3 A. Our Solar System The Planets: Neighbors in Space At least 9 exist Mercury, Venus, Earth, & Mars are closest to the sunEarth is about 93 million miles from the sunEarth is 3rd planet from the sunFarthest from the sun are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and PlutoJupiter is the largestEarth ranks 5th in sizePluto is the smallest
4 Solar System (cont.) Asteroids, Comets, and Meteoroids Asteroids are small, irregularly shaped objectsComets are made of icy dust particles and frozen gases (have tails)Meteoroids are pieces of space debrisChunks of rock and iron
5 B. Getting to Know Earth Earth is not a perfect sphere Its wider around the center than from top to bottomThe difference is less than 1%Water, Land, and AirAbout 70% of the earth’s surface is water – hydrosphereAbout 30% is land – lithosphereAir we breathe (78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% other) – atmospherePeople, animals, & plants that live on the earth - biosphere
6 Getting to Know Earth (cont.) LandformsPgsSeven Continents – be able to name these!The part of the continent that extends under water – continental shelf
7 Getting to Know Earth (cont.) Earth’s Heights & DepthsHighest Point – Mt. Everest (South Asia) – 29,035ftLowest dry land point – Shore of the Dead Sea (Southwest Asia) – 1,349ft below sea levelDeepest Depression (under the sea) – Mariana Trench (southwest of Guam) – 35,827ft deep
9 A. Earth’s Structure A Layered Planet Three Layers Core (Inner & Outer), Mantle, Crust
10 Earth’s Structure (Cont.) Plate MovementMany scientists believe that in the past, there was one giant super continent called PangaeaOver millions of years, it broke apart into smaller continents that we know todayWe will watch the video “Catastrophic Past”
11 Earth’s Structure (Cont.) The earth’s plates continue to move and cause change, as well as natural disastersPush-up mountains, create volcanoes, & produce earthquakesPlate Tectonics
12 B. Internal Forces of Change Colliding & Spreading PlatesFolds & Faults – know the difference
13 Internal Forces of Change (Cont.) EarthquakesRing of Fire – Pacific Ocean – most earthquake-prone areas on the planetVolcanic EruptionAlso occurs along the Ring of Fire
14 C. External Forces of Change WeatheringBreak down of rocks into smaller piecesWind ErosionMovement of dust, sand, & soilGlacial ErosionWater ErosionFrom rain, rivers, streams, & oceans
16 A. Water Cycle 4 Stages Evaporation Condensation Precipitation Run-off/GroundwaterAlthough these stages work in a continuous motion, please learn them in this order!
17 B. Bodies of Salt Water Oceans Seas, Gulfs, and Bays About 97% of the earth’s water is found in the oceans!4 Oceans – Know These!Seas, Gulfs, and BaysOcean Water to Drinking Water97% of the world’s water is too salty for us to useDesalination is the process of removing salt from the water so we can use it.
18 C. Bodies of Freshwater 3% of the earth’s water is freshwater 2% (of this 3) is frozen in glaciersAnother .5% is undergroundWhat does that leave us?Lakes, Streams, and RiversGroundwaterImportant source of water (sometimes found in wells)