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Road to the White House President Theodore Roosevelt By Kevin Long.

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1 Road to the White House President Theodore Roosevelt By Kevin Long

2 THEODORE ROOSEVELT WAS A CAREFUL, DARING, AND WHAT HAD TO BE DONE PRESIDENT. HE WAS MORE THAN JUST THE 26TH PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES. HE WAS A WRITER, HISTORIAN, EXPLORER, BIG-GAME HUNTER, SOLDIER, CONSERVATIONIST, RANCHMAN AND NOBEL PEACE PRIZE WINNER. IT IS NOT SURPRISING THAT HIS LIFE WAS KNOWN AS ‘THE STRENUOUS LIFE’. THEODORE WAS BORN INTO A WEALTHY AND SOCIALLY PROMINENT NEW YORK FAMILY IN AND YES HE WAS A VERY GOOD PRESIDENT I

3 AS A YOUNG MAN ROOSEVELT DECIDED ON A DUAL CAREER; LAW AND POLITICS. AT THE TIME, NEW YORK POLITICS WAS DOMINATED BY MEN INVOLVED IN MACHINE POLITICS. YET HE PERSISTED IN GETTING TO KNOW AND UNDERSTAND THEM, WHILE AT THE SAME TIME ATTENDING COLUMBIA LAW SCHOOL. EVENTUALLY HE SECURED THE FRIENDSHIP OF A MAN NAMED JOE MURRAY WHO WAS ABLE TO GET HIM NOMINATED AS A 21ST DISTRICT STATE REPUBLICAN ASSEMBLYMAN. TOGETHER, WITH MURRAY'S CONTACTS AND KNOWLEDGE OF MACHINE POLITICS AND HIS OWN FAMILY AND SOCIAL CONNECTIONS, ROOSEVELT WAS ABLE TO EASILY WIN THE ELECTION. HE WAS 23 AND IN ALBANY. THEODORE SERVED THREE TERMS IN THE NEW YORK ASSEMBLY Y

4 ROOSEVELT WAS ONE OF THE DELEGATES TO THE REPUBLICAN CONVENTION, AND AS A MATTER OF PRINCIPLE HE VIGOROUSLY OPPOSED THE LEADING CANDIDATES - JAMES G. BLAINE AND PRESIDENT ARTHUR. ROOSEVELT SUPPORTED A REFORMER, SENATOR GEORGE F. EDMUNDS. IN THE END BLAINE WON THE NOMINATION, AND THIS PUT ROOSEVELT IN A DIFFICULT POSITION. HE DID NOT BELIEVE THAT BLAINE WAS HONEST, YET IF HE FOLLOWED THE EXAMPLE OF OTHER PROGRESSIVES AND DID NOT SUPPORT HIM HE REALIZED HE WOULD BE THROUGH IN THE REPUBLICAN PARTY. HE SUPPORTED BLAINE. WHEN BLAINE LOST THEODORE RECEIVED NO POLITICAL POSITION, AND HIS POLITICAL CAREER WAS OVER.

5 ROOSEVELT NOT ONLY SUFFERED POLITICAL DEFEAT IN 1884 BUT DEEPLY PERSONAL DEFEATS AS WELL. ON THE SAME DAY BOTH HIS MOTHER AND WIFE DIED. THESE DISAPPOINTMENTS LED TO A RADICAL CHANGE IN ROOSEVELT'S LIFE. HE DECIDED TO MOVE TO THE DAKOTA WILDERNESS TO BECOME A RANCHER. AT THE TIME MANY PEOPLE THOUGHT THAT THIS WAS A GOOD WAY TO BECOME RICH. Y

