Presentation on theme: "Draft Report of the Survey (Not to be quoted without specific permission) Presented by Md. Alauddin Fokir Joint Secretary to the Government of Bangladesh."— Presentation transcript:
Draft Report of the Survey (Not to be quoted without specific permission) Presented by Md. Alauddin Fokir Joint Secretary to the Government of Bangladesh Statistics & Informatics Division (SID) Ministry of Planning Bangladesh www.sid.gov.bd
2 Goal & Objective Major four categories of VAW Sample Design of the survey. Methodology. Data collection and response rate. Key findings of the survey Challenge Experience
PSU: Primary Sampling Unit HH: Household VAW:Violence against Women Eligible woman: Woman aged 15 years and above who lives in the sample household. Partner:Her husband(Current & previous). Non-partner : Anybody other than husband. Current husband: Married in current time & having husband. Previous husband :Married previously without having that husband at present including widowed/divorced or married currently again. 3 Abbreviations
Goal & Objective To generate official national statistics on the prevalence of violence against women. To observe the overall situation including the forms of violence along with their magnitude in Bangladesh. To identify and understand the magnitude and intensity of violence against women. To help in policy formulation, programs and interventions and also improve the existing laws and act related with this issue. 4
Major four categories of VAW Psychological violence (i.e. husband exhibits controlling behaviors to wife): a) Controlling behaviors He tries to restrict contact with her (parental) family of birth? He insists on knowing where she is at all times? He ignores her & treats her indifferently? He gets angry if she speaks with another man? He is often suspicious that she is unfaithful? He expects you to ask his permission before seeking health care for her? He forces her to maintain Parda/ hijab? He obstructs her in studying or doing work? He forbids her in going out for recreation? Does he utter attacking words against her parents? Does he force her to use family planning or forbid family planning? Does he misbehave due to birth of a girl? Does he misbehave with her due to complaints from her mother-in- law/sister-in- law? Does he become angry if she talks on face openly? He tries to keep her from seeing her friends? 5
Categories of VAW(contd.) b) Abuse against women by husband: Insulted or made her feel bad about herself? Belittled or humiliated her in front of other people Done things to scare or intimidate her on purpose (e.g. shout loudly & smash things)? Verbally threatened to hurt her or someone she cares about? Torture for her relation with neighbors or other women? Threaten to marry other women? Threaten to divorce? 6
Categories of VAW(contd.) (2) Economic violence: He refuses to give her enough money for household expenses, even when he has money for other things? He regularly refuses to pay pocket money? Is the marriage happened with money or property as dowry? Does he pressurize her to get money or things from her parents’ house? 7
Categories of VAW(contd.) (3) a.Physical violence: Husband talked loudly, threatening or shouting Husband slapped, fist, boxed or threw something and she got hurt Pushed her or shoved her or pulled her hair by force. Shake with hot things. Threw acid or hot water Intentionally suffocated her Choked or burnt her on purpose Threatened with gun, knife or other sharp weapons Struck her with stick or heavy things 8
Categories of VAW(contd.) (3) b. Physical violence by non-partners: She was hit, beaten, kicked or done anything else to hurt her physically-or mistreated in any way by anyone other than husband; a) Thrown something at her b) Pushed or pulled hair c) Choked or burnt her on purpose d) Threatened or actually used a gun, knife or weapon against her e) Threw acid f) Threw hot water g) Stalking (intimate physical touch without consent) 9
Categories of VAW(contd.) (4) Sexual Violence: Did husband hurt her or force her to have sexual intercourse when she did not want to? Did she ever have sexual intercourse with her husband against her will because she was afraid of what her husband does? Did her husband ever force her to do something else sexual that she did not want or that she found degrading or humiliating for her? Other sexual torture 10
A two-stage stratified cluster sampling was followed in the survey. The whole country was divided into 7 divisions: each division treated as Stratum and each stratum again divided into two sub strata: urban & rural. The final sample comprised of 420 PSUs from the 1000 IMPS, in which sampling frame is updated regularly. 30 HHs were selected from each of the selected EA at the 2nd stage, the number of EA selected from each sub-stratum was 30. 12,600 (=7*2*30*30) eligible women over 15 years of age were selected for interview (One women selected per household). 11 IMPS: Integrated Multipurpose Sample.
