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Evolution of the Keri Dixon University of California, Los Angeles Steven Furlanetto Ringberg He-ionizing background

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Looking for the photoionization rate Assume background ionization flux: The attenuation length R 0 is treated as an unknown. When convenient, choose The emissivity is also uncertain. Bolton et al. 2006

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Begin with He II HE : Zheng et al. 2004, Shull et al. 2004, Kriss et al HS : Fechner et al. 2006, Davidsen et al Q : Heap et al. 2000, Hogan et al HS : Reimers et al PKS : Anderson et al. 1996

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From eff to Start with the Gunn-Peterson optical depth Balance photoionization and recombination for HeII Introduce the fractional density of the IGM ( ) with p( ) Miralda-Escudé et al Assume isothermal equation of state

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Fluctuating vs. Uniform Helium reionization driven by quasars fluctuating Uniform ~ R 0 = ∞ The attenuation length and ionized fraction affect distribution. Furlanetto 08

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Evolution of Pin to curve at z = 2.45 Uncertain (mainly) due to limited lines of sight Significant departure from curve z ~ 2.75 (?) Choose convenient R 0

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Evolution of R 0 Pin to curve at z = 2.45 Fluctuating background smoothes evolution Significant jump z ~ 2.75 (?) Choose convenient

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What do we see? Assume convenient Data could distinguish the three regimes Find expected eff Choose convenient R 0

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Where’s reionization?

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Time for lunch…just kidding It seems like probably something is happening around z ~ 2.75 Possible conclusions: Reionization is happening near this redshift This “something” does not indicate reionization The model is an insufficient approximation

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Including T-dependence

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