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Science, Research, and Animal Models W illiam L. Palya, PhD Jacksonville State University.

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Presentation on theme: "Science, Research, and Animal Models W illiam L. Palya, PhD Jacksonville State University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Science, Research, and Animal Models W illiam L. Palya, PhD Jacksonville State University

2 What is Science?

3 All human endeavors Science

4 All human endeavors Why? Science

5 All human endeavors understood, useful, truth Why? Science

6 Truth empirical

7 Truth empirical reliable Science

8 Truth empirical reliable multiple converging evidence Science

9 Truth empirical reliable multiple converging evidence consensual validation Science

10 Truth empirical reliable multiple converging evidence consensual validation operationally / functionally defined Science

11 Science: Truth operational / functional definitions

12 Science Understood describe

13 Science Understood describe predict

14 Science Understood describe predict control

15 Science Understood describe predict control synthesize

16 Science Understood describe predict control synthesize explain

17 Science: Understood Explanation The cause(s) / effect(s) relationship(s) Factors altering functional relationships Systematic context for that information

18 Science Versus Belief Science empirical reliable multiple converging evidence consensual validation operationally / functionally defined describe predict control synthesize explain Science X True? But not Science

19 Misconceptions Science Empirical not exact Science and poetry are one at a time Unifying principle not accumulate facts Discover commonalities not inexplicable Driven by understanding not solving needs Unnecessary to disprove every assertion Theories are not wild guesses “Work in theory not real world” is ignorant

20 A Conceptual Structure for the Scientific Study of Nature

21 The Scientific Study of Nature Goa ls Structure for Study of Nature

22 The Scientific Study of Nature Goa ls Practitioning Structure for Study of Nature

23 The Scientific Study of Nature Goa ls Practitioning Applied research Structure for Study of Nature

24 The Scientific Study of Nature Goa ls Practitioning Applied research Basic (pure) research Structure for Study of Nature

25 The Scientific Study of Nature Goa ls Level of Molarity Structure for Study of Nature

26 Structure for Study of Nature: Level of Molarity cellcellular adaptation DV

27 organismorganismic adaptation DV Structure for Study of Nature: Level of Molarity

28 atomatomic adaptation DV Structure for Study of Nature: Level of Molarity

29 groupgroup adaptation DV Structure for Study of Nature: Level of Molarity

30 existenceexistential adaptation DV Structure for Study of Nature: Level of Molarity

31 group systematic adaptation DV group system Structure for Study of Nature: Level of Molarity

32 Level of Molarity Summary Structure for Study of Nature: Level of Molarity

33 Level of Molarity by Goals Summary Structure for Study of Nature

34 The Scientific Study of Nature Goa ls Level of Molarity Time Scale Structure for Study of Nature

35 Structure for Study of Nature: Time Scale Independent variable Dependent variable IV axis DV axis Time

36 Structure for Study of Nature: Time Scale

37 Levels may vary across molarity number size For psychology immediate short medium long Structure for Study of Nature: Time Scale

38 Immediate Event Light onset Result Reaction millisec to sec Structure for Study of Nature: Time Scale

39 Short Event Contingency If peck, then food Result Learning sec to days Structure for Study of Nature: Time Scale

40 Medium Event Overlapping contingencies Result Disposition Days to years Structure for Study of Nature: Time Scale

41 Long Event Reproductive contingency Result Instinct Years to millenia Structure for Study of Nature: Time Scale

42 Time Scale Metaphor Structure for Study of Nature: Time Scale

43 Time Scales in Psychology Structure for Study of Nature: Time Scale

44 Time Scale by Level of Molarity by Goal Summary Structure for Study of Nature: Time Scale

45 Research: The Acquisition of Knowledge about Nature

46 Explanation Rules of the Paradigm Structure Causation Research: The Acquisition of Knowledge

47 Causation Cause in past Cause in future determinismteleology Research: The Acquisition of Knowledge

48 Type of Causal Appeal Organismic adaptation Cellular adaptation Group adaptation Reductionistic Contextualistic correlative Short term Research: The Acquisition of Knowledge

49 The Analysis of Variability Knowledge is Covariance Research: The Acquisition of Knowledge xxyy

50 The Analysis of Variability Accountable Variance Residual Variance Research: The Acquisition of Knowledge

51 The Analysis of Variability Accountable Variance cause/effect mechanistic functional correlational Residual Variance Research: The Acquisition of Knowledge

52 The Analysis of Variability Accountable Variance Residual Variance experimental solution assumption of nonlinear dynamics assumption of true score delegate problem decline judgment Research: The Acquisition of Knowledge

53 Motivation To Do Research Indulge curiosity Challenge Social reinforcers Research: The Acquisition of Knowledge

54 Goal of Research Satisfy curiosity Construct functional context Test theory Research: The Acquisition of Knowledge

55 Sources of Problems Expert Folklore Insight Informal discussion Knowledge of techniques and apparatus Reading literature Paradoxical incident conflicting results Deduced from paradigm Research: The Acquisition of Knowledge

56 Research Activities What if Verification Improve measure Unconfounding Specialization Generalization Technological advancement Recombination Establish existence Testing prediction Construction of functional context Integration into existing paradigm Research: The Acquisition of Knowledge

57 Classifications Deductive vs. inductive Analysis vs. synthesis Manipulation vs. no manipulation Single fact vs. function Structural vs. functional Face value vs. model of something else Research: The Acquisition of Knowledge

