2Learning: Principles & Applications Classical Conditioning ObjectivesPerformance Tasks:Students should be able to locate real world examples of classical conditioning.Students should be able to take what the have learned and use it to create their own classical conditioning experiment.ObjectivesTerminology:Neutral StimulusUnconditioned StimulusUnconditioned ResponseConditioned StimulusConditioned Response
3Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning: person/animal’s old response becomes attached to new stimulusThis is a type of learningIvan Pavlov"Ivan Pavlov - Biography". Nobelprize.org. 17 Apr 2012
4The Secret Behind Pavlov’s Discovery… How did Pavlov stumble upon his discovery?To find out please follow the link below and read the section titled “Pavlov’s drooling dogs”
5So how did Pavlov accidentally discover a type of learning? He was studying digestion and noticed that dogs salivated at the sight of food.He was studying digestion and noticed that dogs salivated without the proper stimulus.He set out to discover classical conditioning from the start.He was studying digestion and noticed that dogs stopped salivating at the sight of food.
8Classical Conditioning Components of the experiment Neutral Stimulus (NS)Stimulus that does not illicit a response from the test subject.Eventually becomes the CS.Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)Stimulus that naturally causes a response from the test subject.Unconditioned Response (UCR)Response that occurs naturally in the presence of the Unconditioned Stimulus.Will be the same response as the CR.Conditioned Stimulus (CS)After pairing the UCS with the NS a number of times, eventually the NS will illicit the same response from the test subject as the UCS.Conditioned Response (CR)Response that now occurs in response to the CS.
9Pavlov‘s DogsAnderson, Phil. "Learning: Classical Conditioning & Operant Conditioning." St. Rosemary Educational Institution, October 29, Web. Retrieved on: Tuesday 17th April
10General Principles of Classical Conditioning Helps animals/humans adapt to environmentAlso helps avoid dangerAcquisitionClassically conditioned response occurs gradually…Each pairing of NS-UCS, the CR is strengthenedTiming Matters too… the closer the NS & UCS are paired, the faster the CR is learnedPavlov found that conditioning worked best when CS & UCS were ½ second apart, the strongest the association (tuning fork meat ½ second salivation)
11What was the neutral stimulus in Pavlov’s Experiment? The bellThe foodSalivationPavlov
14Generalization & Discrimination Pavlov did experiments where the image of a circle became the CSFound CR (salivation) would occur with the image of an oval too = generalizationBegan to associate similar stimuliDiscrimination Pavlov was able to produce discrimination by only pairing the meat (UCS) with a circleDogs no longer would salivate to an oval thenLimiting the association
16Extinction & Spontaneous Recovery Pavlov discovered that if he stopped presenting the food (UCS) after the sound of the tuning fork (CS), the salivation (CR) eventually stopped= ExtinctionHowever, this doesn’t mean the CR is completely unlearned… Spontaneous RecoveryResponse is not brought back to original strength but still can re-occur (Pavlov’s dogs produced less saliva)
17If you become classically conditioned are you doomed to be that way forever? Yes, once the NS is conditioned to become the CS the CR becomes permanent.No, classical conditioning usually only lasts a few days even if the NS is continuously paired with the UCS.No, eventually if the CS is no longer paired with the UCS and extended period of time has passed, extinction is likely to occur.None of the above
20Classical Conditioning & Human Behavior Case of Little AlbertUCS =UCR =CS =CR ="PSYCHOLOGICAL HARASSMENT INFORMATION ASSOCIATION." All Videos. Web. 18 Apr <http://www.psychologicalharassment.com/all_videos.htm>.
21What was the CR for Little Albert? The white rabbit.Little Albert’s lack of fear of the white rat before the experiment.The fear of the white rat after the experiment.The loud noise made at the presence of the rabbit.
