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Mapping Our World

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**Essential Questions To Answer**

What is the difference between latitude and longitude Why is it important to give a city’s complete coordinates when describing its location? Why are there different time zones from one geographic area to the next?

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**Maps are flat models of three-dimensional objects.**

Latitude Longitude Maps are flat models of three-dimensional objects.

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**The science of mapmaking is called cartography.**

The latitude of the north pole is 90° north.

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Latitude The equator is an imaginary horizontal line located at 0 latitude that circles Earth and separates it into two equal halves. Latitude is the distance in degrees north or south of the equator. Lines of latitude run parallel to the equator.

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Those points are: equator the center of Earth, the line of latitude The value in degrees of each line of latitude is determined by measuring the imaginary angle created between three specific points.

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Longitude Longitude is the distance in degrees east or west of the prime meridian. The prime meridian is an imaginary line that represents 0 longitude. Lines of longitude, also called meridians, are semicircles that extend vertically from pole to pole.

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Those points are: the prime meridian the center of Earth the line of longitude The value in degrees of each line of latitude is determined by measuring the imaginary angle created between three specific points.

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Using Coordinates Both latitude and longitude are needed to locate precise positions on Earth.

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Minutes Each degree of latitude or longitude is divided into 60 smaller units called minutes.

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Seconds Each minute of latitude or longitude is divided into 60 smaller units called seconds 13

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**Scale Each degree(°) = 111 km Each Minute(‘) = 1.85 km**

Each Second(“) = m Note: works for latitude only 14

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Distance & Latitude Solve: The difference between 30N and 42N is 12. Each degree of latitude is roughly 111 km. Imagine you are on an airplane. Your plane has flown from 30N to 42N. How far have you flown?

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**International Date Line**

The International Date Line is another name for the 180° meridian.

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**International Date Line**

Traveling West () across the International Date Line, you would move your calendar ahead one day. Sept. 1 Sept. 2

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**International Date Line**

East International Date Line Traveling East () across the International Date Line, you would move your calendar back one day. Sept. 1 Aug. 31

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Longitude & Time Zones In most cases, each of Earth’s 24 time zones corresponds roughly to a line of longitude and represents a different hour. However, there are some exceptions.

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**Which time zone is Virginia in?**

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**Review Question Lines of longitude are always parallel to each other.**

True False

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**Review Question Where on Earth is 0 latitude? the North Pole**

the South Pole the equator the prime meridian

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