6 IN 1886, ROOSEVELT RETURNED TO NEW YORK TO MARRY A CHILDHOOD FRIEND - EDITH CAROW. U

7 POLITICS WAS STILL THE PLACE THAT ROOSEVELT WANTED TO BE, BUT THERE WERE NOT MANY OPPORTUNITIES SINCE HIS PARTY WAS OUT OF POWER. IN ORDER TO SUPPORT HIS FAMILY ROOSEVELT SPENT HIS TIME WRITING. THIS WAS NOT A NEW CAREER FOR ROOSEVELT. EQUALLY AT HOME HUNTING FOR A BOOK AS HUNTING FOR A BEAR HE WROTE HIS FIRST BOOK THE NAVAL WAR OF 1812 WHILE IN LAW SCHOOL AND RUNNING FOR THE NEW YORK ASSEMBLY. BY THE END OF HIS LIFE HE HAD WRITTEN AND PUBLISHED DOZENS OF BOOKS. W

8 IN 1888, ROOSEVELT SAW HIS CHANCE TO JUMP BACK INTO POLITICS BY CAMPAIGNING FOR THE ELECTION OF BENJAMIN HARRISON. WHEN HARRISON WON HE APPOINTED ROOSEVELT TO BE A CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSIONER. IT WAS WITH THIS JOB AND LATER AS POLICE COMMISSIONER THAT ROOSEVELT MADE HIS REPUTATION AS A REFORMER. AT THE TIME BOTH THE CIVIL SERVICE AND THE NEW YORK POLICE DEPARTMENT HAD SERIOUS CORRUPTION PROBLEMS. ROOSEVELT DID HIS BEST TO CLEAN UP THE CORRUPTION AND MAKE THINGS WORK FAIRLY.  Benjamin Harrison

9 IN THE 1896 CAMPAIGN, THE REPUBLICAN WILLIAM MCKINLEY RAN AGAINST THE DEMOCRAT WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN. ROOSEVELT CAMPAIGNED HARD FOR MCKINLEY, AND HE WAS REWARDED BY THE JOB HE COVETED MOST - ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF THE NAVY. E

10 HE BELIEVED THAT NOT ONLY WAS THE UNITED STATES ON THE BRINK OF BECOMING A WORLD POWER, BUT THAT IT HAD A RESPONSIBILITY AND A DUTY TO ESTABLISH U.S. SUPREMACY. THE U.S. TO BECOME A WORLD POWER IT NEEDED TO BE ABLE TO TRANSPORT ITS MILITARY QUICKLY BETWEEN THE ATLANTIC AND THE PACIFIC OCEANS. AT THAT TIME SHIPS HAD TO SAIL AROUND THE TIP OF SOUTH AMERICA TO MAKE THAT TRIP. IF, INSTEAD, THEY COULD GO THROUGH AN ISTHMIAN CANAL IT WOULD CUT WEEKS OFF THE TRIP TIME. BUT HAVING A CANAL MEANT THAT MILITARY CONTROL HAD TO BE ESTABLISHED OVER THE CANAL. TO DO THIS THE UNITED STATES WOULD HAVE TO SECURE THE CARIBBEAN, AND THAT IN TURN MEANT WAR WITH SPAIN. t

11 SPAIN'S EMPIRE IN LATIN AMERICA WAS JUST A SLIVER OF WHAT IT HAD ONCE BEEN, BUT IT STILL CONTROLLED CUBA AND PUERTO RICO. THIS IS WHY ROOSEVELT EAGERLY WORKED TO PROMOTE THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR. ALL WRAPPED AROUND AND THROUGH THESE IDEAS WAS THE NEED FOR A STRONG NAVY. TOWARD THIS GOAL ROOSEVELT WORKED VERY HARD WHILE ASSISTANT SECRETARY. HE FOUGHT AND PUSHED AND URGED AND ON OCCASION WAS NONCOMPLIANT IN HIS EFFORTS TO STRENGTHEN THE NAVY FOR WAR. D