24Classical Conditioning & Human Behavior Hobart Mowrer & Mollie MowrerSolving bed-wetting through classical conditioningBell & Pad2 metallic sheets perforated w/ small holes & attached by wires to battery-run alarmSo wetting the bed will cause alarm to go off & bed-wetter to wakeUCS =UCR =CS =CR =
25What is the UCS for the Bell and Pad example? Feeling of a full bladderWaking upThe loud noise of the bellThe pad
28Taste AversionHave you ever ate something and then something happened (i.e. you became sick from the flu) and now you refuse to eat it?This is classical conditioning at workClassical conditioning is an example of a behaviorist theoryBehaviorism is an attempt to understand behavior in terms of relationship between observable stimuli & observable responses
29Classical Conditioning At Work DavidBakercc. "Office Conditioning." YouTube. YouTube, 15 Feb Web. 18 Apr <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WfZfMIHwSkU>.
30Learning: Principles & Applications Operant Conditioning ObjectivesTerminology:ReinforcementFixed-Ratio ScheduleVariable-Ratio ScheduleFixed-Interval ScheduleVariable-Interval ScheduleShapingNegative ReinforcementPunishmentObjectivesPerformance Tasks:Students should be able to locate real world examples of operant conditioning.Students should be able to take what the have learned and use it to create their own operant conditioning experiment.
31Operant Conditioning“The term operant is used because the subject operates on or causes some change in the environment” (p.252).BehaviorPositive Reinforcer Negative ReinforcerChanged Behavior
32Operant Conditioning Putting it another way… With operant conditioning a behavior occurs and then is reinforced or punished to increase or decrease the likelihood that that behavior will occur again.So I do something (sneak out of the house) and my parents then punish me for that behavior (grounded for 1 month).
33Classical vs. Operant So what’s the difference? In classical the CS & UCS are presented independent of the participant’s behavior.The dogs don’t drool and then are given the food as a result of their droolingIn operant the participant must engage in a behavior in order for the programmed outcome to occur. (study of how voluntary behavior is affected by consequences)
34Reinforcement Positive Reinforcer: Negative Reinforcer: Occurs when something an animal/person wants is added after an action.Example: Parent giving a young child a cookie after the child uses the potty appropriatelyNegative Reinforcer:Occurs when something unpleasant is taken away if the animal/person performs an action.Example: Taking away a teenagers curfew if they get all “A’s” on their report card
35Skinner Box B.F. Skinner (Behaviorist, operant conditioning guru) Rat must learn how to solve problem of how to get food to appear in cupThis is done by pressing a bar (not natural behavior for rat), so how is it learned?Reinforcement – st food is dispensed whenever the rat moves close to bar2nd once rat goes to bar regularly the experimenter only provides food when rat presses barOther examples:Training your dog…Give a positive reinforcer every time it does what you want (sit, beg, speak, shake, rollover, put the toilet seat down)
36Skinner Box"PSYCHOLOGICAL HARASSMENT INFORMATION ASSOCIATION." All Videos. Web. 18 Apr <http://www.psychologicalharassment.com/all_videos.htm>.
37What would be the reinforcer Skinner used? FoodWaterThe task that had to be doneSmall electric shock
40Primary & Secondary Reinforcers Primary fulfills biological needSecondary reinforcer has acquired value through classical conditioningExample: Wolfe experimentTrained chimps to value poker chipsPoker chips have no value to chimps naturally (NS) but if they are paired with a primary reinforcer like food (UCS), they begin to respond the same way to poker chips as they would foodChimps were observed fighting over poker chips
41Primary & Secondary Reinforcers Cont. Chimp-O-MatDispensed peanuts/bananas (primary reinforcers)Chimps had to pull bar to get chips & then insert these chips into a slot which caused chimp-o-mat to dispense foodChips became conditioned to the secondary reinforcer (chimps would fight/save/steal)For people… it would be money!
