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Plate Tectonics CHAPTER the BIG idea The movement of tectonic plates causes geologic changes on Earth. Earth has several layers. 1.1 Continents change.

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Presentation on theme: "Plate Tectonics CHAPTER the BIG idea The movement of tectonic plates causes geologic changes on Earth. Earth has several layers. 1.1 Continents change."— Presentation transcript:

1 Plate Tectonics CHAPTER the BIG idea The movement of tectonic plates causes geologic changes on Earth. Earth has several layers. 1.1 Continents change position over time. 1.2 Plates move apart. 1.3 Plates converge or scrape past each other. 1.4 CHAPTER OUTLINE

2 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME asthenosphere Earth has several layers. 1.1 SECTION OUTLINE SECTION OUTLINE mantle outer core inner core lithosphere crust The lithosphere is made up of tectonic plates, which rest on the asthenosphere. outer core mantle inner core crust lithosphere asthenosphere tectonic plate

3 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY A solid sphere of metal, mainly nickel and iron, at Earth’s center. inner core 1.1 Earth has several layers. outer core mantle inner core crust lithosphere asthenosphere tectonic plate

4 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME A layer of molten metal, mainly nickel and iron, that surrounds Earth’s inner core. outer core 1.1 Earth has several layers. outer core mantle inner core crust lithosphere asthenosphere tectonic plate KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

5 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME The layer of rock between Earth’s outer core and crust, in which most rock is hot enough to flow in convection currents; Earth’s thickest layer. mantle 1.1 Earth has several layers. outer core mantle inner core crust lithosphere asthenosphere tectonic plate KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

6 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME A thin outer layer of rock above a planet’s mantle, including all dry land and ocean basins. Earth’s continental crust is 40 kilometers thick on average and oceanic crust is 7 kilometers thick on average. crust 1.1 Earth has several layers. outer core mantle inner core crust lithosphere asthenosphere tectonic plate KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

7 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME The layer of Earth made up of the crust and the rigid rock of the upper mantle, averaging about 40 kilometers thick and broken into tectonic plates. lithosphere 1.1 Earth has several layers. outer core mantle inner core crust lithosphere asthenosphere tectonic plate KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

8 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME The layer in Earth’s upper mantle and directly under the lithosphere in which rock is soft and weak because it is close to melting. asthenosphere 1.1 Earth has several layers. outer core mantle inner core crust lithosphere asthenosphere tectonic plate KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

9 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME One of the large, moving pieces into which Earth’s lithosphere is broken and which commonly carries both oceanic and continental crust. tectonic plate 1.1 Earth has several layers. outer core mantle inner core crust lithosphere asthenosphere tectonic plate KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

10 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME Continents change position over time. 1.2 SECTION OUTLINE SECTION OUTLINE Gravity and motions in the asthenosphere move tectonic plates over Earth’s surface. continental drift Pangaea mid-ocean ridge convection current theory of plate tectonics Earth’s tectonic plates. Arrows indicatethe direction of movement.

11 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME The hypothesis that Earth’s continents move on Earth’s surface. continental drift 1.2 Continents change position over time. continental drift Pangaea mid-ocean ridge convection current theory of plate tectonics KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

12 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME A hypothetical supercontinent that included all of the landmasses on Earth. It began breaking apart about 200 million years ago. Pangaea 1.2 Continents change position over time. continental drift Pangaea mid-ocean ridge convection current theory of plate tectonics KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

13 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME A long line of sea-floor mountains where new ocean crust is formed by volcanic activity along a divergent boundary. mid-ocean ridge 1.2 Continents change position over time. continental drift Pangaea mid-ocean ridge convection current theory of plate tectonics KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

14 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME A process by which energy is transferred in gases and liquids, occurring when a warmer, less dense area of gas or liquid is pushed up by a cooler, more dense area of the gas or liquid. convection 1.2 Continents change position over time. continental drift Pangaea mid-ocean ridge convection current theory of plate tectonics KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

15 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME A circulation pattern in which material is heated and rises in one area, then cools and sinks in another area, flowing in a continuous loop. convection current 1.2 Continents change position over time. continental drift Pangaea mid-ocean ridge convection convection current theory of plate tectonics KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

16 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME A theory stating that Earth’s lithosphere is broken into huge plates that move and change in size over time. theory of plate tectonics 1.2 Continents change position over time. continental drift Pangaea mid-ocean ridge convection current theory of plate tectonics KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

17 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME Plates move apart. 1.3 SECTION OUTLINE SECTION OUTLINE New crust is formed at divergent boundaries. Features include: mid-ocean ridges divergent boundary convergent boundary transform boundary rift valley magnetic reversal hot spot

18 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME Plates move apart. 1.3 SECTION OUTLINE SECTION OUTLINE New crust is formed at divergent boundaries. Features include: mid-ocean ridges records of magnetic reversals divergent boundary convergent boundary transform boundary rift valley magnetic reversal hot spot

