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 How do we know what is right and what is wrong?  What is the difference between what “is” happening and what “should” happen?  Human beings are naturally.

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Presentation on theme: " How do we know what is right and what is wrong?  What is the difference between what “is” happening and what “should” happen?  Human beings are naturally."— Presentation transcript:

1  How do we know what is right and what is wrong?  What is the difference between what “is” happening and what “should” happen?  Human beings are naturally good and tend towards cooperation with others.  Human beings are naturally selfish and find that cooperation with others maximizes their own benefit.  Think of some Human Rights Issues in today’s society.

2 Why doesn’t Batman just Kill the Joker?  TOK 2

3  The Joker has transformed himself from the Clown Prince of crime to a vicious, sociopath, killing, seemingly, without remorse.  Every time he breaks out of Arkham Asylum he commits violent crimes. The type Philosopher Joel Feinberg describes as “Sick, Sick, Sick or Triple Sick!”

4  Batman ‘always’ catches the Joker but he also knows he will ‘always’ escape and most likely, kill again.  At one point in Batman’s history he is very close to killing him but Commissioner Gordon stops him.  Batman: How many more lives are we going to let him ruin?  Gordon: I don’t care, I won’t let him ruin yours!

5  Batman has often thought about killing him, so why hasn’t he?  His belief, rightly or wrongly, is that if he kills the joker, it would make him just as bad as the criminals he is sworn to fight.  Hey, don’t be so selfish, this isn’t just about you Bats! Or is it? Should it be?  DEBATE

6  Utilitarianism  System of Ethics that look at maximising TOTAL Happiness.  They simply would not understand Superheroes! They would happily forsake the life of one hostage if it meant saving the lives of many.

7  Against: Deontologists  They would judge the morality of the act on the features intrinsic to the act itself. Huh?  For them, the end NEVER justifies the means.  The fact that it would prevent further killing is irrelevant to to them.  Only thing that matters is that killing is wrong!  Some exceptions, killing in self defence for example.

8  Man at the switch, if he moves it, it kills one workman, doesn’t move it, 5 people get killed.  Who would move it, who would not? Why? Get into groups of 4 and discuss it.  What would Batman do?

9  What if you knew that the 5 people were escaped prisoners and the workman was an innocent? Would that change the game?  How about the workman cheats on his wife?  Ok, how about he beats her too?  Where does your Moral Compass lie?

10  Let’s say a guy called Bruce is in control of the switch.  Is Bruce morally speaking allowed to divert the trolley? If he is, can we also say he is REQUIRED TO DO IT?  Utilitarian would require him to flip the switch, however a deontologist would have difficulty.

11  Utilitarianists are agent neutral and which maximise well being.  Deontologists are agent specific. When they say “don’t kill” they mean YOU don’t kill!  U-emphasis on good outcomes  D- the right action

12  A surgeon has 5 patients, each is dying and needs a different organ transplant.  The surgeon contemplates drugging a colleague and taking his organs, killing him but saving the five others.  Would you endorse that action?

13  What if the 5 patients were children?  If they were your sisters and brothers?  Difficult Moral questions!  Why do you think Bats is so gloomy all the time?

14  If Bats comes across him just about to kill an innocent person, would he be justified in killing him then? (OK I imagine Batman would find a way out of that)  What if Bats finds the Joker JUST after he’s killed someone? If he kills him now then he’ll PROBABLY save lots of future lives.  That’s the problem, PROBABLY.

15  Minority Report (Movie)  Punishing people for crimes they WILL commit in the future.  Can we as a society go down this path? Where does this lead to?Where do you stand?  Finally, how does this question of Ethics relate to our WOK we have studied to date, namely perception and language?

16  Presentation on Moral Ethics  For or against (Or take another topic of your choice)  Abortion should never be allowed.  Genetic testing and Designers Babies are the way of the future.  I’m a grown up, don’t tell me I can’t take drugs!  Is Euthanasia morally bad?  Do we have Free Will or are all of our actions already decided?  What is right and what is wrong? How do we know?  Did you create your own sense of obligation or was it imposed on you by external forces?


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