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Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik.

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Presentation on theme: "Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik."— Presentation transcript:

1 Online Counseling Resource YCMOU ELearning Drive… School of Architecture, Science and Technology Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik – 422222, India

2 OC-SBT/SBI/SGS011-01 Introduction Programmes and Courses  SEP –SBT011-CP1_U01  SEP – SGS011-CP1_U01

3 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Credits  Academic Inputs by Sonali Alkari MSc (Botany), P.G. D.C. Bio-Informatics sonalisa_alkari@yahoo.com

4 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.4 How to Use This Resource  Counselor at each study center should use this presentation to deliver lecture of 40-60 minutes during Face-To-Face counseling.  Discussion about students difficulties or tutorial with assignments should follow the lecture for about 40-60 minutes.  Handouts (with 6 slides on each A4 size page) of this presentation should be provided to each student.  Each student should discuss on the discussion forum all the terms which could not be understood. This will improve his writing skills and enhance knowledge level about topics, which shall be immensely useful for end exam.  Appear several times, for all the Self-Tests, available for this course.  Student can use handouts for last minutes preparation just before end exam.

5 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.5 Learning Objectives After studying this module, you should be able to:  Describe origin of Life.  Discuss different theories of Life.  Describe Proteinoid.  Discuss characteristics of Proteinoid.

6 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Introduction  The question of origin of life on our planet, the earth, has remained a most complicated and puzzling problem for thinkers, philosophers and naturalists of modern as well as ancient times.  The fundamental issues of evolutionary biology are the problems of chemical or molecular evolution and its culmination into the origin of life and the organic evolution and its products, the origin of species.

7 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Origin of Life  The word evolution means changes over a period of time.  The study of evolution provides a focus for investigations into nature of life itself, the origin of life, the great diversity of living things and the similarities in structure and function of living things.  Theories concerned with the Origin of the Earth and indeed the universe are diverse and uncertain.  In the natural sciences, abiogenesis, the question of the Origin of Life, is the study of how life on Earth might have emerged from non-life.  It is believed to have happened sometime between 4.4 billion years ago.

8 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Theories for the Origin of Life Major theories accounting for the origin of life on Earth are as follows. 1.Life is Created by a 5 at a particular time (special creation); 2.Life arose from non-living matter on numerous occasions by a process of spontaneous generation; 3.Life has no origin (Steady-state); 4.Life arrived on this planet from elsewhere (Cosmozoan); 5.Life arose according to chemical and physical laws (biochemical evolution).

9 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Theories for the Origin of Life on Earth -1  Special Creation Theory is supported by most of the world’s major religions and civilizations. Since the process of special creation occurred only once and therefore cannot be observed, hence put outside the framework of scientific investigations.  Aristotle’s hypothesis of spontaneous generation or Abiogenesis assumed that certain ’particles’ of matter contained an ‘active principle’ which could produce a living organism when conditions were suitable. He was correct in assuming that the active principle was present in a fertilized egg, but incorrectly extended this to the belief that sunlight, mud and decaying meat also had active principle.  Steady-state Theory asserts that the earth had no origin, has always been able to support life, has changed remarkably little, if at all. And species never originated, they always existed, they can vary in number or become extinct.

10 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Theories for the Origin of Life on Earth -2  Cosmozon Theory doesn’t offer a mechanism to account for the origin of life but favors the ides that it could have extraterrestrial origin. It doesn’t constitute a theory of origin as such but merely shifts the problem to elsewhere in the universe.  Theory of Biochemical Evolution states that life originated on earth sometime between 4.4 billion years ago, when water vapor first liquefiedand 2.7 billion years ago, when the ratio of stable isotopes of carbon ( 12 C and 13 C ), iron and sulfur points to a biogenic origin of minerals and sediments [ and molecular biomarkers indicate phytosynthesis. 12 C 13 C

11 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Origin of Basic Biological Molecules  In the 1920s, Oparin, a Russian Biochemist and Haldane, an english geneticist, independently suggested that “origin of life occurred along the origin and evolution of earth and its atmosphere.  The primordial atmosphere of earth had water, methane and ammonia from which biologically important macromolecules like proteins, lipids, nucleic acid etc, were formed by a series of changes called, a colloidal body called Coacervate.