42What’s the difference between primary and secondary reinforcers? Secondary reinforcers fulfill a biological need, primary do notPrimary reinforcers fulfill a biological need, secondary do notPrimary reinforcers are negative reinforcers, secondary are positive reinforcersPrimary reinforcers are positive reinforcers, secondary are negative reinforcers
45Schedules of Reinforcement (how often is behavior reinforced) Continuous: when behavior is reinforced every time it occursPartial: when behavior is rewarded intermittentlyResponses tend to be more stable & long lasting because the animal realizes that they will not be reinforced every time so they are not discouraged when reinforcement is not immediateSkinner found this out when his box would break down & rats kept pressing bar
46Partial Schedules of Reinforcement Ratio IntervalFixed SchedulesFixed Ratio (reinforcement after a fixed # of responses)Being paid for every 10 lawns you mowBeing allowed no more than 5 fouls in a b-ball game***You know exactly how many times behavior must occur for reinforcement or punishment to occur. It is not dependent on timeFixed Interval (reinforcement of 1st response after a fixed amount of time has passed)Studying for a known exam schedule (will likely only study once the test date is close)Picking up your check from your part-time job (will only go to pick up your check when pay day arrives)***You know exactly how much time must pass before you can be reinforced or punished again. It is not dependent on how many times you perform the behaviorVariable SchedulesVariable Ratio (reinforcement after varying # of responses)Playing a slot machine (could win after any number of tries but can’t win if you do not pull the handle)Sales commissions (could make a sale each of your 1st 4 attempts but can’t make a sale if you do nothing)***Longest-lasting effect on behavior!!***You do not know how many times you must demonstrate the behavior before being reinforced or punished. It is not dependent on timeVariable Interval (reinforcement of 1st response after varying amounts of time)Surprise quizzes in class (you know you could be quizzed at any time so you end up studying every night to be prepared. Your preparation is not rewarded until you are quizzed which could be at any timeBusy signal on the phone (you do not know when the line will be open again so you just have to keep calling. The time that it takes before your behavior is reinforced (get ahold of the person) is not known***You do not know how much time must pass before your behavior is reinforced or punished. It is not dependent on how many times the behavior is demonstrated
47What type of reinforcement schedule would be occurring if a worker gets paid $75 for every finished product they produce?Fixed-RatioFixed-IntervalVariable-RatioVariable-Interval
50Shaping & ChainingShaping is the process in which reinforcement is used to sculpt new responses out of old onesSuccessive Approximations (think back to Skinner Box)Example: Rat raising the American FlagRat doesn’t immediately do this…You reinforce stages of the intended behavior1st : reinforce the rat every time it goes near the flagpole until it does this regularly2nd : then only reinforce behavior when the rat touches the flagpole until it does this regularly3rd : Continue to limit reinforcement this way until the intended outcome (raising the flag) occursResponse chains: putting various responses together in sequenceExamples: Band, Cheerleading, Dance, Karate, Swimming…Learn the basics and then you can piece things togetherDancing: learn how to perform various dance moves, then you can chain them together to create a full dance routine
51Aversive ControlRecap: reinforcement is anything that increases frequency of a behaviorAversive control uses unpleasant stimuli to influence behavior2 types:Negative reinforcersPunishment
52Aversive ControlAversive control: using unpleasant stimuli to influence behaviorNegative Reinforcers: removes unpleasant stimuli & increases frequency of behavior2 types:Escape conditioningTrained behavior to remove unpleasant stimuliAvoidance conditioningTrained behavior to prevent unpleasant stimuli before it startsExamplesEscape: child who whines when broccoli is placed on plate so much that parent eventually takes it away (child learns that they can escape unpleasant stimuli by whining)Avoidance: child who whines when parent goes to buy broccoli so parent does not buy it anymore (child learns that if they whine early enough they do not have to face the unpleasant stimuli)
53Aversive ControlPunishment: unpleasant consequence occurs & decreases frequency of behaviorExamples:Spankingdog for eating your homeworkDisadvantagesCan produce unwanted side effects such as rage, aggression, & fearSpanking may increase aggressiveness toward other childrenAlso punishment might lead people to avoid person dishing out aversive control
54What’s the difference between negative reinforcement and punishment? Negative reinforcement decreases the likelihood that a behavior will occur again; Punishment increases the likelihoodNegative reinforcement increases the likelihood that a behavior will occur again; Punishment decreases the likelihoodNegative reinforcement involves positive stimuli being used; Punishment involves negative stimuliNegative reinforcement involves negative stimuli being used; Punishment involves positive stimuli
57Classical vs. Operant So what’s the difference? In classical the CS & UCS are presented independent of the participant’s behavior.The dogs don’t drool and then are given the food as a result of their droolingIn operant the participant must engage in a behavior in order for the programmed outcome to occur. (study of how voluntary behavior is affected by consequences)
58The EndNICE JOB!!!Tomorrow you will be asked to create your own Classical and Operant Conditioning Experiments