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Science Mission Directorate NASA: Earth Science Initiatives and Plans Presentation to AMS Corporate Forum March 22, 2007 Jack A. Kaye, Ph.D. Associate.

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Presentation on theme: "Science Mission Directorate NASA: Earth Science Initiatives and Plans Presentation to AMS Corporate Forum March 22, 2007 Jack A. Kaye, Ph.D. Associate."— Presentation transcript:

1 Science Mission Directorate NASA: Earth Science Initiatives and Plans Presentation to AMS Corporate Forum March 22, 2007 Jack A. Kaye, Ph.D. Associate Director for Research Earth- Science Division

2 2 NASA’s Mission and Vision NASA will continue the objectives for space exploration established in the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958. To pioneer the future in space exploration, Scientific discovery, and aeronautics research. NASA has embraced President George W. Bush’s directive, A Renewed Spirit of Discovery: The President’s Vision for Space Exploration, as the Agency’s Vision. Explore the solar system and beyond; Return humans to the Moon in the next decade; Ultimately send humans to Mars and beyond; Enhance understanding of the planets; and Ask new questions and answer questions as old as humankind.

3 3 NASA’s Strategic Goals: 2006 Through 2016 Strategic Goal 1: Fly the Shuttle as safely as possible until its retirement, not later than 2010. Strategic Goal 2: Complete the International Space Station in a manner consistent with NASA’s International Partner commitments and the needs of human exploration. Strategic Goal 3: Develop a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics consistent with the redirection of the human spaceflight program to focus on exploration. Strategic Goal 4: Bring a new Crew Exploration Vehicle into service as soon as possible after Shuttle retirement. Strategic Goal 5: Encourage the pursuit of appropriate partnerships with the emerging commercial space sector. Strategic Goal 6: Establish a lunar return program having the maximum possible utility for later missions to Mars and other destinations.

4 4 Management & Policy Division Dir. (R. Maizel) Deputy (Vacant) Heliophysics Division Dir. (R. Fisher) Deputy (C. Gay) Astrophysics Division Dir. (R. Howard-Act) Deputy (Vacant) Planetary Science Division Dir. (J. Green) Dep. (J. Adams) Associate Administrator (AA) (C. Hartman, acting)* Deputy AA (C. Hartman) Chief Scientist (P. Hertz) Deputy AA for Programs (M. Luther) Chief Engineer (K. Ledbetter) Deputy AA for Technology (G. Komar) Earth Science Division Dir. (M. Freilich) Deputy (B. Cramer) Budget (C. Tupper) Policy (Vacant) Administration (Vacant) Applied Science (T. Fryberger) Research (J. Kaye) Flight (T. Hammer-Act) Mars Program (D. McCuistion) Science Mission Directorate Organization * A. Stern arrives 4/2/07

5 5 NASA’s Science Goals Study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs. (Earth Science) Understand the Sun and its effects on Earth and the solar system. (Heliophysics) Advance scientific knowledge of the origin and history of the solar system, the potential for life elsewhere, and the hazards and resources present as humans explore space. (Planetary Science) Discover the origin, structure, evolution, and destiny of the universe, and search for Earth-like planets. (Astrophysics)

6 6 Broader Governmental Context NASA Earth Science Supports Multiple Presidential Initiatives Climate Change Science Program Earth Observations Ocean Action Plan Congressional Direction Addresses Several Aspects, most notably linkage between NASA and NOAA, but also other areas (ozone, land cover) NASA is part of NPOESS program, in particular through the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) mission

7 7 Earth Science Framework

8 8 Earth Science Questions & Focus Areas How is the global Earth system changing? What are the primary causes of change in the Earth system? How does the Earth system respond to natural and human- induced changes? What are the consequences for human civilization? How will the Earth system change in the future? Atmospheric Composition Weather Carbon Cycle & Ecosystems Water & Energy Cycle Climate Variability & Change Earth Surface & Interior Science Focus Areas How is the Earth changing, and what are the consequences for life on Earth?

