type of learning?  He was studying digestion and noticed that dogs salivated at the sight of food. He was studying digestion and noticed that dogs salivated at the sight of food.  He was studying digestion and noticed that dogs salivated without the proper stimulus. He was studying digestion and noticed that dogs salivated without the proper stimulus.  He set out to discover classical conditioning from the start. He set out to discover classical conditioning from the start.  He was studying digestion and noticed that dogs stopped salivating at the sight of food. He was studying digestion and noticed that dogs stopped salivating at the sight of food.

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9 Classical Conditioning Components of the experiment 1. Neutral Stimulus (NS)  Stimulus that does not illicit a response from the test subject.  Eventually becomes the CS. 2. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)  Stimulus that naturally causes a response from the test subject. 3. Unconditioned Response (UCR)  Response that occurs naturally in the presence of the Unconditioned Stimulus.  Will be the same response as the CR. 4. Conditioned Stimulus (CS)  After pairing the UCS with the NS a number of times, eventually the NS will illicit the same response from the test subject as the UCS. 5. Conditioned Response (CR)  Response that now occurs in response to the CS.

10 Pavlov‘s Dogs Anderson, Phil. "Learning: Classical Conditioning & Operant Conditioning." St. Rosemary Educational Institution, October 29, Web. Retrieved on: Tuesday 17th April

11 General Principles of Classical Conditioning  Helps animals/humans adapt to environment  Also helps avoid danger  Acquisition  Classically conditioned response occurs gradually…  Each pairing of NS-UCS, the CR is strengthened  Timing Matters too… the closer the NS & UCS are paired, the faster the CR is learned  Pavlov found that conditioning worked best when CS & UCS were ½ second apart, the strongest the association (tuning fork  meat ½ second  salivation)

12 What was the neutral stimulus in Pavlov’s Experiment?  The bell The bell  The food The food  Salivation Salivation  Pavlov Pavlov

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15 Generalization & Discrimination  Generalization   Pavlov did experiments where the image of a circle became the CS  Found CR (salivation) would occur with the image of an oval too = generalization  Began to associate similar stimuli  Discrimination   Pavlov was able to produce discrimination by only pairing the meat (UCS) with a circle  Dogs no longer would salivate to an oval then  Limiting the association

16 Circle (CS) = Salivation (CR) Oval (CS) = Salivation (CR) GENERALIZATION Circle (CS) = Salivation (CR) Oval (CS) Salivation (CR) SALIVATION DISCRIMINATION (Meat not paired w/ oval)

17 Extinction & Spontaneous Recovery  Pavlov discovered that if he stopped presenting the food (UCS) after the sound of the tuning fork (CS), the salivation (CR) eventually stopped  = Extinction  However, this doesn’t mean the CR is completely unlearned… Spontaneous Recovery  Response is not brought back to original strength but still can re-occur (Pavlov’s dogs produced less saliva)

18 If you become classically conditioned are you doomed to be that way forever?  Yes, once the NS is conditioned to become the CS the CR becomes permanent. Yes, once the NS is conditioned to become the CS the CR becomes permanent.  No, classical conditioning usually only lasts a few days even if the NS is continuously paired with the UCS. No, classical conditioning usually only lasts a few days even if the NS is continuously paired with the UCS.  No, eventually if the CS is no longer paired with the UCS and extended period of time has passed, extinction is likely to occur. No, eventually if the CS is no longer paired with the UCS and extended period of time has passed, extinction is likely to occur.  None of the above None of the above

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21 Classical Conditioning & Human Behavior  Case of Little Albert  UCS =  UCR =  CS =  CR = "PSYCHOLOGICAL HARASSMENT INFORMATION ASSOCIATION." All Videos. Web. 18 Apr

22 What was the CR for Little Albert?  The white rabbit. The white rabbit.  Little Albert’s lack of fear of the white rat before the experiment. Little Albert’s lack of fear of the white rat before the experiment.  The fear of the white rat after the experiment. The fear of the white rat after the experiment.  The loud noise made at the presence of the rabbit. The loud noise made at the presence of the rabbit.

