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Topographical maps.

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Presentation on theme: "Topographical maps."— Presentation transcript:

1 Topographical maps


3 cliff

4 Mountain

5 Complex valley

6 Contour maps how to read maps.shtml maps.shtml -activities/hiking/how-to-read-a-topographic- map2.htm -activities/hiking/how-to-read-a-topographic- map2.htm

7 Earth Quakes

8 Video 3 national geographic earthquake 101 Video 3 Video of earth quake you tube Video of earth quake Video 2 Japan photos and video Video 2

9 What do you know about earth quakes?


11 Your Assignment: Invent a specific quake and imagine yourself in it. Open the template I have sent you on Phy Sci resources. You are going to write about your earthquake from three view points; News reporter, scientists, and eyewitness.

12 Earth Quake Causes They occur in Zones that coincide with the edges of the Lithospheric plates. (crust and upper section of the mantle) Deformation of the earths crust: – Compression – Tension; stretched – Shear; move opposite directions – Torsion; twisted

13 Earthquake waves Focus; the point of origin Epicenter; on the surface directly above the focus.

14 Earthquake waves

15 BODY WAVES P waves S waves

16 P waves Primary waves. The rock vibrates in the same direction the wave is moving.

17 S waves Shear waves or Secondary waves Particles move perpendicular to the direction of wave travel

18 Surface waves Can be like S waves Like Ocean waves with rolling motion Cause the most Damage to structures

19 Types of Faults Normal Fault: Tension forces Reverse fault; Compression forces Strike slip fault: Shearing forces animations

20 Measuring earthquake strength Richter Scale and Modified Mercalli Scale Measured by a seismograph

21 Richter Scale Based on the measurements of amplitude of seismic waves

22 Modified Mercalli Scale Measures the amount of structural and geological damage and earthquake causes or its intensity.

23 Richter scale

24 What happens to buildings in an Earth quake? They sway from the ground floor up. Taller buildings are more flexible and sway more. Shorter buildings shake to pieces.

25 Seismic Safe Structures A structure that is resistant to the vibrations from earthquakes. It will still be standing!!!!! The building and foundation need to be built to resist the sideways motion (load). Diagonal bracing. Allow the structure to move as a unit and not shake. Dampers that can absorb the motion so it is not transferred to the building.

26 Building material that absorbs motion. Large bearings ( rubber or springs) in the foundation Make structures that can bend. Strengthening the foundation and securing the building to the foundation

27 Diaphram Diaphragms are horizontal resistance elements, generally floors and roofs, that transfer the lateral forces between the vertical resistance elements (shear walls or frames). Basically, a diaphragm acts as a horizontal I-beam. That is, the diaphragm itself acts as the web of the beam and its edges act as flanges. (See figure 1)

28 Shear wall Shear walls are vertical walls that are designed to receive lateral forces from diaphragms and transmit them to the ground. The forces in these walls are predominantly shear forces in which the fibers within the wall try to slide past one another.

29 Braced Frame

30 Moment Resistant Frame


32 Volcanoes and Earth quakes

33 Volcanoes Molten rock beneath the surface called Magma rises through the crust. This forms Lava on the surface. Form at Subduction Zones both Continental and Oceanic


35 Ring of Fire

36 Types of Volcanoes Cinder Cone: large fragments of solid materials

37 Shield Volcanoes Abundant lava flows; broad and flat made up of layers of lava flows.

38 Composite Volcanoes Include pyroclastic materials and lava flows. Usually along Convergent plate boundaries Water and silica forced down to mix at the boundary produce an especially viscous magma.

39 Mount Rainer in WA

40 The End

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