9 Landsat Tools - 14 Major Satellites in Orbit TRMM Jason Aqua Terra GRACE Cloudsat* CALIPSO* SORCE Aura ICESat EO-1 NOAA POES QuikSCAT *Launched Spring, 2006 NOAA GOES

10 10 OMI – absorbing aerosol aerosol profiles, cloud tops thick clouds drizzle polarization, multi-angle CERES: TOA fluxes MODIS: cloud r e,  AMSR: LWP O 2 A-band The “A-Train” Moving Toward the Future of Global Integrated Earth Observation

11 11 NPOESS Preparatory Project (2009)^ Strategic mission - Systematic measurement Required for continuity of several key climate measurements between EOS and NPOESS Landsat Data Continuity Mission (2010)^ Strategic mission - Systematic measurement Required for continuity of long-term global land cover change data; plan for post-LDCM acquisition operational agency in work Ocean Surface Topography Mission (2008)*^ Strategic mission - Systematic measurement Required for continuity ocean altimetry; planned as part of a transition to operational agencies Glory (2008) Strategic - Initializes a systematic measurement Addresses high priority objective of the US Climate Change Science Program Orbiting Carbon Observatory (2008) Competed mission - Earth System Science Pathfinder First global measurement of CO2 from space Aquarius (2009)* Competed mission - Earth System Science Pathfinder First global measurement of sea surface salinity from space Global Precipitation Measurement (2013)* Initializes a systematic measurement Extend spatial coverage to global and temporal coverage to every 3 hours with constellation Earth System Science Pathfinder – TBD (2014) Competed mission - 2008 solicitation for 2014 launch; subsequent TBD Could address one of the future representative mission elements below; focus and relative priority to be determined using decadal survey Earth Science Mission Priorities and Rationale * Represents International Partnership ^ Represents Interagency Partnership

12 12 Earth Science Flight Mission Summary

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14 14  New Horizons  ST-5  STEREO  Cloudsat  CALIPSO  GOES-N  ST-6  TWINS-A  Hinode  THEMIS AIM Phoenix GLAST Dawn GOES-O TWINS-B Kepler IBEX SDO OCO Glory HST SM-4 OSTM GOES-P CINDI Chandrayaan-1 Herschel Planck NPP MSL WISE ST-8 Aquarius NOAA-N’ ST-7 SOFIA* 20062007200820092010 NASA Mission on US ELV NASA Mission on STS International Mission with Substantial NASA Contribution Joint NASA - International Partner Mission Reimbursable for NOAA 2011 RBSP Juno LDCM Mars Scout 2 20132012 Discovery 12 MMS MSO Discovery 13 MIDEX-7 GPM Core JWST As of 2/17/07 GPM Const ESSP-7 New Frontiers 3 SMEX-12 2014  = Successfully launched to date * = First science flight DoD Mission with Substantial NASA Contribution NASA Science Mission Launches (CY06-CY14)

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17 17 NASA Advisory Council Chair: Harrison H. Schmitt Aeronautics Committee Chair: Neil Armstrong Audit and Finance Committee Chair: Bob Hanisee Exploration Committee Chair: James Abrahamson Human Capital Committee Chair: Gerald Kulcinski Science Committee Chair: Edward David Astrophysics Subcommittee (David Spergel) Earth Science Subcommittee (Daniel Jacob) Heliophysics Subcommittee (Alan Title) Planetary Science Subcommittee (Sean Solomon) Planetary Protection Subcommittee (Ronald Atlas) Space Operations Committee Chair: Paul Robinson Ex-Officio Members Ray Colladay Lennard Fisk Ad Hoc Biomedical Committee (David Longnecker) NASA Advisory Council Structure

18 18 NAC Science Committee Members Dr. Edward David [Chair] - NAS/NAE, EDD Inc. Dr. Owen Garriott - Skylab & Spacelab astronaut Dr. Neil DeGrasse Tyson - AMNH- NY Dr. Bradley Jolliff - Washington U/St. Louis Dr. Mark Robinson - Arizona St. Univ. Dr. Byron Tapley - U. Texas Dr. Lennard Fisk - NRC Space Studies Board chair (ex officio)

19 19 Earth System Subcommittee Membership Earth System Subcommittee has been reconstituted and met several times - membership list: R. Avissar Duke U.P. MatraiBigelow L J. ChristyUAHJ. McCrearyU. Hawaii L. CurranYale U. B. MinsterUCSD J. FoleyU. Wisc.M. RamseyU. Pitts. J. HansenGISSK. SarabandiU. Mich. D. Jacob (chair)Harvard U.M. SimonsCaltech G. JenkinsHoward U.K. SteffenU. Colo. J. JensenU. S. Carol.E. ZipserU. Utah

20 20 NRC Decadal Survey NRC Decadal Survey was requested by NASA (with NOAA and USGS) for first time - Having this will bring Earth Science in line with other SMD divisions - One Difference for ESD is not having prior roadmap, so we will need to constitute/anticipate Interim report was released in 2005 and made several recommendations after noting significant cuts to program; NASA ability to respond was limited by budget -Proceed with the GPM and the Atmospheric Soundings from Geostationary Orbit (GIFTS) missions; -Evaluate plans for transferring needed capabilities to NPOESS (Ocean Vector Winds, LDCM, GLORY); -Develop a technology base for future Earth observation; -Reinvigorate the NASA Earth Explorer Missions Program; -Strengthen research and analysis programs; -Strengthen baseline climate observations and climate data records. Final report released January, 2007

