Presentation on theme: "Ethics How do we know what is right and what is wrong?"— Presentation transcript:
1Ethics How do we know what is right and what is wrong? What is the difference between what “is” happening and what “should” happen?Human beings are naturally good and tend towards cooperation with others.Human beings are naturally selfish and find that cooperation with others maximizes their own benefit.Think of some Human Rights Issues in today’s society.
3You’re Driving me Batty! The Joker has transformed himself from the Clown Prince of crime to a vicious, sociopath, killing, seemingly, without remorse.Every time he breaks out of Arkham Asylum he commits violent crimes. The type Philosopher Joel Feinberg describes as “Sick, Sick, Sick or Triple Sick!”
4So Tell me this Bats..Batman ‘always’ catches the Joker but he also knows he will ‘always’ escape and most likely, kill again.At one point in Batman’s history he is very close to killing him but Commissioner Gordon stops him .Batman: How many more lives are we going to let him ruin?Gordon: I don’t care, I won’t let him ruin yours!
5BatboozledBatman has often thought about killing him, so why hasn’t he?His belief, rightly or wrongly, is that if he kills the joker, it would make him just as bad as the criminals he is sworn to fight.Hey, don’t be so selfish, this isn’t just about you Bats! Or is it? Should it be?DEBATE
6Batarang Utilitarianism System of Ethics that look at maximising TOTAL Happiness.They simply would not understand Superheroes! They would happily forsake the life of one hostage if it meant saving the lives of many.
7Batattack! Against: Deontologists They would judge the morality of the act on the features intrinsic to the act itself. Huh?For them, the end NEVER justifies the means.The fact that it would prevent further killing is irrelevant to to them.Only thing that matters is that killing is wrong!Some exceptions, killing in self defence for example.
8Holy Trolley example Batman! Man at the switch, if he moves it, it kills one workman, doesn’t move it, 5 people get killed.Who would move it, who would not? Why? Get into groups of 4 and discuss it.What would Batman do?
9New Bat RulesWhat if you knew that the 5 people were escaped prisoners and the workman was an innocent? Would that change the game?How about the workman cheats on his wife?Ok, how about he beats her too?Where does your Moral Compass lie?
10New Bat DimensionLet’s say a guy called Bruce is in control of the switch.Is Bruce morally speaking allowed to divert the trolley? If he is, can we also say he is REQUIRED TO DO IT?Utilitarian would require him to flip the switch, however a deontologist would have difficulty.
11Bat differenceUtilitarianists are agent neutral and which maximise well being.Deontologists are agent specific. When they say “don’t kill” they mean YOU don’t kill!U-emphasis on good outcomesD- the right action
12Holy Bat Doctor!A surgeon has 5 patients, each is dying and needs a different organ transplant.The surgeon contemplates drugging a colleague and taking his organs, killing him but saving the five others.Would you endorse that action?
13I’m going a little Batty! What if the 5 patients were children?If they were your sisters and brothers?Difficult Moral questions!Why do you think Bats is so gloomy all the time?
14Jokers last standIf Bats comes across him just about to kill an innocent person, would he be justified in killing him then? (OK I imagine Batman would find a way out of that)What if Bats finds the Joker JUST after he’s killed someone? If he kills him now then he’ll PROBABLY save lots of future lives.That’s the problem, PROBABLY.
15Pre Punish him Bats! Minority Report (Movie) Punishing people for crimes they WILL commit in the future.Can we as a society go down this path? Where does this lead to?Where do you stand?Finally, how does this question of Ethics relate to our WOK we have studied to date, namely perception and language?
16For next week Presentation on Moral Ethics For or against (Or take another topic of your choice)Abortion should never be allowed.Genetic testing and Designers Babies are the way of the future.I’m a grown up, don’t tell me I can’t take drugs!Is Euthanasia morally bad?Do we have Free Will or are all of our actions already decided?What is right and what is wrong? How do we know?Did you create your own sense of obligation or was it imposed on you by external forces?