2Aquatic Biomes Freshwater Coastal and Marine Wetlands Rivers and streamsCoastal and MarineThree-fourth of the Earth's surfaceCoastalEstuariesOpen Ocean
3Freshwater Biome0.8% of the Earth's surface, which is 0.009% of its total water ;3% of the global net primary production from Freshwater E41% of the known fish species occur in this biomeProvide the majority of our nation's drinking water resourcesWater resources for agriculture, industry, sanitation, as well as food including fish and other aquatic lifeRecreational opportunities and a means of transportationTHREATS :Runoff from agricultural and urban areas,The invasion of exotic speciesThe creation of dams and water diversion. Overexploitation and pollution of groundwater supplies.
4Freshwater- WetlandsAreas of standing water that support aquatic plants.Lakes, Ponds, Marshes, swamps, and bogs are all considered wetlands.Highest species diversity of all ecosystems.Many species of amphibians, reptiles, birds.Plants/Hydrophytes: Pond lilies, cattails, sedgesSpecial category of wetlands: Salt marshes that have high salt concentrations. These support different species of animals, such as shrimp, shellfish, and various grasses.
5Freshwater- Rivers and Streams The characteristics of a river or stream change during the journey from the source to the mouth.Source: Cooler temperatures; Clearer water; Higher oxygen contents - Freshwater fish such as trout and other heterotrophs can be found there.Middle Part: Width increases; Greater species diversity – Numerous aquatic green plants and algae can be found there.Mouth: Murky water; less light penetration; less diversity of flora – Catfish and carp can be found there.Greatly influenced by their catchmentsCharacterised by unidirectional flowThe current is the primary determinant of community structure.
8Marine and Coastal Biome THE MARINE BIOME IS THE LARGEST BIOME IN THE WORLD, COVERING ABOUT 70% OF THE WHOLE EARTH...
9The coastal zone provides… Home to more than half of the world’s populationTwo third of world’s largest cities are located on the coastTwo third of the global fish production are from the coastal and marine habitatHalf of the global tourismearnings are from thecoastal zone
10Major productive estuaries Deltaic mangrove systems Coastal lagoons In terms of its ecological and biodiversity value, the coastal and marine areas supports habitat and ecosystems representing…Major productive estuariesDeltaic mangrove systemsCoastal lagoonsProductive salt marshesCoral Reef systemsProductive mudflatsSeaweed and seagrass beds andSand dunes
11Coral Reefs Massive structures made of limestone Corals: Algae (zooanthellae) + tissues of animal polypCoral reefs support over twenty-five percent of all known marine species: 4,000 different species of fish, 700 species of coral and thousands of other plants and animalsMicroorganisms, invertebrates, fishes, sea urchins, octopuses, sea stars.Hydrothermal vents
12Corals: types Hard corals: Soft Corals Brain coral and elkhorn coral. sea fingers and sea whips,
13The Structure of Coral Reefs Coral reefs begin to form when free-swimming coral larvae (planulae) attach to the submerged edges of islands or continents. As the corals grow and expand, reefs take on one of three major characteristic structures—fringing, barrier or atoll.Fringing reefs, which are the most common, project seaward directly from the shore, forming borders along the shoreline and surrounding islands.Barrier reefs also border shorelines, they are separated from their adjacent land mass by a lagoon of open, often deep water.If a fringing reef forms around a volcanic island that subsides completely below sea level while the coral continues to grow upward, an atoll forms.
14Coral Reef- Distribution Reef-building corals are restricted in their geographic distribution. This is because the algal-cnidarian symbiotic machinery needs a narrow and consistent band of environmental conditions to produce the copious quantities of limestone necessary for reef formation.The formation of highly consolidated reefs only occur where the temperature does not fall below 18°C for extended periods of time.
15Coral reefs The symbiotic association between corals and zooxanthellae Coral polyp providesZooxanthellae provideprotectionoxygenliving spacefood (e.g. glucose, amino acids) - up to 90% nutrients (CO2, NO3-, NH4+) increased calcification
16Corals and its associated fauna Strong relationship between corals diversity and its associated speciesSPECIESIndo-PacificAtlanticHard coral species70060Mollusc species50001200Fish species20006003ary consumersEels, Octopus, Barracudas2ary consumersAnemones, Urchins, Crustaceans, Starfish, Gastropods, Parrotfish, Butterfly fish1ary consumersCorals, Clams, Sea Urchins, Crustaceans, Brittle-stars, Gastropods, Grazing Fish1ary producersZooxanthellae, Calcareous Algae, Algal mats, Phytoplankton, EpiphytesRead more on Coral Reefs here
17EstuaryAn estuary is a partially enclosed body of water formed where freshwater from rivers and streams flows into the ocean, mixing with the salty sea water.Estuaries and the lands surrounding them are places of transition from land to sea, and from fresh to salt water.Although influenced by the tides, estuaries are protected from the full force of ocean waves, winds, and storms by the reefs, barrier islands, or fingers of land, mud, or sand that define an estuary's seaward boundary.Estuaries come in all shapes and sizes and go by many different names, often known as bays, lagoons, harbors, inlets, or sounds.A very interesting and informative 5-minute video for a good understanding of an estuary by UESPAgov
18Estuaries Inter-tidal mudflat Areas where freshwater streams or rivers merge with the ocean. This mixing of waters with such different salt concentrations creates a very interesting and unique ecosystem.Microflora includes algae. Macroflora includes seaweeds, marsh grasses, and mangrove trees (only in the tropics).Estuaries support a diverse fauna, including a variety of worms, oysters, crabs, and waterfowl.Watch an interesting and informative video on YouTube
20“Mangroves are among the oldest and most productive wetland forests of our planet. Found in the intertidal zone they are uniquely adapted to survive highly saline and anoxic conditions. They are ideal habitats for many terrestrial and marine species, carbon sinks and natural barriers against storm surges and coastal erosion. mangroves provide invaluable services but have been declining worldwide as a result of anthropogenic and other threats” Mangroves4theFutureThere is no better way to learn about the mangroves and the ecosystem services provided by these ecosystems, than to watch this 30-minute film “Guardians of the Coast”, produced by Mangroves for the Future- IUCN and Riverbank Studios with the financial support of Norad and Sida.Watch Guardians of the Coast!
21Marine- Open Oceans Zones: Intertidal, pelagic, abyssal, and benthic Intertidal: algae, mollusks, herbivorous snails, crabs, sea stars, small fish, seaweedsPelagic: surface seaweeds, whales and dolphinsBenthic: seaweed, bacteria, fungi, sponges, sea anemones, worms, sea stars, and fishesAbyssal: invertebrates and fish, Chemosynthetic bacteria in Hydrothermal vents
23ReferencesCampbell, N.A. 1996. Biology, 4th Edition. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc., Menlo Park, California.
24Explore FurtherA Blog about India’s Coastal and Marine ecosystemsCoral Reefs- Polyps in Peril
25Food for Thought- What is the significance of the concept of biodiversity hotspots? - Is there any risk involved in using the concept of biodiversity hotspots for prioritizing conservation at global and national level?