12 HIS CAUSE WAS HELPED ENORMOUSLY WHEN THE UNITED STATES BATTLESHIP MAINE BLEW UP IN HAVANA HARBOR ON FEBRUARY 15, THIS WAS JUST THE SORT OF STIRRING EVENT NEEDED TO PUSH THE U.S. INTO WAR. THE BOMBING WAS BLAMED ON THE SPANISH EVEN THOUGH NOBODY REALLY KNEW WHO OR WHAT WAS RESPONSIBLE. WAR WAS OFFICIALLY DECLARED ON APRIL 21, IT WOULD HAVE NEVER DONE FOR ROOSEVELT TO BE STUCK BEHIND A DESK WHILE A WAR WAS ON. HE WAS JUST ITCHING TO BECOME A SOLDIER. HE QUIT THE NAVAL DEPARTMENT AND JOINED THE ARMY AS A LIEUTENANT COLONEL. TOGETHER HE AND HIS SUPERIOR OFFICER, COLONEL WOOD, WERE RESPONSIBLE FOR RAISING VOLUNTEERS FOR THE 1ST US VOLUNTEER CAVALRY REGIMENT. BY THE TIME THE WAR WAS OVER ROOSEVELT WAS THE COLONEL IN CHARGE, AND HIS REGIMENT, POPULARLY KNOWN AS ROOSEVELT'S ROUGH RIDERS, WAS FAMOUS. Q

13 ON JULY 1, 1898, WAS WHEN LAYING SUPPRESSING FIRE WITH THE GATLIN CHAIN- GUN, THE ROUGH RIDERS AND A COUPLE OF TROOPS OF BUFFALO SOLDIERS CHARGED UP SAN JUAN HEIGHTS (HILL) AND KETTLE HILL. IT PROVED TO BE ONE THE BLOODIEST BATTLE OF THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR WITH ROUGHLY 200 KILLED AND OVER 1,200 WOUNDED. T

14 WHEN THEODORE ROOSEVELT RETURNED FROM CUBA HE WAS A NATIONAL HERO AND POLITICAL GOLD. MEN WERE LINING UP TO BEG HIM TO RUN FOR OFFICE. THE BOSS OF THE REPUBLICAN MACHINE IN NEW YORK WAS NO EXCEPTION, EXCEPT THAT HE WAS NOT REAL THRILLED ABOUT IT. PLATT'S POLITICAL POWER BASE WAS BIG BUSINESS, BUT HERE HE WAS ASKING ROOSEVELT TO RUN FOR GOVERNOR - A MAN THAT HAD AN ANNOYING TENDENCY TO DO WHAT HE FELT WAS RIGHT RATHER THAN RECKLESSLY PROTECT POWERFUL BUSINESS INTERESTS. UNFORTUNATELY FOR PLATT FINDING A MAN THAT COULD ACTUALLY WIN WAS A BIGGER PROBLEM - A PROBLEM THAT ROOSEVELT COULD SOLVE. WHEN ROOSEVELT BECAME GOVERNOR IN JANUARY OF 1899 HE FULFILLED PLATT'S WORST EXPECTATIONS. HE WOULD NOT LET PLATT DOMINATE HIS TERM OR HIS DECISION MAKING. IN PARTICULARLY HE ANGERED AND DEFIED PLATT ON THE BIGGEST ISSUE OF HIS TERM. AT THAT TIME PUBLIC SERVICE CORPORATIONS DID NOT PAY TAXES ON THEIR FRANCHISES. THEY DID PAY PLATT TO MAKE SURE IT STAYED THAT WAY. ROOSEVELT FELT THAT GOVERNMENT SHOULD NOT GIVE PREFERENTIAL TREATMENT TO BIG BUSINESS, AND THAT IT HAD AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN ITS REGULATION. IN THE END ROOSEVELT PREVAILED AND UTILITY COMPANIES WERE FORCED TO PAY TAXES. THIS ENRAGED BOTH PLATT AND HIS SUPPORTERS. IN A WEIRD TWIST IT WAS THIS ANGER THAT HELPED PAVED THE WAY FOR ROOSEVELT TO BECOME PRESIDENT. <- Thomas Platt