19 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME Plates move apart. 1.3 SECTION OUTLINE SECTION OUTLINE New crust is formed at divergent boundaries. Features include: mid-ocean ridges records of magnetic reversals rift valleys divergent boundary convergent boundary transform boundary rift valley magnetic reversal hot spot

20 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME A boundary along which two tectonic plates move apart, characterized by either a mid- ocean ridge or a continental rift valley. divergent boundary 1.3 Plates move apart. divergent boundary convergent boundary transform boundary rift valley magnetic reversal hot spot KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

21 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME A boundary along which two tectonic plates push together, characterized either by subduction or a continental collision. convergent boundary 1.3 Plates move apart. divergent boundary convergent boundary transform boundary rift valley magnetic reversal hot spot KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

22 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME A boundary along which two tectonic plates scrape past each other, and crust is neither formed nor destroyed. transform boundary 1.3 Plates move apart. divergent boundary convergent boundary transform boundary rift valley magnetic reversal hot spot KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

23 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME A deep valley formed as tectonic plates move apart, such as along a mid-ocean ridge. rift valley 1.3 Plates move apart. divergent boundary convergent boundary transform boundary rift valley magnetic reversal hot spot KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

24 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME A switch in the direction of Earth’s magnetic field so that the magnetic north pole becomes the magnetic south pole and the magnetic south pole becomes the magnetic north pole. magnetic reversal 1.3 Plates move apart. divergent boundary convergent boundary transform boundary rift valley magnetic reversal hot spot KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

25 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME An area where a column of hot material rises from deep within a planet’s mantle and heats the lithosphere above it, often causing volcanic activity at the surface. hot spot 1.3 Plates move apart. divergent boundary convergent boundary transform boundary rift valley magnetic reversal hot spot KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

26 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME oceanic-oceanic subduction Plates converge or scrape past each other. subduction 1.4 SECTION OUTLINE SECTION OUTLINE continental- continental collision Crust is destroyed or folded at convergent boundaries. Subduction boundaries form island arcs, deep- ocean trenches, and coastal mountains. Collision boundaries can form mountains. oceanic- continental subduction

27 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME oceanic-oceanic subduction Plates converge or scrape past each other. subduction 1.4 SECTION OUTLINE SECTION OUTLINE continental- continental collision Crust is destroyed or folded at convergent boundaries. Subduction boundaries form island arcs, deep- ocean trenches, and coastal mountains. Collision boundaries can form mountains. oceanic- continental subduction Crust is neither formed nor destroyed at transform boundaries.

28 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME The process by which an oceanic tectonic plate sinks under another plate into Earth’s mantle. subduction 1.4 Plates converge or scrape past each other. oceanic-oceanic subduction continental- continental collision oceanic- continental subduction KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

29 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY A boundary along which two plates carrying continental crust push together. continental-continental collision 1.4 Plates converge or scrape past each other. oceanic-oceanic subduction continental- continental collision oceanic- continental subduction

30 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME A boundary along which a plate carrying oceanic crust sinks beneath another plate with oceanic crust. oceanic-oceanic subduction 1.4 Plates converge or scrape past each other. oceanic-oceanic subduction subduction continental- continental collision oceanic- continental subduction KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

31 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME A boundary along which a plate carrying oceanic crust sinks beneath a plate with continental crust. oceanic-continental subduction 1.4 Plates converge or scrape past each other. oceanic-oceanic subduction continental- continental collision oceanic- continental subduction KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

32 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME I. Earth has several layers. A. Earth is made up of materials with different densities Core, Mantle, Crust C. The lithosphere is made up of many plates. Earth has several layers. B. Earth’s layers have different properties. outer core mantle inner core crust lithosphere asthenosphere tectonic plate KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

33 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME 1. Evidence from the Sea Floor B. The theory of plate tectonics explains how plates and their continents move. II. Continents change position over time. 1.2 A. Continents join together and split apart. 2. Causes of Plate Movement 1. Evidence for Continental Drift Continents change position over time. 2. Pangaea and Continental Drift 3. Putting the Theory Together continental drift Pangaea mid-ocean ridge convection current theory of plate tectonics KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

34 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME III. Plates move apart. A. Tectonic plates have different boundaries. B. The sea floor spreads apart at divergent boundaries. 1.3 Plates move apart. C. Continents split apart at divergent boundaries. 1. Mid-Ocean Ridges and Rift Valleys 2. Sea-Floor Rock and Magnetic Reversals D. Hot spots can be used to track plate movements. divergent boundary convergent boundary transform boundary rift valley magnetic reversal hot spot KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY

35 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME IV. Plates converge or scrape past each other. A. Tectonic plates push together at convergent boundaries. B. Tectonic plates scrape past each other at transform boundaries. 1.4 Plates converge or scrape past each other. C. The theory of plate tectonics helps geologists today. 3. Oceanic-Continental Subduction 1. Continental-Continental Collision 2. Oceanic-Oceanic Subduction oceanic-oceanic subduction continental- continental collision oceanic- continental subduction KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY


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