21 21 Decadal Survey Recommendations Overarching Recommendation -The U.S. government, working in concert with the private sector, academe, the public, and its international partners, should renew its investment in Earth observing systems and restore its leadership in Earth science and applications. Agency Recommendations -NOAA-restore key climate, environmental, and weather capabilities to NPOESS mission  Total solar irradiation and Earth radiation  Passive ocean surface vector winds and sea-surface temperatures  Ozone Monitoring and Profiling Suite (OMPS) -NOAA, working with NASA, restore capability to make high-temporal and vertical-resolution measurements of temperature and water vapor on GOES- R  Complete GIFTS, orbit via launch of opportunity and/or  Extend the HES Study focusing on cost-effective approaches to achieving essential sounding capabilities in the GOES-R time frame -NASA-continuity of precipitation and land cover  Launching GPM by 2012  Obtaining a replacement to Landsat 7 data before 2012.  The committee also recommends that NASA continue to seek cost-effective, innovative means for obtaining land cover change information.

22 22 Main Recommendation (for next decade) NOAA and NASA should undertake a set of 17 recommended missions, phased over the next decade NOAA research to operations - Vector ocean winds - GPS radio occultation temperature, water vapor and electron density profiles - Total solar irradiance/and Earth Radiation (NPP) and restored to NPOESS NASA -15 missions in small, medium and large categories -Support R&A, applied science, technology, geodetic networks

23 23 Decadal Survey MissionMission DescriptionOrbitInstruments $ Estimate Timeframe 2010 – 2013, Missions listed by cost CLARREO (NASA portion) Solar and Earth radiation: spectrally resolved forcing and response of the climate system LEO, Precessing Absolute, spectrally- resolved interferometer $200 M SMAPSoil moisture and freeze/thaw for weather and water cycle processes LEO, SSOL-band radar L-band radiometer $300 M ICESat-IIIce sheet height changes for climate change diagnosis LEO, Non- SSO Laser altimeter$300 M DESDynISurface and ice sheet deformation for understanding natural hazards and climate; vegetation structure for ecosystem health LEO, SSOL-band InSAR Laser altimeter $700 M Timeframe: 2013 – 2016, Missions listed by cost HyspIRILand surface composition for agriculture and mineral characterization; vegetation types for ecosystem health LEO, SSOHyperspectral spectrometer $300 M ASCENDSDay/night, all-latitude, all-season CO 2 column integrals for climate emissions LEO, SSOMultifrequency laser$400 M SWOTOcean, lake, and river water levels for ocean and inland water dynamics LEO, SSOKa-band wide swath radar C-band radar $450 M GEO- CAPE Atmospheric gas columns for air quality forecasts; ocean color for coastal ecosystem health and climate emissions GEOHigh and low spatial resolution hyperspectral imagers $550 M ACEAerosol and cloud profiles for climate and water cycle; ocean color for open ocean biogeochemistry LEO, SSOBackscatter lidar Multiangle polarimeter Doppler radar $800 M 17 Missions ( Pink = <$900 M; Green = $300-$600 M; Blue = <$300 M)

24 24 *Cloud-independent, high temporal resolution, lower accuracy SST to complement, not replace, global operational high-accuracy SST measurement Timeframe: 2016 -2020, Missions listed by cost LISTLand surface topography for landslide hazards and water runoff LEO, SSOLaser altimeter$300 M PATHHigh frequency, all-weather temperature and humidity soundings for weather forecasting and SST* GEOMW array spectrometer $450 M GRACE-IIHigh temporal resolution gravity fields for tracking large-scale water movement LEO, SSOMicrowave or laser ranging system $450 M SCLPSnow accumulation for fresh water availability LEO, SSOKu and X-band radars K and Ka-band radiometers $500 M GACMOzone and related gases for intercontinental air quality and stratospheric ozone layer prediction LEO, SSOUV spectrometer IR spectrometer Microwave limb sounder $600 M 3D- Winds (Demo) Tropospheric winds for weather forecasting and pollution transport LEO, SSODoppler lidar$650 M 17 Missions (Pink = <$900 M; Green = $300-$600 M; Blue = <$300 M)

