Presentation on theme: "PART I: HOUSING Type of dwelling unit Occupancy Status Main construction materials for walls, floor and roof Type of lighting Source of water."— Presentation transcript:
PART I: HOUSING Type of dwelling unit Occupancy Status Main construction materials for walls, floor and roof Type of lighting Source of water supply Waste disposal Toilet facilities PART II: WATER QUALITY TEST Background Methods Water Quality Test Results
Most households (60.6%) live in compound houses; 68 percent in urban and 51 percent in rural One out of every 15 households in Accra (GAMA) live in improvised homes
Three out every five rural households compared to about one-third urban households own their houses Two out every five urban households live in rented premises compared to one-in-every 10 rural households About a quarter of all households live in rent-free houses; not much difference among localities
A fifth of the households are single persons households and one-third occupy single rooms Those occupying a single room 9.4 percent has a size of 5 Less than two percent of 10 or more member households occupy one or two rooms Household size by number of rooms (percent) Household size Number of rooms 1 2 3 45+Total 1 33.7 9.9 4.9 1.7 3.1 20.3 2 15.9 12.9 7.3 6.8 5.4 12.9 3 16.8 15.3 11.1 7.8 14.8 4 14.0 17.7 15.2 13.6 9.3 14.8 5 9.4 16.5 17.1 16.1 11.8 12.7 6 5.9 12.4 15.6 13.9 13.1 9.7 7 2.5 8.0 11.7 13.5 10.3 6.2 8 1.2 4.2 6.9 7.4 8.7 3.5 9 0.3 1.8 4.1 5.9 6.3 1.9 10+ 0.4 1.3 6.1 10.0 24.1 3.4 100.0
Households by locality and main material of walls, floor and roof (percent ) MaterialAccra (GAMA)UrbanRuralGhana Outside wall material Mud/Mud bricks/Earth 0.6 10.4 56.9 31.1 Cement blocks/concrete 91.5 85.3 39.7 65.0 Main floor material Earth/Mud 0.4 2.3 14.3 7.7 Cement/Concrete 79.7 85.2 79.2 82.6 Main roof material Wood 7.0 4.8 5.2 5.0 Metal sheet 69.5 79.2 73.9 76.8 Slate/Asbestos 19.8 10.6 2.7 7.1 Outside wall material About two-thirds of the outer walls of houses are built cement blocks or concrete; mud, mud bricks and earth also constitute 31.1 percent Main floor material Four out of every five households use cement as their flooring material Main roof material Three-quarters of households occupy dwelling units roofed with metal sheets 7.1 percent of dwellings are roofed with slates or asbestos.
Households by main source of water supply for drinking and general use by locality (percent Main source of water supply for drinking (percent) Accra (GAMA)UrbanRuralGhana Pipe-borne 26.338.616.628.9 Well0.513.955.332.3 Natural sources0.11.318.69.0 Others (sachet, tanker, vendor, spring)126.96.36.1999.8 Main source of water supply for general use (percent) Pipe-borne 70.962.317.1 42.1 Well6.725.958.540.4 Natural sources2.04.022.112.1 Others (sachet, Tanker, Vendor, Spring)188.8.131.52.3 Main source of water supply for drinking 32.3 percent of households in the country have their main source of drinking water from a well 28.9 percent from pipe- borne. Three out of every 10 households rely on sachet, tanker, etc. for drinking water. 73.9 percent of households in rural areas use either a well (55.3%) or natural sources (18.6%) Main source of water supply for general use 42.1 percent of households in the country use pipe-borne water for general use 14.5 percent rely on public tap or standpipe
Households by locality and use of basic utilities (percent) Accra (GAMA)UrbanRuralGhana Source of lighting Electricity (mains) 93.188.648.370.6 Kerosene lamp 1.52.55.03.6 Torches(flashlights) 4.07.645.024.3 Source of Cooking fuel None, No Cooking 184.108.40.206.9 Wood 0.814.374.841.3 Charcoal 38.943.616.531.5 Gas 52.735.85.522.3 Electricity 0.60.50.10.3 Method of rubbish disposal Collected 67.029.83.818.2 Burned by household 16.213.420.716.6 Public dump 15.952.352.552.4 Dumped indiscriminately 0.84.523.012.8 Method of liquid waste disposal Discharged in open area42.358.392.773.7 Discharged into drains220.127.116.112.4 Septic tank18.104.22.168.6 Source of lighting Seven out of every 10 households are connected to the national electricity grid A quarter of households rely on torch or flashlight for lighting Source of Cooking fuel About three-quarters of households depend on wood or charcoal for cooking Less than a quarter of households use LPG Method of waste disposal Less than a fifth of households have their solid waste collected. Half depend on public dumping sites. About three-quarters of households throw their liquid waste in the open
