Presentation on theme: "Wilderness Stream Sampling in the Green Mountain National Forest by Heather Pembrook Photos by Jim Deshler Grindstone Brook."— Presentation transcript:
Wilderness Stream Sampling in the Green Mountain National Forest by Heather Pembrook Photos by Jim Deshler Grindstone Brook
Why Sample Wilderness Streams? 1964 Wilderness Act description: “untrammeled by man”… yet air pollution knows no boundaries 2004 Wilderness Stewardship Challenge goal: to manage lands to be unimpaired for present and future generations 1 of 10 elements: Air Quality Trends, measured through a of sensitive receptor (AQV): GMNF choose streams as that receptor Question: Have wilderness streams been adversely affected by air pollution? If so, how much?
What was measured and when: 10 Streams sampled 3 times Spring, Summer, Fall 5 Wilderness Areas Aiken, Big Branch, Battell, Bristol, Breadloaf Water chemistry analyzed Alkalinity, pH, conductivity, color (Acid status) Ca, Mg, Na, K, Al (Earth metals/Base Cations) SO 4, NO 3, Cl (Anions) TN, TP (Nutrients) Fish surveys conducted Temperature probes installed
What did we learn? In 2014, Spring was most acidic event: o lowest alk, pH, cond, hardness and base cations, but > Al, NO 3, o However, sulfate highest in summer Nutrients low all year round, highest in summer and spring All streams were sensitive to acid rain except for McGinn (calcareous area of VT) Recommend: o characterize streams by sampling over 3 years o macroinvertebrate sampling to compliment water chemistry. McGinn, Smith, West Branch Deerfield have already been samples.
GMNF Wilderness Areas North& Gilmore Pond Outlets Bear Wallow & George Brooks Grindstone, Goshen and Smith Brooks Lost Pond Outlet & McGinn Brook West Branch of the Deerfield River
North Pond Outlet Bristol Bristol Cliff Wilderness Area
Gilmore Pond Outlet, Bristol, Bristol Cliff Wilderness Area
Bear Wallow Warren Breadloaf Wilderness
George Brook, Hancock, Breadloaf Wilderness
Grindstone Brook, Hancock, Battell Wilderness
Goshen Brook Trib, Ripton, Battell Wilderness
Smith Brook, Rochester, Battell Wilderness
Lost Pond Brook, Danby, Big Branch Wilderness
McGinn Brook, Danby, Big Branch Wilderness
West Branch Deerfield River Woodford Aiken Wilderness