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SPH4UI: Lecture 2 “Free Body Diagrams”

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Review: Newton's Laws Law 1: An object subject to no external forces is at rest or moves with a constant velocity if viewed from an inertial reference frame. Law 2: For any object, F NET = ma Where F NET = F Law 3: Forces occur in action-reaction pairs, F A,B = - F B,A. Where F A,B is the force acting on object A due to its interaction with object B and vice-versa. F A,B = - F B,A. Where F A,B is the force acting on object A due to its interaction with object B and vice-versa. m is “mass” of object HondaHonda video Honda

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Gravity : Mass vs Weight What is the force of gravity exerted by the earth on a typical physics student? What is the force of gravity exerted by the earth on a typical physics student? Typical student mass m = 55kg Typical student mass m = 55kg g = 9.81 m/s 2. g = 9.81 m/s 2. F g = mg = (55 kg)x(9.81 m/s 2 ) F g = mg = (55 kg)x(9.81 m/s 2 ) F g = 540 N = WEIGHT F g = 540 N = WEIGHT F= -g F E,S = -mg F = F= g F S,E = F g = mg

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Act 1:Mass vs. Weight An astronaut on Earth kicks a bowling ball straight ahead and hurts his foot. A year later, the same astronaut kicks a bowling ball on the moon in the same manner with the same force. An astronaut on Earth kicks a bowling ball straight ahead and hurts his foot. A year later, the same astronaut kicks a bowling ball on the moon in the same manner with the same force. His foot hurts... His foot hurts... (a) more (b) less (c) the same Ouch!

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Act 1:Solution Act 1:Solution The masses of both the bowling ball and the astronaut remain the same, so his foot will feel the same resistance and hurt the same as before. The masses of both the bowling ball and the astronaut remain the same, so his foot will feel the same resistance and hurt the same as before. When his foot hits the ball it imparts an “impulse” that virtually instantaneously changes the velocity of the ball. When his foot hits the ball it imparts an “impulse” that virtually instantaneously changes the velocity of the ball. Ouch! time accel vel

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Act 1 :Solution m ball a = Force from foot on ball m ball a = Force from foot on ball action - reaction pair of forces action - reaction pair of forces Foot on ball Foot on ball Ball back on foot Ball back on foot | Force on foot | = m ball a | Force on foot | = m ball a doesn’t depend on weight doesn’t depend on weight time accel vel Ouch!

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Act 1: Solution However the weights of the bowling ball and the astronaut are less: However the weights of the bowling ball and the astronaut are less: Thus it would be easier for the astronaut to pick up the bowling ball on the Moon than on the Earth. Thus it would be easier for the astronaut to pick up the bowling ball on the Moon than on the Earth. W = mg Moon g Moon < g Earth Wow! That’s light.

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Principle of Equivalence Look at F=ma for gravitational force (it’s one type of force….) Look at F=ma for gravitational force (it’s one type of force….) F is the force e.g mg or something more complicated like F is the force e.g mg or something more complicated like GMm/R 2 GMm/R 2 ma is the consequence on motion (m is the coefficient of acceleration) ma is the consequence on motion (m is the coefficient of acceleration) Newton said force proportional to acceleration Newton said force proportional to acceleration Look, there is m on both sides of equation Look, there is m on both sides of equation MASS is the property of something that couples to gravity MASS is the property of something that couples to gravity F=mg or F= GMm/R 2 this is Gravitational mass F=mg or F= GMm/R 2 this is Gravitational mass And MASS quantifies how much inertia some motion has (mv=p), And MASS quantifies how much inertia some motion has (mv=p), F=ma, (its resistance to motion), this is inertial mass F=ma, (its resistance to motion), this is inertial mass These are two very different things for mass to do These are two very different things for mass to do Gravitational mass and intertial mass are equialent

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The Free Body Diagram Newton’s 2nd Law says that for an object F = ma. Newton’s 2nd Law says that for an object F = ma. Key phrase here is for an object. Key phrase here is for an object. Object has mass and experiences forces Object has mass and experiences forces So before we can apply F = ma to any given object we isolate the forces acting on this object: So before we can apply F = ma to any given object we isolate the forces acting on this object:

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The Free Body Diagram... Consider the following case as an example of this…. Consider the following case as an example of this…. What are the forces acting on the plank ? What are the forces acting on the plank ? Other forces act on F, W and E. focus on plank Other forces act on F, W and E. focus on plank P = plank F = floor W = wall E = earth F F W,P F F P,W F F P,F F F P,E F F F,P F F E,P

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The Free Body Diagram... Consider the following case Consider the following case What are the forces acting on the plank ? What are the forces acting on the plank ? Isolate the plank from the rest of the world. F F W,P F F P,W F F P,F F F P,E F F F,P F F E,P

