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International Astronomical Union / Office of Astronomy for Development Kevin Govender – J.-C. Mauduit – OAD

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Presentation on theme: "International Astronomical Union / Office of Astronomy for Development Kevin Govender – J.-C. Mauduit – OAD"— Presentation transcript:

1 International Astronomical Union / Office of Astronomy for Development Kevin Govender – kg@astro4dev.org J.-C. Mauduit – jcm@astro4dev.org OAD www.astro4dev.org IAU: International Astronomical Union NRF: National Research Foundation

2 Dr. Jean-Christophe Mauduit IAU Office of Astronomy for Development From planets to superclusters of galaxies The different scales of the Universe National Research Foundation

3 From the Solar system to the Milky Way…

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6 The blue planet: Earth Radius ~ 6 378 km Atmosphere < 600 km Troposphere < 15 km

7 From the Earth to the Moon Earth-Moon distance: 384 401 km 30 Earth planets one after the other ~ 2 months of high speed train Apollo missions : less than 2 days (Speed of ~ 8000 km/h to ~ 40 000 km/h)

8 Space shuttle take-off

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10 The crescent Earth from the Moon

11 You are here ! As imaged from the red planet, Mars

12 Our star, the Sun Characteristics: Radius~ 695,000 km Mass = 1.9891×10 30 kg Volume = 1.41×10 18 km³ Luminosity = 3.827×10 26 W Comparison to Earth: 109 × Earth 332 950 × Earth 1 300 000 × Earth 9.15 × 10 16 tons of TNT / s

13 Distances in the Solar system The astronomical unit (A.U.) is the Earth-Sun distance : 1 A.U. = 149 597 871 km Voyager, The furthest probe sent by humans is at 12,5 billion kilometres of the Earth, hence 82 A.U. of us… Sun 0 109 Mercury 0,39 0,38 Venus 0,72 0,95 Earth 1,0 1,00 Mars 1,5 0,53 Jupiter 5,2 11 Saturn 9,5 9 Uranus 19,2 4 Neptune 30,1 4 Pluto 39,5 0,18 Mass Distance

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21 The Solar system, as seen from the Voyager probe Credits : Sonde Voyager

22 The speed of light The Sun is at ~ 8 light-minutes The Voyager probe is at ~ 12 light-hours c ~ 300 000 km/s Light-minutes Astronomical Units Average planet distances to the Sun 1 Light-year = 63240 Astronomical Units = 9,46 x 10 12 km

23 The stars in the sky are similar to our Sun But so far away that we see them as points of light

24 Located at 4.22 Light-year from the Sun. Its light takes about 4 years to reach us Proxima Centaurus, The closest star from our Sun

25 Stars sometimes form clusters Messier 3 (M3) Star cluster D (Sun– M3) ~ 34 000 light years

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27 Before After The Milky Way The city sky

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29 A little geography of our Milky Way

30 Magellanic clouds Galactic bulb Spiral arms The Milky Way, as seen from the inside Two satellite galaxies of the Milky Way

31 The extragalactic domain

32 The extragalactic « nebulae » M75 Star clusters belong to our Galaxy M32 M101 But these other diffuse objects are galaxies

33 Voie Lactée ~ 160 000 l.y. ~ 2.5 million l.y.. ~ 200 000 l.y.

34 Our greatest neighbor, the “Andromeda” galaxy D (Milky Way – M31) ~ 2.5 million l.y. r ~ 50000 l.y.

35 M31 fait partie du groupe “ Local ” de galaxies … 1 Million Light Years Our Galaxy

36 From Earth… To the Local Group of galaxies

37 M74 : 30 million l.y.

38 Sombrero : 40 million l.y.

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41 A compact group 500 000 l.y. Hickson compact group 79

42 Virgo cluster At ~ 60 Million Light Years 10 million l.y.

43 The large-scale structure of the Universe

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45 Abell cluster 1689 10 million l.y.

46 Hubble Ultra-Deep Field How many galaxies on this image? !

47 2D view of galaxies in the sky as observed in infrared … to the large-scale structure of the Universe From the Perseus cluster…

48 ~ 1 Billion l.y. Large galaxy surveys generally focus on small portions of the sky

49 3D Diagram ~ 163 million l.y. Scale: 100 Million l.y. ~ 260 Millions l.y. The local group of galaxies within the local supercluster

50 The most distant galaxies ever observed ~ 11 Billion years

51 The “most distant” picture of the Universe at its “youngest”

52 The “beginning” of the Universe

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54 Thank you!

55 Vidéos et Images d’astronomie

56 Loi de Hubble (1929) v= H0 d Edwin Hubble Galaxie proche : Galaxie distante :

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58 From the ground From space M51 and its companion Pairs of galaxies

59 In this computer simulation, one can see the formation of the large scale structures of the Universe

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64 Groupe de galaxies : des galaxies en intéraction ? Du visible … à la radio !

65 Elliptiques Spirales Les différents types de galaxies simples barrées


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