# Comprehensive Science 1

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Comprehensive Science 1
Midterm Study Guide

Unit 1 Nature of Science

Lesson 1:What is science?
Science is the systematic study of natural events and conditions. Empirical evidence includes observations, measurements, and other types of data scientist gather. *Does not include personal feeling and opinions.

Lesson 2: Scientific Knowledge
Science attempts to explain the word around us. Theories- well supported explanation about the natural world. Model- is a presentation of something in the natural word. There are Physical models and Mathematical models. Things that are too small, too large, or some way too difficult to study Law- describes a basic principle of nature that always occur under certain conditions. *You need to be able to separate reliable sources from the unreliable(government, university, or nationally recognized research institutions).

Lesson 3: Scientific Investigations

Lesson 4: Representing data
Scientist use organize data Tables Graphs The type of graph depends upon the data Bar graph Line graph Circle graph *Vertical axis= dependent variable *Horizontal axis= independent variable

Lesson 5: Science and Society
Science has had a great impact in all of all. Manu occupations and professions use science. Our daily activities have been affected by advances in science.

Unit 3 Energy in the Earth System

Lesson1: Earth’s Spheres
Earth system is all of the matter, energy, and process whiting Earth’s boundary. Geosphere Atmosphere Cryosphere Biosphere Hydrosphere

Lesson1: Earth’s Spheres
Geosphere-mostly solid, rocky part of the earth.

Lesson1: Earth’s Spheres
Cryosphere

Lesson1: Earth’s Spheres
Atmosphere-mixture of mostly invisible gases that surrounds Earth.

Lesson1: Earth’s Spheres
Biosphere-made up of living things and areas of Earth where they are found.

Lesson 2: The Atmosphere
Green House Effect is the process by which Thermal Radiation is absorb by the gases in the atmosphere, and is reradiated in all directions. *absorb most of the solar radiation

Lesson 3: Energy Transfer
Temperature-measure of the average kinetic energy of particles. Thermal Energy-total kinetic energy of the particles. Thermal Expansion-increase of volume that result from increase of temperature. Heat-energy transferred between object with different temperature.

Lesson 3: Energy Transfer

Lesson 4:Wind in the Atmosphere
Wind- movement of air. High pressure=cold Low pressure=hot Coriolis Effect-the apparent curving of the path of a moving object due to earth’s rotation Jet stream- narrow belts of high-speed winds that blow from west to east, between 7km and 16 km above Earth’s surface.

Lesson 4:Wind in the Atmosphere

Lesson 4:Wind in the Atmosphere
Sea and land breezes

Lesson 5: Oceans Currents
Ocean currents-stream like movement of ocean water. Surface currents-ocean currents that occur near the surface. What affects surface currents? Continental deflections Coriolis effect Global winds Deep currents-movements of ocean water far below the surface. Convection current- movement of water that result from density differences. Oceans currents transport energy and matter (upwelling)

Lesson 5: Oceans Currents
Surface Currents

Unit 4 Weather and Climate

Lesson 1:The Water Cycle

Lesson 1:The Water Cycle
Evaporation: Heat from the Sun causes water on Earth (in oceans, lakes etc) to evaporate (turn from liquid into gas) and rise into the sky. This water vapor collects in the sky in the form of clouds. Condensation: water vapor in the clouds cools down it becomes water again. Precipitation: Water falls from the sky in the form of rain, snow, hail, or sleet. Collection: Oceans and lakes collect water that has fallen. Transpiration: In a process similar to sweating, plants lose water which is absorbed into the atmosphere much like evaporation. Sublimation: It is possible for a solid to transform into a gas directly (without becoming a liquid). Under certain conditions snow and ice can also sublime.

Lesson 2:Elements of Weather
What is weather? It is the state of the atmosphere surrounding the Earth at a certain area.

Lesson 2:Elements of Weather
Weather elements: Wind Temperature Precipitation Humidity-amount of water vapor Relative humidity- amount of water vapor in the air compare to the amount of water vapor need to reach saturation Dew point- is the temperature at which more condensation than evaporation occur. Air pressure-force of air molecule pushing in one area Visibility-transparency of the atmosphere

Lesson 3:What influences the Weather
Factors that Influence Weather There are many factor that influence weather, many of which we cannot see. The Water Cycle As the sun warms the surface of the Earth, water rises in the form of water vapor from lakes, rivers, oceans, plants, the ground, and other sources. This process is called evaporation. Water vapor provides the moisture that forms clouds; it eventually returns to Earth in the form of precipitation, and the cycle continues.

Lesson 3:What influences the Weather
Air Masses When air hovers for a while over a surface area with uniform humidity and temperature, it takes on the characteristics of the area below. For example, an air mass over the tropical Atlantic Ocean would become warm and humid; an air mass over the winter snow and ice of northern Canada would become cold and dry. What happens when 2 air masses meet? The cold air pushes the hot air upwards, when going up the temperature drops and the air can't hold as much water when it is warm, so the cold water molecules condense and form clouds.

Lesson 3:What influences the Weather
Jet Stream This meandering current of high-speed wind, a jet stream is usually found around five to ten miles above Earth’s surface. It generally flows west to east, often in a non-continuous wavy fashion.

Lesson 3:What influences the Weather
Weather Fronts The transition zone between two air masses of different humidity and temperature is called a front. *Along a cold front, cold air displaces warm air. Towering clouds and intense storms may form. *Along a warm front, warm air displaces cold air. Widespread clouds and rainmay accompany warm fronts. *When neither air mass displaces the other, a stationary front develops.

Lesson 4: Severe Weather and Weather Safety
Thunderstorm-intense local storm that form strong winds, heavy rain, lightning, thunder, and sometimes hail. Lightning-electric discharge in the clouds. Hurricane-tropical low pressure system with winds of 74 mi/h or more. Store surge-a huge mass of ocean water, in and flooding the shore. Tornado- destructive, rotating column of air that has very high speed in a funnel-shape cloud. Droughts-a region with an extended period with a deficiency in water supply.

Lesson 4: Severe Weather and Weather Safety
Others… Heavy rain Hail High winds Floods Sinkholes Wildfires *plan ahead and be prepared

Lesson 5: Natural Disasters in Florida
Heavy rain Hail Lightning High winds Thunderstorms Tornados Floods Hurricanes Sinkholes Wildfires

What determinates climate?
Lesson 6:Climate Climate- weather conditions in an area over a long period of time. What determinates climate? Temperature Precipitation Elevation Latitude