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The Free Body Diagram... The forces acting on the plank should reveal themselves... The forces acting on the plank should reveal themselves... F F P,W F F P,F F F P,E

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Aside... In this example the plank is not moving... In this example the plank is not moving... It is certainly not accelerating! It is certainly not accelerating! So F NET = ma becomes F NET = 0 So F NET = ma becomes F NET = 0 This is the basic idea behind statics, which we will discuss later. This is the basic idea behind statics, which we will discuss later. FFF F P,W + F P,F + F P,E = 0 F F P,W F F P,F F F P,E

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The Normal Force When person is holding the bag above the table he must supply a force. When the bag is placed on the table, the table supplies the force that holds the bag on it That force is perpendicular or normal to the surface of table

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Example Example dynamics problem: Example dynamics problem: A box of mass m = 2 kg slides on a horizontal frictionless floor. A force F x = 10 N pushes on it in the x direction. What is the acceleration of the box? Fi F = F x i a a = ? m y x

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Example... Draw a picture showing all of the forces Draw a picture showing all of the forces F F F B,F F F F,B F F B,E F F E,B y x

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Example... Draw a picture showing all of the forces. Draw a picture showing all of the forces. Isolate the forces acting on the block. Isolate the forces acting on the block. F F F B,F F F F,B F g F B,E = mg F F E,B y x

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Example... Draw a picture showing all of the forces. Draw a picture showing all of the forces. Isolate the forces acting on the block. Isolate the forces acting on the block. Draw a free body diagram. Draw a free body diagram. F F F B,F gmggmg y x

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Example... Draw a picture showing all of the forces. Draw a picture showing all of the forces. Isolate the forces acting on the block. Isolate the forces acting on the block. Draw a free body diagram. Draw a free body diagram. Solve Newton’s equations for each component. Solve Newton’s equations for each component. F X = ma X F X = ma X F B,F - mg = ma Y F B,F - mg = ma Y F F F B,F gmggmg y x

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Example... F X = ma X F X = ma X So a X = F X / m = (10 N)/(2 kg) = 5 m/s 2. So a X = F X / m = (10 N)/(2 kg) = 5 m/s 2. F B,F - mg = ma Y F B,F - mg = ma Y But a Y = 0 But a Y = 0 So F B,F = mg. So F B,F = mg. The vertical component of the force of the floor on the object (F B,F ) is often called the Normal Force (N). The vertical component of the force of the floor on the object (F B,F ) is often called the Normal Force (N). Since a Y = 0, N = mg in this case. Since a Y = 0, N = mg in this case. FXFX N mg y x

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Example Recap FXFX N = mg mg a X = F X / m y x

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Analyzing forces Free body diagram Tension in a rope = magnitude of the force that the rope exerts on object. Free body diagram

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System of Interest

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f - All forces opposing the motion System 1: Acceleration of the professor and the cart System 2: Force the professor exerts on the cart

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A traffic light weighing hangs from a cable tied to two other cables fastened to a support as shown in the figure. Example

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A crate of mass m is placed on a frictionless plane of incline (a)Determine the acceleration of the crate.

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Example Attwood’s machine. Two objects of mass m 1 and m 2 are hung over a pulley. (a)Determine the magnitude of the acceleration of the two objects and the tension in the cord.

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W A B C W BC BA Free Body Diagram

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Question Consider a person standing in an elevator that is accelerating upward. The upward normal force N exerted by the elevator floor on the person is a) larger than b) identical to c) less than the downward weight W of the person. Person is accelerating upwards - net upwards force is non zero mg N Free Body Diagram of the person:

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Act 2 : Normal Force A block of mass m rests on the floor of an elevator that is accelerating upward. What is the relationship between the force due to gravity and the normal force on the block? A block of mass m rests on the floor of an elevator that is accelerating upward. What is the relationship between the force due to gravity and the normal force on the block? m (a) N > mg (b) N = mg (c) N < mg a

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Act 2 : Solution m N mg All forces are acting in the y direction, so use: F total = ma N - mg = ma N = ma + mg therefore N > mg a

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Understanding You are driving a car up a hill with constant velocity. On a piece of paper, draw a Free Body Diagram (FBD) for the car. How many forces are acting on the car? 1 2 3 4 5 weight/gravity (W) normal (F N ) engine/motor (F car_on_road (action) ==> (reaction) F road on car ) W F road on car FNFN V correct True if accelerating also

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Understanding The net force on the same car is 1. Zero 2. Pointing up the hill 3. Pointing down the hill 4. Pointing vertically downward 5. Pointing vertically upward W F road on car FNFN V W FNFN F = ma = 0 correct

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What is the tension in the string? A) T

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Pulley II What is the tension in the string? A) T