58 Research Optimization Reliability Generality Detectability Meaningfulness Research: The Acquisition of Knowledge

59 Research Design Difference measures cancel confounds Evaluation comparison to chance consistency with database coherence with paradigm Research: The Acquisition of Knowledge

60 Research Tactics Be committed Be well read Balance novel with mainstream Focus on productive relationships Maximize chances to discover Be alert, ingenious, and relentless Be diligent, meticulous, and honest Research: The Acquisition of Knowledge

61 Communicating Research Findings Introduction Method Results Discussion Research: The Acquisition of Knowledge

62 Introduction Background to understand and appreciate Case for question Case for method Research: Communicating Research Findings

63 Method Information necessary to realize problems Information necessary to replicate Research: Communicating Research Findings

64 Results What happened Information necessary to justify summaries Document reliability Document power or VAF Research: Communicating Research Findings

65 Discussion How original question was answered Nonstatistical arguments for: reliability generality detectability meaningfulness Implication of research - “so what” Research: Communicating Research Findings

66 Example Science Paradigmatic Psychology: Short-term Adaptation or “Learning ”

67 Paradigmatic Psychology *

68 Causation experience IVDV Reductionistic behavior correlative Contextual

69 Paradigmatic Psychology Relationships of Interest Organism

70 Illuminating Grammar Avoid active voice and reference to animal A key peck occurred when light came on The pigeon pecked when the light came on The pigeon learned to peck when … The pigeon learned to peck in order to get … The pigeon learned the rule “pecking …” The pigeon understood that if it was to eat … Paradigmatic Psychology

71 The Task stimulus IVDV Paradigmatic Psychology response DV = f(IV)

72 Time Scale Subset: Short-term Adaptation Paradigmatic Psychology DV minutes / days

73 Principal Factors Reinforcement Shaping Stimulus control Nonlinear temporal discounting Paradigmatic Psychology

74 Paradigmatic Psychology: Principal Factors Reinforcement Some events with some relationships with stimuli or behavior have an enduring effect on subsequent behavior

75 Paradigmatic Psychology: Principal Factors Reinforcement Operant conditioning (Thorndike) R 1 R 2 R 3 R 4 R 4 R 4 R 1 R 4 R 3 R 4 R 4 S*

76 Paradigmatic Psychology: Principal Factors Reinforcement Reflex conditioning (Pavlov) S 1 S 2 S 3 S 4 S 1 S 2 S 3 S 4 R S*R

77 Paradigmatic Psychology: Principal Factors Shaping R 1 R 2 R 3 R 4 S* R 20 R 21 R 22 R 23 S* RRR R 5 R 7 R

78 Paradigmatic Psychology: Principal Factors Stimulus Control S 1 R 1 S* S 2 R 1 S 1 S 2 R 1

79 Paradigmatic Psychology: Principal Factors Nonlinear Temporal Discounting Experimental Demonstration smaller sooner 1 oz now larger later 2 lbs in 10 min

80 Paradigmatic Psychology: Principal Factors Nonlinear Temporal Discounting Metaphor: Visual angle

81 Paradigmatic Psychology: Principal Factors Reinforcement Shaping Stimulus control Nonlinear temporal discounting All Behavior

82 Models in Science Task ModelTarget

83 Models in Science Features Relevant features Irrelevant features

84 Models in Science Purpose: Maximize the positive Minimize the negative

85 Models in Science Optimization Cost Time Complexity IV DV Confounding variable

86 Models in Science Chosen Basis of Generality Maximize similarity to maximize generality Maximize understanding to maximize generality

87 Models: Chosen Basis of Generality Similarity “Real” world People or at least primates but confounds not broadly generalizable Understanding Laboratory Primitive animals but generality functions

88 Models in Science Types Mathematical model Physical model Model procedures Model apparatus/settings Model subjects

89 Models in Science Animal Models in Psychology Conditioning and learning research is based upon the use of pigeons pecking to colored stimuli for access to food pellet reinforcers in sealed experimental chambers with transilluminated keys and food magazine under schedules of reinforcement.

90

91 Models in Science Subjects/Apparatus Models in Psychology Pigeons are pests in nature Mature rapidly, live 20+ years Behaviorally stable at >6 months Small, inexpensive, easy to maintain Rarely exchange diseases with humans Good color vision inexpensive stimuli easy to control and eliminate

92 Models in Science Key pecking is easy behavior to maintain Operant defined as key operation Transilluminated key assures exposure Food pellets inexpensive, easy to use Hunger motivation easy to maintain and control Schedules control events at moment of food

93 Models in Science Life People fear heights People play slot machines

94 Models in Science Procedural Model in Psychology Reflex conditioning Operant conditioning

95 Models: Procedural Model in Psychology Contingency

96 Models: Procedural Model in Psychology Contingency

97 Models: Procedural Model in Psychology Contingency

98 Models: Procedural Model in Psychology Mathematical Models in Psychology Rescorla Wagner Model Scalar Expectancy Model Behavior Theory of Timing

99 Models: Mathematical models in Psychology Life Trials 100

100 Models: Mathematical models in Psychology =.1(100-0) =.1(100-10) =.1(100-19) =.1(100-27) V∆V for trial after trial Rescorla-Wagner Model of Learning

101


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