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25 Classical Conditioning & Human Behavior  Hobart Mowrer & Mollie Mowrer  Solving bed-wetting through classical conditioning  Bell & Pad  2 metallic sheets perforated w/ small holes & attached by wires to battery-run alarm  So wetting the bed will cause alarm to go off & bed-wetter to wake  UCS =  UCR =  CS =  CR =

26 What is the UCS for the Bell and Pad example?  Feeling of a full bladder Feeling of a full bladder  Waking up Waking up  The loud noise of the bell The loud noise of the bell  The pad The pad

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29 Taste Aversion  Have you ever ate something and then something happened (i.e. you became sick from the flu) and now you refuse to eat it?  This is classical conditioning at work  Classical conditioning is an example of a behaviorist theory  Behaviorism is an attempt to understand behavior in terms of relationship between observable stimuli & observable responses

30 Classical Conditioning At Work DavidBakercc. "Office Conditioning." YouTube. YouTube, 15 Feb Web. 18 Apr

31 Learning: Principles & Applications Operant Conditioning Objectives Terminology:  Reinforcement  Fixed-Ratio Schedule  Variable-Ratio Schedule  Fixed-Interval Schedule  Variable-Interval Schedule  Shaping  Negative Reinforcement  Punishment Objectives Performance Tasks:  Students should be able to locate real world examples of operant conditioning.  Students should be able to take what the have learned and use it to create their own operant conditioning experiment.

32 Operant Conditioning  “The term operant is used because the subject operates on or causes some change in the environment” (p.252). Behavior Positive Reinforcer Negative Reinforcer Changed Behavior

33 Operant Conditioning  Putting it another way…  With operant conditioning a behavior occurs and then is reinforced or punished to increase or decrease the likelihood that that behavior will occur again.  So I do something (sneak out of the house) and my parents then punish me for that behavior (grounded for 1 month).

34 Classical vs. Operant  So what’s the difference?  In classical the CS & UCS are presented independent of the participant’s behavior.  The dogs don’t drool and then are given the food as a result of their drooling  In operant the participant must engage in a behavior in order for the programmed outcome to occur. (study of how voluntary behavior is affected by consequences)

35 Reinforcement  Positive Reinforcer:  Occurs when something an animal/person wants is added after an action.  Example: Parent giving a young child a cookie after the child uses the potty appropriately  Negative Reinforcer:  Occurs when something unpleasant is taken away if the animal/person performs an action.  Example: Taking away a teenagers curfew if they get all “A’s” on their report card

36 Skinner Box  B.F. Skinner (Behaviorist, operant conditioning guru)  Rat must learn how to solve problem of how to get food to appear in cup  This is done by pressing a bar (not natural behavior for rat), so how is it learned?  Reinforcement – 1 st food is dispensed whenever the rat moves close to bar  2 nd once rat goes to bar regularly the experimenter only provides food when rat presses bar  Other examples:  Training your dog…  Give a positive reinforcer every time it does what you want (sit, beg, speak, shake, rollover, put the toilet seat down)

37 Skinner Box "PSYCHOLOGICAL HARASSMENT INFORMATION ASSOCIATION." All Videos. Web. 18 Apr

38 What would be the reinforcer Skinner used?  Food Food  Water Water  The task that had to be done The task that had to be done  Small electric shock Small electric shock

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41 Primary & Secondary Reinforcers  Primary fulfills biological need  Secondary reinforcer has acquired value through classical conditioning  Example: Wolfe experiment  Trained chimps to value poker chips  Poker chips have no value to chimps naturally (NS) but if they are paired with a primary reinforcer like food (UCS), they begin to respond the same way to poker chips as they would food  Chimps were observed fighting over poker chips

42 Primary & Secondary Reinforcers Cont.  Chimp-O-Mat  Dispensed peanuts/bananas (primary reinforcers)  Chimps had to pull bar to get chips & then insert these chips into a slot which caused chimp-o- mat to dispense food  Chips became conditioned to the secondary reinforcer (chimps would fight/save/steal)  For people… it would be money!

43 What’s the difference between primary and secondary reinforcers?  Secondary reinforcers fulfill a biological need, primary do not Secondary reinforcers fulfill a biological need, primary do not  Primary reinforcers fulfill a biological need, secondary do not Primary reinforcers fulfill a biological need, secondary do not  Primary reinforcers are negative reinforcers, secondary are positive reinforcers Primary reinforcers are negative reinforcers, secondary are positive reinforcers  Primary reinforcers are positive reinforcers, secondary are negative reinforcers Primary reinforcers are positive reinforcers, secondary are negative reinforcers

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46 Schedules of Reinforcement (how often is behavior reinforced)  Continuous: when behavior is reinforced every time it occurs  Partial: when behavior is rewarded intermittently  Responses tend to be more stable & long lasting because the animal realizes that they will not be reinforced every time so they are not discouraged when reinforcement is not immediate  Skinner found this out when his box would break down & rats kept pressing bar

