Presentation on theme: "Wilderness Stream Sampling in the Green Mountain National Forest by Heather Pembrook Photos by Jim Deshler Grindstone Brook."— Presentation transcript:
1Wilderness Stream Sampling in the Green Mountain National Forest by Heather Pembrook Photos by Jim DeshlerGrindstone Brook
2Why Sample Wilderness Streams? 1964 Wilderness Act description: “untrammeled by man”… yet air pollution knows no boundaries2004 Wilderness Stewardship Challenge goal: to manage lands to be unimpaired for present and future generations1 of 10 elements: Air Quality Trends, measured through a of sensitive receptor (AQV): GMNF choose streams as that receptorQuestion: Have wilderness streams been adversely affected by air pollution? If so, how much?
3What was measured and when: 10 Streams sampled 3 timesSpring, Summer, Fall5 Wilderness AreasAiken, Big Branch, Battell, Bristol, BreadloafWater chemistry analyzedAlkalinity, pH, conductivity, color (Acid status)Ca, Mg, Na, K, Al (Earth metals/Base Cations)SO4, NO3, Cl (Anions)TN, TP (Nutrients)Fish surveys conductedTemperature probes installed
4What did we learn? In 2014, Spring was most acidic event: lowest alk, pH, cond, hardness and base cations, but > Al, NO3,However, sulfate highest in summerNutrients low all year round, highest in summer and springAll streams were sensitive to acid rain except for McGinn (calcareous area of VT)Recommend:characterize streams by sampling over 3 yearsmacroinvertebrate sampling to compliment water chemistry. McGinn, Smith, West Branch Deerfield have already been samples.
5GMNF Wilderness Areas North& Gilmore Pond Outlets Bear Wallow & George BrooksGrindstone,Goshen andSmith BrooksGMNF Wilderness AreasLost Pond Outlet& McGinn BrookWest Branch of theDeerfield River
6North Pond OutletBristolBristol Cliff Wilderness Area
7Gilmore Pond Outlet, Bristol, Bristol Cliff Wilderness Area