Presentation on theme: "The more energy moves through a system, the more _____ it becomes."— Presentation transcript:
1The more energy moves through a system, the more _____ it becomes. Daily Question 9/26/12The more energy moves through a system, the more _____ it becomes.
2Ecology NotesEcology is the study of the complex relationships between living things and their nonliving environment.
3The largest ecosystem is the entire biosphere. A community of organisms and the abiotic environment that the organisms inhabit is called an ecosystem.An ecosystem may be as large as an ocean or as small as a drop of water.The largest ecosystem is the entire biosphere.
4Most of Earth’s ecosystems contain a variety of plants and animals. Plants are important parts of ecosystems because they use energy from the sun to produce their own food.What is this process known as?
5Organisms that make their own food are called producers. Producers include most plants and some bacteria.
6Consumers are organisms that get their energy by eating other organisms.
7Consumers may eat producers or other consumers. However, some consumers get their energy by breaking down dead organisms, these consumers are known as decomposers.
8In order for an ecosystem to remain healthy and stable it must have a balance of producers, consumers, and decomposers.
9Ecosystems have a limited amount of energy in them. Think of your refrigerator at home.If you have enough food to last your family for an entire week, but someone eats all of it the first day. What’s going to happen?
10The largest population that an environment can support at any given time is called the carrying capacity.The carrying capacity depends on the available resources for that environment.If every student in this room gets one hamburger. Do I have enough?What does that tell you about the carrying capacity of this room?
11A given ecosystem can support only the number of organisms that allows matter and energy to be transferred efficiently through the ecosystem.
12One change in any part of an ecosystem may affect the entire system. What affects may a forest fire have on an ecosystem? Other than burning “stuff.”
13After certain disasters, organisms will naturally migrate back into an area in predictable patterns.
14As energy moves through an ecosystem it is lost the more it travels. The further up you move, the less energy there is available.
15The sequence in which organisms consume other organisms can be represented by a food chain.
16A food web, is used to represent the relationship between multiple food chains.
17Human beings have a tendency to alter most ecosystems to better fit their needs or wants. When humans convert large natural areas into inhabitable environments for them, most of those ecosystems are destroyed.
21An organized group of related objects or components that interact to create a whole is a _____. system
22_____ is anything that has mass & takes up space. Matter
23Energy is the ability to do work or _____. Cause change
24The operation of Earth’s system is a result of interaction between the 2 most basic components of the universe: _____.Matter and energy
25Energy can be transformed in a variety of forms, list all 4. HeatEnergyLightElectromagnetic Waves
26When energy is transferred, there is usually a change in the _____ or _____ properties of the matter.Chemical or Physical
27A system in which energy, but not matter, is exchanged with the surroundings is a _____ system. Closed
28An _____ is a system in which both energy and matter are exchanged with the surroundings. Open
29What are Earth’s 4 spheres? BiosphereAtmosphereHydrosphereGeosphere
30The blanket of gases that surrounds Earth’s surface is called the _____. Atmosphere
31Earth’s atmosphere is made up of 78% nitrogen and _____% oxygen 21
32_____% of Earth’s water is saturated with salt. 97
33The _____ includes all the rock and soil on the surface of the continents and the ocean floor. Geosphere
34Once organic matter _____ it becomes a part of the other 3 spheres. Decomposes
351st Law of Thermodynamics Energy is transferred between systems, but cannot be _____ or _____. Created or destroyed
362nd Law of Thermodynamics When energy transfer takes place; matter becomes less _____ with time. Organized
37The heat in Earth’s interior cause’s material to rise toward the surface, as the material cools; it becomes denser and begins to sink back into the interior. This is known as a _____ current.Convection
38Solar _____ causes air masses to move, which generate winds & ocean currents. Radiation
39Plants use energy from the sun to perform _____. Photosynthesis
40The _____ reactions that break rock down into soil require solar energy. Chemical
41The pull of the sun and the moon on the oceans, combined with Earth’s rotation, generates _____. Tides
42_____ is used by organisms to build protein, which is used to build cells. Nitrogen
43Most organisms cannot use _____ nitrogen; the nitrogen must be fixed, before it can be used. Atmospheric
44Nitrogen is removed from the air by _____ that live in the soil. Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria
45Carbon moves through all 4 spheres in a process called the _____. Carbon Cycle
46Phosphorus enters soil & water when rock _____ & when phosphorus dissolves in water. Breaks down
47Carbon is stored in the geosphere in buried plant or animal remains and in a type of rock called _____.Carbonate
48Plants convert carbon dioxide from the atmosphere into _____. Carbohydrates
49List the 3 main stages of the water cycle. CondensationPrecipitationEvaporation
50What are the 2 types of carbon cycle known as? Short and Long Term
51Describe the size and shape of Earth. Earth is an oblate, or slightly flattened spheroid.
52Describe 2 characteristics that make Earth unique in our solar system. Earth is covered in mostly water.Earth has a thick atmosphere containing high amounts of oxygen.Earth has known living organisms.
53How do scientists learn about Earth’s interior? Scientists observe how seismic waves travel through Earth’s interior to determine the physical states of Earth’s deeper regions.
54What is a possible source of Earth’s magnetic energy? The motion of the liquid iron of Earth’s outer core may produce electric currents, which generate Earth’s magnetic field.
55How does the asthenosphere differ from the mesosphere? The asthenosphere is solid rock that is able to flow because of its plasticity.The mesosphere is solid rock that remains rigid and doesn’t flow.
56Explain how the Earth can be considered a system. Because it consists of many interacting components.
57Compare an open system and a closed system. In an open system, matter and energy are added and removed.In a closed system, only energy enters or leaves.
58How do scientists learn about Earth’s interior? Scientists observe how seismic waves travel through Earth’s interior to determine the physical states of Earth’s deeper regions.
59Name the two main sources of Earth’s energy. The sun and Earth’s interior.
60What affect, if any, would you expect a massive forest fire to have on the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere? Explain.It would add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, because when organisms such as trees burn, CO2, is released.
61Open, because matter and energy are being exchanged. Earth has been hit by meteorites in the past. Is Earth an open or closed system, explain.Open, because matter and energy are being exchanged.
62Define ecosystem.A community of organisms and the environment that the organisms inhabit.
63Identify 3 factors that control the balance of an ecosystem. How matter and energy cycle through the ecosystemHow ecosystems respond to changeHow organisms in the ecosystem interact
64Describe one way that ecosystems respond to environmental change. Ecosystems generally respond to change in a way that restores balance within the ecosystem.
65Compare a food chain with a food web. A food chain is a sequence in which an organism is consumed by another organism.In a food web, several organisms feed upon one type of organism, which are consumed by still other organisms that compete with each other.