15 IN 1899 GARRET HOBART, VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES DIED AND IN HIS DEATH PLATT SAW HIS CHANCE. HE DID EVERYTHING HE COULD TO ENCOURAGE THE NOMINATION OF ROOSEVELT FOR VICE-PRESIDENT. OTHERS, WITH LESS SELFISH MOTIVATIONS, ALSO THOUGHT IT WAS A WONDERFUL IDEA AND APPLIED PRESSURE TO BOTH PRESIDENT MCKINLEY AND ROOSEVELT. NEITHER ONE OF WHICH WAS THRILLED ABOUT THE IDEA. MCKINLEY HAD NO PARTICULAR INTEREST IN ROOSEVELT, AND ROOSEVELT'S ACTIVE NATURE REVOLTED AT THE THOUGHT OF HAVING A CEREMONIAL AND POWERLESS POLITICAL POSITION. IN THE END THEY BOTH RELENTED, ROOSEVELT ACCEPTED THE VICE-PRESIDENT NOMINATION AND THEIR TICKET WENT ON TO WIN THE 1900’S PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION AGAINST WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN.

16 ROOSEVELT'S NEXT OPPORTUNITY ALSO CAME AT THE EXPENSE OF ANOTHER PERSON'S DEATH. IN SEPTEMBER OF 1901, LESS THAN ONE YEAR INTO HIS NEW TERM, MCKINLEY WAS SHAKING HANDS WITH THE PUBLIC AT THE PAN-AMERICAN EXPOSITION WHEN A YOUNG MAN NAMED LEON CZOLGOSZ WALKED UP TO HIM AND SHOT HIM TWICE WITH A 24. MAGNUM. MCKINLEY INITIALLY APPEARED TO BE RECOVERING FROM HIS WOUNDS, BUT TOOK A TURN FOR THE WORSE ON SEPTEMBER 12, SIX DAYS AFTER THE SHOOTING. HIS HEALTH QUICKLY DETERIORATED AND HE DIED ON SEPTEMBER 14, VICE-PRESIDENT THEODORE ROOSEVELT SUCCEEDED MCKINLEY AS PRESIDENT. y

17 THEODORE ROOSEVELT, NOT QUITE 43, BECAME THE YOUNGEST PRESIDENT IN THE NATION'S HISTORY. ONE OF HIS FIRST NOTABLE ACTS AS PRESIDENT WAS TO DELIVER A 20,000-WORD ADDRESS TO CONGRESS ON DECEMBER 3, 1901, ASKING IT TO CURB THE POWER OF LARGE CORPORATION (CALLED "TRUSTS") "WITHIN REASONABLE LIMITS." FOR HIS AGGRESSIVE ATTACKS ON TRUSTS OVER HIS TWO TERMS HE WAS CALLED A "TRUST- BUSTER." ROOSEVELT RELISHED THE PRESIDENCY AND SEEMED TO BE EVERYWHERE AT ONCE. HE TOOK CABINETS MEMBERS AND FRIENDS ON LONG, FAST- PACED HIKES, BOXED IN THE STATE ROOMS OF THE WHITE HOUSE, ROMPED WITH HIS CHILDREN, AND READ VORACIOUSLY. 3

18 IN 1903, ROOSEVELT ENCOURAGED THE LOCAL POLITICAL CLASS IN PANAMA TO FORM A NATION INDEPENDENT FROM COLOMBIA, AFTER THAT NATION REFUSED THE AMERICAN TERMS FOR THE BUILDING OF A CANAL ACROSS THE ISTHMUS. ROOSEVELT DISPATCHED NAVY VESSELS TO THE AREA TO APPLY POLITICAL PRESSURE ON THE COLOMBIAN GOVERNMENT, ALLOWING THE PANAMANIAN REBELS TO SECEDE WITHOUT MUCH OPPOSITION. THE NEW NATION OF PANAMA SOLD A CANAL ZONE TO THE UNITED STATES FOR $10 MILLION AND A STEADILY INCREASING YEARLY SUM. ROOSEVELT FELT THAT A PASSAGE THROUGH THE ISTHMUS OF PANAMA WAS VITAL TO PROTECT AMERICAN INTERESTS AND TO CREATE A STRONG AND COHESIVE UNITED STATES NAVY. THE RESULTING PANAMA CANAL WAS COMPLETED IN 1914 AND REVOLUTIONIZED WORLD TRAVEL AND COMMERCE. 7