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Tools: Ropes & Strings Can be used to pull from a distance. Can be used to pull from a distance. Tension (T) at a certain position in a rope is the magnitude of the force acting across a cross-section of the rope at that position. Tension (T) at a certain position in a rope is the magnitude of the force acting across a cross-section of the rope at that position. The force you would feel if you cut the rope and grabbed the ends. The force you would feel if you cut the rope and grabbed the ends. An action-reaction pair. An action-reaction pair. cut T T T L R T = F R,L T = F L,R Tension doesn’t have a direction When you hook up a wire to an object the direction is determined by geometry of the hook up

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Tools: Ropes & Strings... Consider a horizontal segment of rope having mass m: Consider a horizontal segment of rope having mass m: Draw a free-body diagram (ignore gravity). Draw a free-body diagram (ignore gravity). Using Newton’s 2nd law (in x direction): F NET = T 2 - T 1 = ma Using Newton’s 2nd law (in x direction): F NET = T 2 - T 1 = ma So if m = 0 (i.e. the rope is light) then T 1 = T 2 So if m = 0 (i.e. the rope is light) then T 1 = T 2 And if a = 0 then T 1 = T 2 And if a = 0 then T 1 = T 2 Otherwise, T is a function of position Otherwise, T is a function of position T1T1 T2T2 m ax

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Tools: Ropes & Strings... An ideal (massless) rope has constant tension along the rope. An ideal (massless) rope has constant tension along the rope. If a rope has mass, the tension can vary along the rope If a rope has mass, the tension can vary along the rope For example, a heavy rope hanging from the ceiling... For example, a heavy rope hanging from the ceiling... We will deal mostly with ideal massless ropes. We will deal mostly with ideal massless ropes. T = T g T = 0 TT

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Tools: Ropes & Strings... What is force acting on mass – isolate the mass!!! What is force acting on mass – isolate the mass!!! The direction of the force provided by a rope is along the direction of the rope: The direction of the force provided by a rope is along the direction of the rope: (this is a massless rope) (this is a massless rope) mg T m Since a y = 0 (box not moving), T = mg

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Act 3 : Force and acceleration A fish is being yanked upward out of the water using a fishing line that breaks when the tension reaches 180 N. The string snaps when the acceleration of the fish is observed to be is 12.2 m/s 2. What is the mass of the fish? A fish is being yanked upward out of the water using a fishing line that breaks when the tension reaches 180 N. The string snaps when the acceleration of the fish is observed to be is 12.2 m/s 2. What is the mass of the fish? m = ? a = 12.2 m/s 2 snap ! (a) 14.8 kg (b) 18.4 kg (c) 8.2 kg

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Act 3 : Solution: Draw a Free Body Diagram!! Draw a Free Body Diagram!! T mg m = ? a = 12.2 m/s 2 l Use Newton’s 2nd law in the upward direction: F TOT = ma T - mg = ma T = ma + mg = m(g+a)

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Tools: Pegs & Pulleys Used to change the direction of forces Used to change the direction of forces An ideal massless pulley or ideal smooth peg will change the direction of an applied force without altering the magnitude: An ideal massless pulley or ideal smooth peg will change the direction of an applied force without altering the magnitude: FF1FF1 ideal peg or pulley FF2FF2 FF | F 1 | = | F 2 |

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Tools: Pegs & Pulleys Used to change the direction of forces Used to change the direction of forces An ideal massless pulley or ideal smooth peg will change the direction of an applied force without altering the magnitude: An ideal massless pulley or ideal smooth peg will change the direction of an applied force without altering the magnitude: mg T m T = mg F W,S = mg

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Scales: Springs can be calibrated to tell us the applied force. Springs can be calibrated to tell us the applied force. We can calibrate scales to read Newtons, or... We can calibrate scales to read Newtons, or... Fishing scales usually read weight in kg or lbs. Fishing scales usually read weight in kg or lbs. 0 2 4 6 8 1 lb = 4.45 N How many Newtons is 1 kg?

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mmm (a) (b) (c) (a) 0 lbs. (b) 4 lbs. (c) 8 lbs. (1) (2) ? Act 4 : Force and acceleration A block weighing 4 lbs is hung from a rope attached to a scale. The scale is then attached to a wall and reads 4 lbs. What will the scale read when it is instead attached to another block weighing 4 lbs? A block weighing 4 lbs is hung from a rope attached to a scale. The scale is then attached to a wall and reads 4 lbs. What will the scale read when it is instead attached to another block weighing 4 lbs?

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Act 4 : Solution: Draw a Free Body Diagram of one of the blocks!! Draw a Free Body Diagram of one of the blocks!! l Use Newton’s 2nd Law in the y direction: F TOT = 0 T - mg = 0 T = mg = 4 lbs. mg T m T = mg a = 0 since the blocks are stationary

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Act 4 : Solution: The scale reads the tension in the rope, which is T = 4 lbs in both cases! The scale reads the tension in the rope, which is T = 4 lbs in both cases! mmm T T T T T T T

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