12 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Experimental Support of Oparins Hypothesis-1  Staneley Miller and Harolod Urey, in 1953 provided experimental evidence to support Oparins hypothesis.  The apparatus was devised which simulated the conditions of the surface of prebiological earth and analyzed the molecular forms that arose

13 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Experimental Support of Oparins Hypothesis-2  The apparatus consists of exposing water vapour to electric shock of 75,00 volts (to represent the lightening of thunder stroms) in amonia and methane atmosphere.  After two weeks he found many organic compounds like carbohydrates and amino acids.  The results of Miller’s experiment were significant in demonstrating that it is possible to pass from the inorganic to a biologically important organic level.

14 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Proteinoid-1  Proteinoids, or thermal proteins, bubbles, are protein-like molecules formed inorganically from amino acids. Some theories of abiogenesis propose that proteinoids were a precursor to the first living Cells.  In the 1950s, the biochemist S. W. Fox and his co-workers developed peptides from dry mixtures of amino acids by heat.  S. Fox mixed all twenty amino acids together and heated them on volcanic rocks in an oven at 17 0 C for two hours.  The biochemist S. W. Fox and his co-workers discovered that phosphoric acid acted as a catalyst for this reaction.

15 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Proteinoid-2  The surface of rock was sprinkled with water and allowed to cool (so that thermal polyamino acids might came in contact with water).  When the residue was examined under microscope, million of small spheres called protenoids or microspheres were visualized.  The polypeptides in proteins consists of about eighteen amino acid residue, but because hey were produced spontaneously, each had a different amino acid sequence.

16 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Physical Properties of Proteinoid  The protenoids microspheres were spherical, microscopic and uniform diameter.  Their size remained in between the range of 0.5-0.7mµ daimeter.  They had a number of properties in common with coccoid bacteria and microfossils found in ancient geological strata.  The common properties were uniformity in size, stability in centrifugation, electron microscopy, extreme pH variation, etc.

17 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Structural Properties of Protenoid  Electron microscopic studies of protenoids microspheres have revealed concentric double layered boundaries around.  Through these boundaries diffusion of material from interior to exterior occure.  Protenoids has the ability of motility, growth, binary fission into two particles and a capacity of reproduction by budding and fragmentation.  Some of them stained by gram-postive stains, others by gram-negative stain.

18 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Enzyme Like activities of Protenoids  They are found to have catalytic activity, such as degradation of glucose.  This enzymatic activity of protenoids lost during heating.

19 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Proteinoid Acceptance  The model of protenoid for protocells is widely accepted because of the monomeric Origin.  This model suggest that protenoids are information and its shows the origin of communication which may be intercellular or intergenerational communication.  In fact, it suggests the simultaneous origin of both types of communication.

20 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… What we Learn…  You have learnt :  Different theories accounting for the origin of life on Earth  Origin of Basic Biological Molecules  Oparins Hypothesis  Proteinoid and their properties

21 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Critical Thinking Questions 1.How Life Originated ? 1.Are Proteinoids Living ? © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.21

22 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Hints For Critical Thinking Question 1.Different theories of origin of Life. 1.Characteristics of cells and Proteinoids. © 2007, YCMOU. All Rights Reserved.22

23 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… Study Tips  Book Title:The Living World Author: George Johnson  Book Title: Biological Science Author: Taylor, Green & Stout  Book Title: ABC Of Biology Publisher :Holy Faith  www.en.wikipedia.orgwww.en.wikipedia.org Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia

24 School of Science and Technology, Online Counseling Resource… End of the Presentation Thank You !


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