47 Ratio Interval Fixed SchedulesFixed Ratio (reinforcement after a fixed # of responses) Being paid for every 10 lawns you mow Being allowed no more than 5 fouls in a b-ball game ***You know exactly how many times behavior must occur for reinforcement or punishment to occur. It is not dependent on time Fixed Interval (reinforcement of 1 st response after a fixed amount of time has passed) Studying for a known exam schedule (will likely only study once the test date is close) Picking up your check from your part- time job (will only go to pick up your check when pay day arrives) ***You know exactly how much time must pass before you can be reinforced or punished again. It is not dependent on how many times you perform the behavior Variable SchedulesVariable Ratio (reinforcement after varying # of responses) Playing a slot machine (could win after any number of tries but can’t win if you do not pull the handle) Sales commissions (could make a sale each of your 1 st 4 attempts but can’t make a sale if you do nothing) ***Longest-lasting effect on behavior!! ***You do not know how many times you must demonstrate the behavior before being reinforced or punished. It is not dependent on time Variable Interval (reinforcement of 1 st response after varying amounts of time) Surprise quizzes in class (you know you could be quizzed at any time so you end up studying every night to be prepared. Your preparation is not rewarded until you are quizzed which could be at any time Busy signal on the phone (you do not know when the line will be open again so you just have to keep calling. The time that it takes before your behavior is reinforced (get ahold of the person) is not known ***You do not know how much time must pass before your behavior is reinforced or punished. It is not dependent on how many times the behavior is demonstrated Partial Schedules of Reinforcement

48 What type of reinforcement schedule would be occurring if a worker gets paid $75 for every finished product they produce?  Fixed-Ratio Fixed-Ratio  Fixed-Interval Fixed-Interval  Variable-Ratio Variable-Ratio  Variable-Interval Variable-Interval

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51 Shaping & Chaining  Shaping is the process in which reinforcement is used to sculpt new responses out of old ones  Successive Approximations (think back to Skinner Box)Skinner Box  Example: Rat raising the American Flag  Rat doesn’t immediately do this…  You reinforce stages of the intended behavior  1 st : reinforce the rat every time it goes near the flagpole until it does this regularly  2 nd : then only reinforce behavior when the rat touches the flagpole until it does this regularly  3 rd : Continue to limit reinforcement this way until the intended outcome (raising the flag) occurs  Response chains: putting various responses together in sequence  Examples: Band, Cheerleading, Dance, Karate, Swimming…  Learn the basics and then you can piece things together  Dancing: learn how to perform various dance moves, then you can chain them together to create a full dance routine

52 Aversive Control  Recap: reinforcement is anything that increases frequency of a behavior  Aversive control uses unpleasant stimuli to influence behavior  2 types:  Negative reinforcers  Punishment

53 Aversive Control  Aversive control: using unpleasant stimuli to influence behavior  Negative Reinforcers: removes unpleasant stimuli & increases frequency of behavior  2 types:  Escape conditioning  Trained behavior to remove unpleasant stimuli  Avoidance conditioning  Trained behavior to prevent unpleasant stimuli before it starts  Examples  Escape: child who whines when broccoli is placed on plate so much that parent eventually takes it away (child learns that they can escape unpleasant stimuli by whining)  Avoidance: child who whines when parent goes to buy broccoli so parent does not buy it anymore (child learns that if they whine early enough they do not have to face the unpleasant stimuli)

54 Aversive Control  Punishment: unpleasant consequence occurs & decreases frequency of behavior  Examples:  Spanking  dog for eating your homework  Disadvantages  Can produce unwanted side effects such as rage, aggression, & fear  Spanking may increase aggressiveness toward other children  Also punishment might lead people to avoid person dishing out aversive control

55 What’s the difference between negative reinforcement and punishment?  Negative reinforcement decreases the likelihood that a behavior will occur again; Punishment increases the likelihood Negative reinforcement decreases the likelihood that a behavior will occur again; Punishment increases the likelihood  Negative reinforcement increases the likelihood that a behavior will occur again; Punishment decreases the likelihood Negative reinforcement increases the likelihood that a behavior will occur again; Punishment decreases the likelihood  Negative reinforcement involves positive stimuli being used; Punishment involves negative stimuli Negative reinforcement involves positive stimuli being used; Punishment involves negative stimuli  Negative reinforcement involves negative stimuli being used; Punishment involves positive stimuli Negative reinforcement involves negative stimuli being used; Punishment involves positive stimuli

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58 Classical vs. Operant  So what’s the difference?  In classical the CS & UCS are presented independent of the participant’s behavior.  The dogs don’t drool and then are given the food as a result of their drooling  In operant the participant must engage in a behavior in order for the programmed outcome to occur. (study of how voluntary behavior is affected by consequences)

59 The End  NICE JOB!!!  Tomorrow you will be asked to create your own Classical and Operant Conditioning Experiments


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