19 IN 1904, ROOSEVELT RAN FOR PRESIDENT IN HIS OWN RIGHT AND WON IN A LANDSLIDE VICTORY. BUILDING ON MCKINLEY'S EFFECTIVE USE OF THE PRESS, ROOSEVELT MADE THE WHITE HOUSE THE CENTER OF NEWS EVERY DAY, PROVIDING INTERVIEWS AND PHOTO OPPORTUNITIES. HE ACCOMPLISHED THIS AFTER NOTICING THE WHITE HOUSE REPORTERS HUDDLED OUTSIDE IN THE RAIN ONE DAY; HE GAVE THEM THEIR OWN ROOM INSIDE, EFFECTIVELY INVENTING THE PRESIDENTIAL PRESS BRIEFING. THE GRATEFUL PRESS, WITH UNPRECEDENTED ACCESS TO THE WHITE HOUSE, REWARDED ROOSEVELT WITH PLENTY OF COVERAGE. THIS WAS HELPED BY ROOSEVELT'S PRACTICE OF SCREENING OUT REPORTERS HE DIDN'T LIKE. s

20 TRUSTS WERE INCREASING THE CENTRAL ISSUE IN POLITICS, WITH PUBLIC OPINION FEARING THAT LARGE CORPORATIONS COULD IMPOSE MONOPOLISTIC PRICES TO CHEAT THE CONSUMER AND SQUASH SMALL INDEPENDENT COMPANIES. BY 1904, 318 TRUSTS CONTROLLED ABOUT TWO-FIFTHS OF THE NATION'S MANUFACTURING OUTPUT, NOT TO MENTION POWERFUL TRUSTS IN NON-MANUFACTURING SECTORS SUCH AS RAILROADS, LOCAL TRANSIT, AND BANKING. ROOSEVELT DECIDED TO DO SOMETHING ABOUT IT. A FEW HISTORIANS CREDIT MCKINLEY WITH STARTING THE TRUST-BUSTING ERA, BUT MOST CREDIT ROOSEVELT, THE “TRUST BUSTER."

21 THEODORE ROOSEVELT APPOINTED THREE U.S. SUPREME JUDGE WILL DAY, WILLIAM MOODY, AND OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES.

22 ROOSEVELT WORKED TO INCREASE THE REGULATORY POWER OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT. REGULATION OF RAILROADS WAS STRENGTHENED BY THE ELKIN’S ACT AND ESPECIALLY THE HEPBURN ACT OF 1906, WHICH HAD THE EFFECT OF FAVORING MERCHANTS OVER THE RAILROADS. UNDER HIS LEADERSHIP, THE ATTORNEY GENERAL BROUGHT FORTY- FOUR SUITS AGAINST BUSINESSES THAT WERE CLAIMED TO BE MONOPOLIES, MOST NOTABLY J.P. MORGAN'S NORTHERN SECURITY FACTORY, A HUGE RAILROAD COMBINATION, AND J.D. ROCKEFELLER‘S OIL COMP. BOTH WERE SUCCESSFUL, WITH STANDARD OIL BROKEN INTO OVER 30 SMALLER COMPANIES THAT EVENTUALLY COMPETED WITH ONE ANOTHER. TO RAISE THE VISIBILITY OF LABOR AND MANAGEMENT ISSUES, HE ESTABLISHED A NEW FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF COMMENCE AND LABOR

23 IN RESPONSE TO PUBLIC CLAMOR, ROOSEVELT PUSHED CONGRESS TO PASS THE PURE FOOD AND DRUG ACT OF 1906, AS WELL AS THE MEAT INSPECTION OF THESE LAWS PROVIDED FOR LABELING OF FOODS AND DRUGS, INSPECTION OF LIVESTOCK AND MANDATED SANITARY CONDITIONS AT MEATPACKING PLANTS. CONGRESS REPLACED ROOSEVELT'S PROPOSALS WITH A VERSION SUPPORTED BY THE MAJOR MEATPACKERS WHO WORRIED ABOUT THE OVERSEAS MARKETS, AND DID NOT WANT SMALL UNSANITARY PLANTS UNDERCUTTING THEIR DOMESTIC MARKET. R