25 25 Continuity for Current Measurements oNPOESS has key role to play in continuing current measurement capability, although significant climate-related capability was lost with the Nunn-McCurdy certification while continuity with operational sensors was protected Terra/Aqua imaging/sounding to be continued with - NPP, C1, … (but note loss of MODIS-class imagery in AM orbit) Aura ozone column - NPP, … oClimate Observing Capability lost with N-M process: SORCE Total Solar Irradiance - TSIS (but NASA has Glory for 2008) CERES Earth Radiation Budget - ERBS (last NASA CERES instrument to fly aboard C-1, likely with gap from Aqua) Ozone vertical profile - OMPS limb instrument (returning?) Jason/OSTM Sea Surface Altimetry - ALT (gap after OSTM in 2008) QuikScat Ocean Surface Winds - CMIS instrument to be replaced; expect passive wind sensing capability Aerosol Polarimetry - APS (no follow-on to Glory) oOSTP has asked NASA (with NOAA) to prepare white paper on climate impact of N-M certification - this was briefed to them and agencies are evaluating potential implementation approaches- NRC will do NPOESS- focused quick follow-up to Dec. Surv.

26 26 Earth Science Opportunities in ROSES 2007 oROSES has numerous elements, with opening dates throughout the year, organized by division Appendix Science Program Element NOI/Step-1* Due Proposal Due A.2 Land Cover/Land Use Change6/11/2007 10/1/2007 A.3 Carbon Cycle Science4/6/2007 6/6/2007 A.4 Terrestrial Ecology 7/19/2007 9/12/2007 A.5 Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry TBDTBD A.6Physical Oceanography4/27/20076/18/2007 A.7 Ocean Surface Topography Science Team8/31/200710/31/2007 A.8 Cryospheric Science5/15/20078/16/2007 A.9 NASA Energy and Water Cycle Study4/18/20076/18/2007 A.10 Terrestrial Hydrology 8/1/2007 10/1/2007 A.11 Atmospheric Composition: Aura Science Team4/50/20076/15/2007 A.12 Atmospheric Composition: Science Advisory Group for GloryNA5/1/2007 A.13 Tropospheric Chemistry: ARCTAS4/16/20076/15/2007 A.14 Wind Lidar Science3/16/20075/16/2007 A.15 Accelerating Operational Use of Research Data7/6/20079/18/2007 A.16 Earth Surface and Interior15/25/20077/25/2007 A.17 EarthScope: the INSAR and Geodetic Imaging Component6/8/20078/10/2007 A.18 Airborne Instrument Technology Transition3/16/20075/16/2007 A.19 Space Archaeology5/15/2007 7/25/2007 A.20 Decision Support Through Earth Science Research3/15/2007 5/25/2007 A.21 New Investigator Program in Earth Science6/29/2007 8/31/2007 A.22 Advancing Collaborative Connections in Earth System Science3/15/20076/1/2007 A.26 Instrument IncubatorTBDTBD

27 27 Selection Statistics for From ROSES 2005 and 2006 oParticipation in Research Program Involves Significant Institutional Mix oDistribution of PIs from 2005 and 2006 Earth Science ROSES Elements: # Rec#Sel. ACCESS (10/30/06)142 1 Atmos Comp. Ground Net. (12/8/06)196 Atmos. Comp. - TC4 (2/7/07)7956 Interdisc. Res. In Earth Sci. (12/6/06)12733 Precipitation Science (10/30/06)12759 Advanced Comp. Tech. (8/24/05)9214 Advanced Inf. Sys. Tech. (6/21/06)9928 ACCESS (10/14/05)5015 Atmospheric Comp. (3/31/06)6730 Decision Support (4/7/06)9421 ICESat and Cryosat (4/17/06)7119 Land Cover/Land Use Change (11/4/05)8314 LBA (9/1/05)3722 NAMMA (4/21/06)NA23 NASA Energy &Water Cyc. St. (12/29/06)505 New Investigator Program (5/8/06)8425 North American Carbon Program (6/29/06)7912 Ocean Biology and Biogeochem. (4/7/06)227 Ocean Vector Winds Sci. Team (4/4/06)5722 Rem. Sensing Sci. for C and Clim. (4/4/06) 4410 Terrestrial Ecology (4/1706)34 7

28 28 Conclusion oNASA plays unique role in observing Earth, bringing remote sensing approaches to bear on global environmental issues oDecadal survey and science plan contribute to long-term planning; mission studies help flesh out concepts oNASA activities contribute to integrated national and international efforts in climate change science, Earth observations, and Oceans action oInteragency and international partnerships are crucial to NASA’s successful accomplishment of its goals oNASA advances have potential to serve as basis for future operational systems and contribute to creation of long-term data records oEnvironmental information obtained can be put to use in support of national policy and decision support objectives oNumerous opportunities exist for proposing research, applications, and technology

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