Presentation on theme: "Introduction to the English Renaissance & Shakespeare"— Presentation transcript:
1Introduction to the English Renaissance & Shakespeare
2The English Renaissance Time of the English Renaissance isPeriod not just about Britain….there were many changes occurring all over the world.WORLD EVENTS:1492: Columbus lands in Western Hemisphere1503: Leonardo de Vinci paints the Mona Lisa1514: Ponce de Leon explores Florida1604: Spain—Part I of Don Quixote published1620: North America-Pilgrims land at Plymouth Rock
31534: Church of England is established 1558: Elizabeth I becomes queen British Events1534: Church of England is established1558: Elizabeth I becomes queen1564: April 23rd—Shakespeare born1588: English navy defeats Spanish Armada1590: Edmund Spencer publishes “The Faerie Queen, Part I”1594: Shakespeare writes Romeo and Juliet1605: Shakespeare’s Macbeth first performed1611: King James Bible is publishedMain focus=Literature
4Historical Background Tudor dynasty, founded in 1485, opened a new era English lifeMonarchs assured stability by increasing their own power and undercutting the strength of the nobles.The first Tudor monarch was Henry VIIHe rebuilt the nation’s treasury and established law and order, by the time of his death in 1509Henry VIIIPracticing Catholic—had good relationship with church and Pope until he asked a question regarding his marriage to Catherine.His marriage to Catherine had not produced a son and he wanted an annulment so he could marry Anne BoleynHis request was denied but he remarried anywayHe broke away from the church and dissolved monasteriesHe married 6 times and had a son with Jane Seymour(wife #3)His name was Edward
5His half-sister, Mary I, took the throne after his death Edward become king at the age of nine and died at the age of 15 (He took throne as Edward VI)He replaced Latin in the church ritual with the prayer book, the Book of Common PrayerHis half-sister, Mary I, took the throne after his deathShe restored Roman practices to the Church of EnglandShe ordered the execution of nearly 300 Protestants and strengthened the Catholic sentiment within EnglandBecame known as “bloody Mary” after this occurrenceElizabeth I (Mary’s half-sister) took throne after her deathShe was strong, clever, and probably England’s best monarch since William the ConquerorShe instituted a policy of religious moderationShe restored the Book of Common Prayer in the church of EnglandMain adversary was her cousin, Mary Stuart, queen of ScotlandMary Stuart instigated many plots against Elizabeth I…Parliament ordered Mary’s execution…she was beheaded in 1587.Before her death, Elizabeth I named James VI of Scotland as her successor
6James (Took the throne as James I) was a Protestant and was successful as a leader…he helped further England’s position in world power.Sponsored the establishment of England’s first successful American colony---Jamestown, VAPersecuted the Puritans and struggled with Parliament and the House of Commons…eventually leading to their migration to America and the establishment of the Plymouth Colony.Literature:Poetry was a favorite of the periodLyrical poetry---meant to be songs and sonnetsTwo major writers: William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe—these two become rivalsOther writers: Sir Walter Raleigh, John Milton and Andrew Marvell
8William Shakespeare’s Life One of the world’s greatest playwrights.Born on April 23, 1564 in Stratford on Avon (England).Son of John Shakespeare & Mary ArdenMarried Ann Hathaway in 1582; he was 18, she was 26.Settled in London & by 1592 he became a well-known actor & playwright.Children: Suzanna (1583), Hamnet, & Judith (twins) (1585)He died on his birthday in 1616.
9Not all of his plays were published in his lifetime. Plays were not regarded as good literature: usually written at speed (often more than 1 writer), and performed times and then discarded.His plays were performed during the reign of Queen Elizabeth, & it was known as the Elizabethan Period.Shakespeare wrote 37 plays, 154 sonnets, & 2 narrative poems.His plays fall primarily into 2 categories: Comedy & Tragedy (the other would be History)
10*In 1594 Shakespeare joined the acting group called “The Lord Chamberlain’s Men” *One of the leading tragic actors of the time was Richard Burbage *His early Masterpieces included: *Richard III, The Comedy of Errors, The Taming of the Shrew and Romeo and Juliet *These masterpieces lead to financial success for Shakespeare. This success allowed him to: 1) become a partner in the Globe Theater 2) buy home---called it New Place 3) bought a coat of arms for his father (generally only done for royalty) *In 1603—James I becomes King and becomes the primary patron of the acting group. *The name of the acting group was changed to “The King’s Men” to honor their patron James I
11Characteristics of a Tragedy Tragic hero comes to an unhappy end Shakespeare’s plays:Comedies: dramatic work with a happy endingTragedies: tragic hero comes to an unhappy end (generally brought on by excessive pride)**Tragedies were used to arouse pity and fear in the audience. Pity for the hero and fear of humans with their character flaws.Characteristics of a TragedyTragic hero comes to an unhappy endTragic hero is usually a person of importanceTragic hero exhibits tragic flaw—an error in judgment or weaknessAntagonist contributes to the hero’s downfallA series of events lead inevitable to the catastrophe (Tragic resolution)
12The Theatre Theatres were not well-known at the time. 1st theatre was built in 1576 – “The Theatre” by James BurbageOther theaters followed as popularity grew: “The Curtain,” “The Rose,” “The Swan,” and “The Blackfriars”The Lord Chamberlain’s Men perfomed here and Shakespeare was one of the shareholders.Very little scenery was used, therefore the writer had to rely heavily on dialogue to set the sceneFlags were used to signify the genre of a play—Black = tragedy, white = comedy
13The Globe Theater1598/99, Shakespeare & his fellow actors built their own theatre, “The Globe”. It was different b/c it broke away from the traditional rectangular shape; called it “The Wooden O”Held up to 3,000 people for different performancesHad two areas of viewing: the “pit” and the galleries“The Globe” was destroyed by fire during a performance in 1613.It was rebuilt several years later and then torn down in 1644 (outbreaks of illnesses and unpopularity of theaters)It was rebuilt again in June 1997
14“The Theatre” was situated outside the city to avoid conflict w/authorities. Many disapproved partly on moral & political grounds & partly because of the danger of spreading the plague.Groundlings simply stood around the 3 sides of the stage in the open air. This was called “the pit” areas. Those who were better off could pay extra for a seat under cover, called the galleries.During the plays, there was little to no scenery; the audience used its imagination.Women, during Shakespeare’s time, were not permitted to act; young boys were used to play the roles of women.
15Plot Structure Act 1: Exposition (sets the scene; intro) Act 2: Rising Action (problems begin)Act 3: Climax (turning point of the story)Act 4: Falling Action (action coming to a close)Act 5: Resolution (conflict is resolved)
16Shakespeare's Plays: Comedies: Tragedies: Taming of the Shrew Hamlet A Midsummer Night’s DreamOthelloMacbethMerchant of VeniceKing LearTwelfth NightAntony & CleopatraMerry Wives of Windsor