24 ROOSEVELT LEFT THE PRESIDENCY IN 1909 AND WENT ON AN AFRICAN SAFARI. SOON AFTER RETURNING TO THE U.S., HE JUMPED RIGHT BACK INTO POLITICS. IN 1912, HE DECIDED TO AGAIN RUN FOR PRESIDENT, AND TRIED TO WIN THE REPUBLICAN NOMINATION AGAINST WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT. HOWEVER, ROOSEVELT LOST THE NOMINATION. <- William Howard Taft

25 FEELING RATHER BITTER, ROOSEVELT RAN ON THE INDEPENDENT TICKET OF THE PROGRESSIVE PARTY. IN OCTOBER, DURING HIS CAMPAIGN, JOHN SCHRANE SHOT ROOSEVELT. SCHRANE WAS AN ASSASSIN WHO WAS LATER COMMITTED TO AN ASYLUM. ROOSEVELT WAS NOT SERIOUSLY INJURED AND, IN FACT, REFUSED TO SEE A DOCTOR UNTIL AFTER HE DELIVERED HIS SPEECH. THE SPEECH LASTED AN HOUR-AND-A- HALF. DESPITE ROOSEVELT EFFORTS, DEMOCRAT WOODROW WILSON WAS ELECTED PRESIDENT.

26 BETWEEN 1918 AND 1919, ROOSEVELT REMAINED ACTIVE IN POLITICS. HE PUBLISHED EDITORIALS AND WROTE MANUSCRIPTS, EVEN THOUGH HIS HEALTH WAS FAILING. HE WAS OFTEN SO ILL THAT HE WAS BEDRIDDEN MUCH OF THE TIME. ON JANUARY 6, 1919, THEODORE ROOSEVELT DIED IN HIS SLEEP. I

27 THEODORE ROOSEVELT NOT JUST ONLY A CAREFUL, DARING, AND WHAT HAD TO BE DONE PRESIDENT. HE WAS MORE THAN JUST THE 26TH PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES. HE WAS A WRITER, HISTORIAN, EXPLORER, BIG-GAME HUNTER, SOLDIER, CONSERVATIONIST, RANCHMAN AND NOBEL PEACE PRIZE WINNER. HE DID WHAT HAD TO BE DONE TO THE WORLD. u

28 “SPEAK SOFTLY AND CARRY A BIG STICK.” Famous Quote

29 FUN FACTS * He was the first president to travel out of the U.S. * Roosevelt was blind in his left eye, the result of a boxing injury he sustained while in office. *President Roosevelt was the first president to be commonly known by his initials. *On October 11, 1910, Roosevelt took a four minute flight in a plane built by the Wright brothers, making him the first president to fly in an airplane. *Theodore Roosevelt was the youngest president, assuming the office at the age of 42 after President McKinley was assassinated. John F. Kennedy was the youngest president to be elected to office. He was 43 when he became president. *His photo is placed on Mount Rushmore

30 THE END!!!

31 PICTURE FINDING: KEVIN REPORT: KEVIN RESEARCH: KEVIN ETC: KEVIN DEDICATED TO: MRS. SNOOK, MRS. LUNDSTRUM, MY HORIZON FRIENDS, MY TEACHERS, AND MY PARENTS. WEBSITES S/THEODOREROOSEVELT CE/LAUREATES/1906/ROOSEVELT-BIO.HTML E/FILMS/TR/ R.HTM OFTR.HTM Credits

32 R.ORG/ ROOSEVELT.COM/TRBIOQF.HTML ROOSEVELT.HTML BOOKS THEODORE ROOSEVELT; A LIFE THE ROOSEVELT STORY DON’T SHOOT THE BEAR! TRUSTY ROOSEVELT Continued…….


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