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Unit 6: A Property of Matter Inquiry Physics www.inquiryphysics.org Gravity Varies with Location and Mass Varies with Speed

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Gravity Varies with Location

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Chicago g = 9.803 m/s 2 Gravity Varies with Location

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North Pole g = 9.832 m/s 2 Chicago g = 9.803 m/s 2 100.3% of normal Gravity Varies with Location

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North Pole g = 9.832 m/s 2 Chicago g = 9.803 m/s 2 Panama Canal g = 9.782 m/s 2 99.8% of normal Gravity Varies with Location

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North Pole g = 9.832 m/s 2 Chicago g = 9.803 m/s 2 Panama Canal g = 9.782 m/s 2 Space station (242 miles up) g = 8.71 m/s 2 88.9% of normal Gravity Varies with Location

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Earth surface g = 9.8 m/s 2 Now we zoom away to show the Earth and moon scaled properly for their relative size and distance. 17% of Earth gravity Moon surface g = 1.62 m/s 2

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We can show the relative sizes of the planets, but not their relative distances on this scale. Mercury & Mars g = 3.7 m/s 2 38% of Earth Jupiter g = 24.8 m/s 2 250% of Earth Venus g = 8.9 m/s 2 90% of Earth Saturn g = 9.0 m/s 2 91% of Earth Uranus g = 8.7 m/s 2 89% of Earth Neptune g = 11.1 m/s 2 110% of Earth Pluto (dwarf planet) g = 0.58 m/s 2 6% of Earth

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Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity As relative speed increases… Objects contract (become narrower) in the direction of motion. Objects contract (become narrower) in the direction of motion. Time as measured by the moving object slows down relative to things at rest Time as measured by the moving object slows down relative to things at rest The mass of the moving object increases The mass of the moving object increases

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Mass Varies with Speed 0 m/s 0 mi/h Relative Speed: 0 m/s; 0 mi/h 0% Mass increase: 0% Fluffy at rest.

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Mass Varies with Speed 238 m/s 600 mi/h Relative Speed: 238 m/s; 600 mi/h below calculator’s limits Mass increase: below calculator’s limits Fast civilian plane: Cessna Citation X

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Mass Varies with Speed 980 m/s 2193 mi/h Relative Speed: 980 m/s; 2193 mi/h 0.000000000001% Mass increase: 0.000000000001% Fast military plane: Lockheed SR-71A Blackbird

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Mass Varies with Speed 11,082 m/s 24,790 mi/h Relative Speed: 11,082 m/s; 24,790 mi/h 0.00000000068% Mass increase: 0.00000000068% Fastest manned vehicle: Apollo 10 capsule upon re-entry

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Mass Varies with Speed 67,056 m/s 150,000 mi/h Relative Speed: 67,056 m/s; 150,000 mi/h 0.000000025% Mass increase: 0.000000025% Fastest large manmade object: Helios 2 Solar Probe

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Mass Varies with Speed 0 m/s 0/h Relative Speed: 0 m/s; 0/h % Mass increase: 0% Okay, let’s go crazy and see what it would theoretically look like from aboard Star Trek’s USS Enterprise as it approaches light speed. Here’s the normal view.

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Mass Varies with Speed 150,000,000 m/s 335,540,000 mi/h Relative Speed: 150,000,000 m/s; 335,540,000 mi/h % Mass increase: 16% At half the speed of light (0.5 c) we start to notice star clustering at the front of the ship due to the optical effects of space distortion.

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Mass Varies with Speed 225,000,000 m/s 503,310,000 mi/h Relative Speed: 225,000,000 m/s; 503,310,000 mi/h % Mass increase: 51% Here’s the view at 0.75 c

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Mass Varies with Speed 297,000,000 m/s 664,370,000 mi/h Relative Speed: 297,000,000 m/s; 664,370,000 mi/h 600% Mass increase: 600% At the view at 0.99 c.

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Mass Varies with Speed >299,792,458 m/s >670,616,629 mi/h Relative Speed: >299,792,458 m/s; >670,616,629 mi/h Mass increase: ∞ Sorry, but the “warp drive” that makes the ship go faster than light is broken, since the ship’s mass has become infinite and time has stopped.

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Inquiry Physics www.inquiryphysics.org All images used under the “educational fair use” provisions of copyright law. This presentation is Creative Commons licensed for free distribution for non-commercial use when attributed to Granger Meador

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