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1 Chapter 2 The Earth. 2 I. Section One Planet Earth.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Chapter 2 The Earth. 2 I. Section One Planet Earth."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Chapter 2 The Earth

2 2 I. Section One Planet Earth

3 3 A. Our Solar System  The Planets: Neighbors in Space At least 9 existAt least 9 exist Mercury, Venus, Earth, & Mars are closest to the sunMercury, Venus, Earth, & Mars are closest to the sun  Earth is about 93 million miles from the sun  Earth is 3 rd planet from the sun Farthest from the sun are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and PlutoFarthest from the sun are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto Jupiter is the largestJupiter is the largest Earth ranks 5 th in sizeEarth ranks 5 th in size Pluto is the smallestPluto is the smallest

4 4 Solar System (cont.)  Asteroids, Comets, and Meteoroids Asteroids are small, irregularly shaped objectsAsteroids are small, irregularly shaped objects Comets are made of icy dust particles and frozen gases (have tails)Comets are made of icy dust particles and frozen gases (have tails) Meteoroids are pieces of space debrisMeteoroids are pieces of space debris  Chunks of rock and iron

5 5 B. Getting to Know Earth  Earth is not a perfect sphere Its wider around the center than from top to bottomIts wider around the center than from top to bottom  The difference is less than 1%  Water, Land, and Air About 70% of the earth’s surface is water – hydrosphereAbout 70% of the earth’s surface is water – hydrosphere About 30% is land – lithosphereAbout 30% is land – lithosphere Air we breathe (78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% other) – atmosphereAir we breathe (78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% other) – atmosphere People, animals, & plants that live on the earth - biospherePeople, animals, & plants that live on the earth - biosphere

6 6 Getting to Know Earth (cont.)  Landforms Pgs Pgs Seven Continents – be able to name these!Seven Continents – be able to name these! The part of the continent that extends under water – continental shelfThe part of the continent that extends under water – continental shelf

7 7 Getting to Know Earth (cont.)  Earth’s Heights & Depths Highest Point – Mt. Everest (South Asia) – 29,035ftHighest Point – Mt. Everest (South Asia) – 29,035ft Lowest dry land point – Shore of the Dead Sea (Southwest Asia) – 1,349ft below sea levelLowest dry land point – Shore of the Dead Sea (Southwest Asia) – 1,349ft below sea level Deepest Depression (under the sea) – Mariana Trench (southwest of Guam) – 35,827ft deepDeepest Depression (under the sea) – Mariana Trench (southwest of Guam) – 35,827ft deep

8 8 II. Section Two Forces of Change

9 9 A. Earth’s Structure  A Layered Planet Three LayersThree Layers  Core (Inner & Outer), Mantle, Crust

10 10 Earth’s Structure (Cont.)  Plate Movement Many scientists believe that in the past, there was one giant super continent called PangaeaMany scientists believe that in the past, there was one giant super continent called Pangaea  Over millions of years, it broke apart into smaller continents that we know today  We will watch the video “Catastrophic Past”

11 11 Earth’s Structure (Cont.) The earth’s plates continue to move and cause change, as well as natural disasters  Push-up mountains, create volcanoes, & produce earthquakes Plate Tectonics

12 12 B. Internal Forces of Change  Colliding & Spreading Plates  Folds & Faults – know the difference

13 13 Internal Forces of Change (Cont.)  Earthquakes Ring of Fire – Pacific Ocean – most earthquake-prone areas on the planetRing of Fire – Pacific Ocean – most earthquake-prone areas on the planet  Volcanic Eruption Also occurs along the Ring of FireAlso occurs along the Ring of Fire

14 14 C. External Forces of Change  Weathering Break down of rocks into smaller piecesBreak down of rocks into smaller pieces  Wind Erosion Movement of dust, sand, & soilMovement of dust, sand, & soil  Glacial Erosion  Water Erosion From rain, rivers, streams, & oceansFrom rain, rivers, streams, & oceans

15 15 III. Section III Earth’s Water

16 16 A. Water Cycle  4 Stages EvaporationEvaporation CondensationCondensation PrecipitationPrecipitation Run-off/GroundwaterRun-off/Groundwater  Although these stages work in a continuous motion, please learn them in this order!

17 17 B. Bodies of Salt Water  Oceans About 97% of the earth’s water is found in the oceans! 4 Oceans – Know These!  Seas, Gulfs, and Bays  Ocean Water to Drinking Water 97% of the world’s water is too salty for us to use Desalination is the process of removing salt from the water so we can use it.

18 18 C. Bodies of Freshwater  3% of the earth’s water is freshwater 2% (of this 3) is frozen in glaciers2% (of this 3) is frozen in glaciers Another.5% is undergroundAnother.5% is underground What does that leave us?What does that leave us?  Lakes, Streams, and Rivers  Groundwater Important source of water (sometimes found in wells)Important source of water (sometimes found in wells)


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