Presentation on theme: "Wilderness Stream Sampling in the Green Mountain National Forest by Heather Pembrook Photos by Jim Deshler Grindstone Brook."— Presentation transcript:
Wilderness Stream Sampling in the Green Mountain National Forest by Heather Pembrook Photos by Jim Deshler Grindstone Brook
Why Sample Wilderness Streams? 1964 Wilderness Act description: “untrammeled by man”… yet air pollution knows no boundaries 2004 Wilderness Stewardship Challenge goal: to manage lands to be unimpaired for present and future generations 1 of 10 elements: Air Quality Trends, measured through a of sensitive receptor (AQV): GMNF choose streams as that receptor Question: Have wilderness streams been adversely affected by air pollution? If so, how much?
What was measured and when: 10 Streams sampled 3 times Spring, Summer, Fall 5 Wilderness Areas Aiken, Big Branch, Battell, Bristol, Breadloaf Water chemistry analyzed Alkalinity, pH, conductivity, color (Acid status) Ca, Mg, Na, K, Al (Earth metals/Base Cations) SO 4, NO 3, Cl (Anions) TN, TP (Nutrients) Fish surveys conducted Temperature probes installed
What did we learn? In 2014, Spring was most acidic event: o lowest alk, pH, cond, hardness and base cations, but > Al, NO 3, o However, sulfate highest in summer Nutrients low all year round, highest in summer and spring All streams were sensitive to acid rain except for McGinn (calcareous area of VT) Recommend: o characterize streams by sampling over 3 years o macroinvertebrate sampling to compliment water chemistry. McGinn, Smith, West Branch Deerfield have already been samples.
GMNF Wilderness Areas North& Gilmore Pond Outlets Bear Wallow & George Brooks Grindstone, Goshen and Smith Brooks Lost Pond Outlet & McGinn Brook West Branch of the Deerfield River
North Pond Outlet Bristol Bristol Cliff Wilderness Area
Gilmore Pond Outlet, Bristol, Bristol Cliff Wilderness Area