Public toilet (WC/KVIP/Pit/Pan etc.) is the widely used toilet facility by households accounting for a little over a third (35.7%) One out of every seven households use water closet; 23.3 percent of all urban areas and 2.3 percent in rural areas Nearly a fifth (18.8%) of households have no facilities and therefore use the bush, field or beach One in 500 households use bucket or pan latrines Households by type of toilet facility used and locality Utility Locality Urban areasRural areas Ghana Accra (GAMA) Other UrbanAll Rural Coastal Rural Forest Rural SavannahAll Type of toilet used household No facilities (bush/beach/field) 39.57.430.312.872.632.918.8 W.C. 34.318.223.322.214.171.1243.9 Pit latrine 1017.315126.96.36.1994.219.1 KVIP 20.712.715.37.610.73.68.212.1 Bucket/Pan 0.50.20.3 -0.2 -0.10.2 Public toilet (WC,KVIP,Pit,Pan, etc) 31.442.138.734.240.814.432.135.7 Other 0.1 - 0.60.3 -0.20.1 All 100.0
The global indicator for tracking progress towards the MDG drinking water target is the use of an ‘improved source’ of drinking water, However, improved sources may be contaminated and provide unsafe water. Microbiological contamination of drinking water can lead to diarrhoeal diseases including shigellosis and cholera. Other pathogens in drinking water can cause hepatitis, typhoid, and polio myelitis. Drinking water can also be contaminated with chemicals with harmful effects on human health The GLSS 6 is the first nationally representative survey in Ghana to include measurement of microbiological and chemical quality of drinking water at the household level
Three households were randomly selected among the 15 households per cluster for drinking water test Respondents were asked to provide “a glass of water which you would give a child to drink” This was tested on-site for arsenic and E. coli. The water source for one of the three households was also visited and tested for arsenic and E. coli, without sterilization. In the case of piped water, the source sample was taken from the tap or other point of collection Samples for laboratory analysis for arsenic and E. Coli was also collected
Arsenic is a known human carcinogen, which has been found in groundwater in parts of Ghana since the 1990s. The WHO provisional guideline value for arsenic since 1993 is 10 parts per billion (ppb), and the same value has been adopted as a standard by Ghana Arsenic was measured using the Arsenic Econo-Quick Test Kit (Industrial Test Systems, USA), which yields a semi-quantitative measure of arsenic in drinking water. Test chemicals are added to a 50 ml water sample, and after 12 minutes results are recorded as 0, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, 300, 500 or 1000 ppb arsenic.
Overall, 8.6 percent of the population collected drinking water from a source with arsenic above the Ghana standard of 10 ppb At the household level, 6.6 percent of household drinking-water exceeded this standard People living in rural areas are twice more likely to use drinking water with arsenic levels above 10 ppb than those in urban areas Less than one percent of source or households samples were above 50 ppb
People in urban areas were more likely to have source water free from E. coli; at the household level, urban dwellers were 2.3 times more likely to have water free from E. Coli Unprotected wells and springs recorded the highest levels of contamination – only 9.9 and 13.7 percent respectively were free from E. Coli These two showed very high levels of contamination (46.9 and 55.0 percent, respectively) at the source
More than half (53.5%) of households in the country had drinking water that met both arsenic and E. coli levels Two out of every five households (41.5%) had drinking-water in the household which met the arsenic standard but contained E. coli