Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Apology Philosophy 21 Fall, 2004 G. J. Mattey.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "The Apology Philosophy 21 Fall, 2004 G. J. Mattey."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Apology Philosophy 21 Fall, 2004 G. J. Mattey

2 Socrates on Trial Socrates was defending himself against two charges brought forth by Meletus –Corruption of the youth of Athens by turning them against religion –Innovation in religious matters The real complaints against Socrates were: –Being a wise man who claimed knowledge of religious matters beyond the earth –Making the worse argument appear stronger

3 The Sophists It was the Sophists who claimed to make the worse argument appear better Their goal is mere persuasion, even it this requires eloquent falsehood The goal of Socrates was to speak the truth in a plain way

4 Wisdom The Delphic Oracle had stated that no one is wiser than Socrates Since Socrates did not think he was wise, he unsuccessfully sought out someone wiser The more prominent the person, the less wise Politicians are especially deficient in wisdom The conclusion Socrates drew was that wisdom is worthless, which perhaps no one else realized By exposing pretensions to wisdom, Socrates was serving the Oracle

5 Corruption of Youth Bad people do harm to those around them So by corrupting the young people around him, Socrates was endangering himself But he is not so ignorant as to do this deliberately So either he does not corrupt youth, or he does not do so willingly

6 Atheism Meletus charged Socrates with not believing in the gods of Athens But Socrates tried to work in service of the gods, so he must believe they exist He was following a divine voice (his “dæmon”) Socrates also does not fear death, as is befitting for someone in divine service Fear of death is a sign of pretended wisdom, and the wise person recognizes our ignorance about what follows life

7 Excellence of the Soul It is wicked and shameful to do wrong Socrates’s mission is to teach that each person should attain the best possible state of the soul Excellence of the soul yields wealth and other goods, rather than vice-versa The soul of the better man cannot be harmed by the acts of the worse

8 The Jury The jury can bring no harm to Socrates But by condemning a man carrying out a useful mission of the gods, they can harm themselves There would be no one left to expose their pretensions to wisdom

9 The Mission Socrates’s mission, to teach the Athenians to care for virtue, is unnatural He has neglected ordinary affairs He cannot participate in public affairs, as the path of virtue only got him into trouble He is not a teacher, gaining nothing material from his open discussions None of those whom he allegedly corrupted brought any charges against him.

10 Guilty It is shameful to beg for mercy from the jury, so Socrates does not do so The jury responds by finding him guilty Meletus asks fro the death penalty Socrates ironically proposes that instead he be rewarded for the benefits he has bestowed upon the Athenians Recommending a punishment would be recommending that evil be done to him

11 Punishment Socrates does not want to be imprisoned He has no money to pay a fine If exiled, he would meet the same fate again Finally, he proposes to pay a fine from funds provided by his friends, including Plato The jury sentences him to death

12 Shame The jury will bring shame upon themselves for executing a man widely thought to be wise They have only convicted and sentenced him to death because he refused to beg It would be shameful to live under such circumstances

13 Consequences The jury will create a greater problem by eliminating Socrates His followers will be emboldened They will miss the opportunity to improve themselves, if they discredit him instead

14 Death The divine sign has not opposed Socrates’s defense, so it is a good thing for him to die Death is either a dreamless sleep or a passage to another life A dreamless sleep is desirable In an afterlife, Socrates would be judged by upright judges and join the company of the dead sages A good man cannot be harmed in life or death

Download ppt "The Apology Philosophy 21 Fall, 2004 G. J. Mattey."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google