A long questionnaire was used for direct interview. The questionnaire was designed as per UNSD guidelines. A series of meeting with the stakeholders were conducted to finalize the questionnaire with adoption of local context. The questionnaire consisted of two parts: Household part: comprised of the household and individual modules; and Woman’s part: comprised of the current husband, previous husband and non-partner modules. 12
Data collection period: From 19-28 December, 2011 No. of eligible women found in the sample: 19,534 No. of women randomly selected for interview:12,600 No. of women actually interviewed: 12,530 Response rate for interview: 99.44% 13
During lifetime*During Last 12 months Current husband Previous husband Non partner Current husband Previous husband Non partner Physical or sexual violence 67.261.325.150.721.28.4 Physical violence 64.658.923.846.419.67.8 Sexual violence 36.532.24.418.104.22.168 Economic violence 53.248.6NA32.315.5NA Psychological violence 81.673.2NA71.931.6NA Non partner: Anybody other than husband. 14
Dowry Status Current husband (ever) % Previous husband (ever) % Condition for giving money or property during marriage 33.724.0 Pressurize to bring money or things from parent’s house (after marriage) 12.617.7 15
Payment Status of Dower (Denmohor) [Muslims only] Current husband (%) Previous husband (%) Husband paid dower in full19.817.7 Husband didn’t paid dower40.541.0 Husband paid dower in part18.89.8 Husband requested for waive 11.913.7 Don’t know9.017.8 Total100 16
Reasons for not taking treatment due to violence Current husband(%) Previous husband(%) Afraid of husband17.322.6 Husband didn’t allow15.28.9 Not necessary51.641.0 Afraid of other family member3.42.9 Afraid of social prestige8.66.0 Other4.018.6 Treatment received for violence51.851.3 17
Distribution of treatment provider Current husband (%) Previous husband (%) Doctor65.062.9 Clinic5.52.8 Govt. Hospital19.526.5 NGO Hospital4.03.1 Others6.04.7 18
Why legal action wasn’t taken Current husband (%) Previous husband (%) In fear of husband8.114.5 Husband has right to torture6.76.4 Husband didn’t allow2.71.6 Wasn’t necessary40.127.7 In fear of members of the household2.82.9 Thinking future of the children20.912.1 Thinking of family or own defame16.512.2 Others2.21.3 Not reported-21.3 19
Type of physical & mental impact due to violence National Current Husband (%) Previous Husband (%) Attempted to suicide7.112.9 Abortion1.11.4 Non-response13.928.0 Drug Addicted0.171.87 20
Type of Childhood Violence Rural (%) Urban (%) National (%) Physical torture22.214.171.124 Mental torture126.96.36.199 Teasing3.01.22.5 Intimate physical touch without consent 188.8.131.52 Other0.2 Total violated women184.108.40.206 21
Violence by non-partner: First Forced Sex at age of Percentage 05-091.7 10-1441.8 15-1934.3 20-249.9 25-294.9 30-344.1 35-392.3 40+0.9 22
Challenge 23 Women violence is considered as private affair, so women are reluctant to disclose it to public. (taboo) All the interviewers must be woman. Need consent of the respondents assuring the information would be kept confidential. Different title ( Survey about Women’s Status instead of Violence Against Women) used during data collection stage in the Questionnaire to avoid negative approach. Questionnaire finalization and selection process- series of meetings were held and huge opinions were received.
24 Maintaining the confidentiality Interviewers were instructed not to disclose anything other than the respondents Not to ask any confidential questions until the respondent were alone. Target respondents were only women and interviews must be conducted with the presence of only the respondents and interviewers. Sensible language needed for making the environment amicable for the respondents. Only one respondents from one household was selected.
Experience 25 Enthusiastic response which was more than our expectation. Interviewers were previously known to the respondents which build trust and confidence to the respondent’s family. It is observed that women face psychological violence mostly among all other categories of violence.( 81.6%) After the violence occurred 65 %women got treatment from the doctor which is greater than other treatment providers. Even 40.1% women never fell necessity to take legal actions against the violence.
Experience (contd..) 26 Women are mostly victimized for forced sex by non-partner at the age of 10 to 19 years. The number is around 75% of total victims in this category. A large portion (around 37%) did not take any legal action because of thinking of the children or family prestige.