2Essential Questions To Answer What is the difference between latitude and longitudeWhy is it important to give a city’s complete coordinates when describing its location?Why are there different time zones from one geographic area to the next?
3Maps are flat models of three-dimensional objects. LatitudeLongitudeMaps are flat models of three-dimensional objects.
4The science of mapmaking is called cartography. The latitude of the north pole is90° north.
5LatitudeThe equator is an imaginary horizontal line located at 0 latitude that circles Earth and separates it into two equal halves.Latitude is the distance in degrees north or south of the equator.Lines of latitude run parallel to the equator.
6Those points are:equatorthe center of Earth,the line of latitudeThe value in degrees of each line of latitude is determined by measuring the imaginary angle created between three specific points.
7LongitudeLongitude is the distance in degrees east or west of the prime meridian.The prime meridian is an imaginary line that represents 0 longitude.Lines of longitude, also called meridians, are semicircles that extend vertically from pole to pole.
9Those points are:the prime meridianthe center of Earththe line of longitudeThe value in degrees of each line of latitude is determined by measuring the imaginary angle created between three specific points.
11Using CoordinatesBoth latitude and longitude are needed to locate precise positions on Earth.
12MinutesEach degree of latitude or longitude is divided into 60 smaller units called minutes.
13SecondsEach minute of latitude or longitude is divided into 60 smaller units called seconds13
14Scale Each degree(°) = 111 km Each Minute(‘) = 1.85 km Each Second(“) = mNote: works for latitude only14
15Distance & LatitudeSolve:The difference between 30N and 42N is 12.Each degree of latitude is roughly 111 km.Imagine you are on an airplane. Your plane has flown from 30N to 42N. How far have you flown?
16International Date Line The International Date Line is another name for the180° meridian.
17International Date Line Traveling West () across the International Date Line, you would move your calendar ahead one day.Sept.1Sept.2
18International Date Line EastInternational Date LineTraveling East () across the International Date Line, you would move your calendar back one day.Sept.1Aug.31