Presentation on theme: "Mohandas “Mahatma” Gandhi ? 1869 - 1948 ? Born in India ? A Hindu ? Civil Rights Leader ? Practiced “Ahimsa” (non-violent resistance) ? Led India to independence."— Presentation transcript:
Mohandas “Mahatma” Gandhi ? ? Born in India ? A Hindu ? Civil Rights Leader ? Practiced “Ahimsa” (non-violent resistance) ? Led India to independence from Britain
Mohandas Gandhi was born in Porbandar, India. He was the youngest child of the Prime Minister of Porbandar. 1869
1876 At age seven Gandhi began to become aware of the faults and unfairness of the Indian Caste System. Gandhi, age 13.
Gandhi married Kasturbai Makanji through his parents' arrangements (both age 13). They had 4 sons. * Picture to the left was taken in
1888 At the age of 19, Gandhi moved to London, England to study law.
1891 Gandhi returned to India to practice law.
Gandhi sails to Durban, South Africa to start a law firm. 1893
While in South Africa, Gandhi was thrown off a train and beaten by white South Africans – for travelling in the first class section. This began his campaign of “passive resistance” to protest the mistreatment of colored people by white Europeans. 1896
From 1896 to 1914, Gandhi lead a number of non-violent protests, fighting for improvements in the treatment of minority Indians in South Africa. He was imprisoned a number of times, but did succeed in getting the British government to repeal some discriminatory laws. Gandhi outside the prison with fellow non-violent resisters in South Africa in 1908.
Newspaper published by Gandhi, Policeman confronting Gandhi, Gandhi in prison clothes.
1915 Gandhi returns to India at age 45. He receives a hero’s welcome, and continues his non-violent protests against the mistreatment and discrimination of Indians.
The Amritsar Massacre: people gather to demonstrate peacefully. Shortly after they begin to gather, British General Reginald Dyer orders his troops to open fire on the crowd. This act of violence leaves 400 people dead and wounded. 1919
The Story Behind THE AMRITSAR MASSACRE The Amritsar Massacre occurred a few months after the end of WWI when a British female missionary reported that she had been molested on a street in the city of Amritsar. Britain issued an order requiring all Indians using that street to crawl its length on their hands and knees, and the public whipping of natives who came within a certain distance of British policemen. In 1919, Indians gathered in Amritsar to protest these extraordinary measures. The throng, penned in a narrow space, had been peacefully listening to the story of victims when, without warning, 50 British troops fired into the gathering. For 15 minutes 1,650 rounds of ammunition were unloaded into the screaming, terrified crowd, some of whom were trampled by those desperately trying to escape.
A painting of the Amritsar Massacre
1920 Gandhi became President of the All-India Home Rule League (AIHRL), which worked towards independence from the British Empire. Soon the AIHRL begins to boycott British-made cloth, spinning their own cloth instead.
Gandhi started a boycott of machine made European clothing, as it caused large scale unemployment in India. He started making hand-made cloth called Khadi that was inexpensive and suitable for poor Indians. Most importantly, it showed Indians how to be self-reliant. Gandhi worked on his spinning wheel till his last days.
Gandhi thought “Why should we have to buy back our own cotton cloth? Let’s spin it ourselves!” So he learned how to spin and weave cotton into cloth. He and his followers taught this old fashioned way of spinning and weaving to thousands of others. The British would have cotton grown in India, then have it picked by Indians, put on ships, shipped to England, where it would be spun into thread, woven into cloth, shipped back to India and sold to the Indian people for a higher price. In fact, Britain had laws that forced the Indians to buy only this cloth.
This made big news all over the world. People around the world soon began to think that this wasn’t fair either. Even the workers in the cloth factories back in England thought this was not fair. These were the people whose jobs were being lost because of Gandhi and his supporters making their own cloth. Finally the laws about the cloth were changed and Indians were permitted by the British to make their own cloth.
Soon the British weren’t making money off the Indians buying their cloth anymore. The English said they had to buy the English cloth. But Gandhi and his followers refused. Gandhi and hundreds of others were thrown in jail. He would be let out of jail but he would keep spinning and weaving and keep breaking the law and get thrown in jail again and again.
During this period of time Gandhi traveled throughout India giving speeches on social reform
1930 Next he protested against the English Salt Tax. Gandhi and many followers march to the coast of Dandi. There he picked up a lump of salt, which was strictly forbidden by the Government. Even though Gandhi's actions were non- violent, the British government reacted violently. Many people were beaten, killed or sent to jail.
In this picture, Gandhi is shown leading his fellow freedom fighters on a march to the sea to make their own salt from sea water instead of buying the expensive English salt with its extra tax. The Salt March incited a wave of non-violent protest throughout India. Eventually, the British government gave in, allowing India's citizens to extract the salt from the ocean.
In the same year, Gandhi visited England and met with some of the mill workers there. The workers were impressed with his sincerity and sense of humor, even though many of them had lost their jobs because of the Indian boycott of British cloth Gandhi interacts with a Pearly King in a district of London
1930 The First Round Table Conference met in London to discuss the possibility of Dominion status for India. However, no congress members, such as Gandhi were invited to attend.
1931 Gandhi was named "Man of the Year" by Time magazine. This was an incredible feat for him because he believed that people around the world were finally starting to hear his message of non-violence.
The 2 nd Round Table Conference in London was held in This time the delegates included Hindus, Christians, Muslims, Princes, and Landowners. But no delegates representing Peasants and Untouchables. So Gandhi appointed himself to this position, creating much resentment among the British.
Gandhi began a “fast unto death” to protest Britain’s treatment of India's lowest caste “untouchables”. 1932
During this time Gandhi again traveled throughout India speaking about welfare and other important issues to India
This time period was filled with violence between the Hindus and the Muslims. The result: people either dead or wounded
Gandhi realized his long sought- after goal, which was the independence of India from Great Britain. It was a bittersweet victory for Gandhi because along with India's independence came the partitioning of the country into two separate states: Muslim- based Pakistan and Hindu-based India. He thoroughly opposed this partition. Gandhi did not take part in the celebration of India's independence. August 15, 1947
Gandhi’s reaction to the independence and partition of India Although independence from Britain was a joyous occasion, it was marred by violence. Widespread rioting between Hindus and Muslims detracted from what should have been a celebration for India. The majority of Muslims moved to the newly formed Pakistan and most Hindus stayed in India, creating an ever-widening cultural gap. Gandhi began another fast until peace is made between India's Muslims and Hindus.
Nathuram Godse, a fanatic Hindu, assassinates Gandhi while he is walking to a prayer meeting in New Delhi. His death shocks the world. January 30, 1948
The last prayer meeting the day of Gandhi's assassination
The last walk.
Gandhi's assassin, Nathuram Godse, was described as a nationalist and right-wing Hindu who blamed Gandhi for the partitioning of India. He was executed in November After pumping three bullets into Gandhi at a range of a few feet, he fired a fourth shot in an attempt at suicide, but the bullet merely creased his scalp. The assassin had been standing beside the garden path, his hands folded, palms together, before him in the Hindu gesture of greeting. But between his palms he had concealed a small-calibre pistol.
The ashes of Gandhi being carried through the streets of Allahabad.
Gandhi believed in non-violent solutions to problems.
A picture signed by Gandhi.
“When in despair I remember that all through history the way of truth and love has always won; there have been tyrants and murderers, and for a time they can seem invincible, but in the end they always fall.” M.K. Gandhi
Gandhi may look tall in this picture... But he was only 5’ 3”.
Gandhi’s face appears on many Indian stamps and bills.
Gandhi is the subject of many statues and memorials, not only in India but around the world.